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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Empiricism
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation.
Structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind.
Functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable us to adapt, survive and flourish.
Experimental Psychology
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method.
Behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not (2).
Humanistic Psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth.
Cognitive Neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory and language)
Psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes.
Nature-Nurture Issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Natural Selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Levels of Analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
Bio psychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
Biological psychology
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychosocial processes
Evolutionary psychology
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
Psychodynamic psychology
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
Behavioral psychology
– the scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning
Cognitive psychology
the scientific study of all the mnetal activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Social-cultural psychology
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking
Psychometrics
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
Basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Developmental psychology
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Educational psychology
the study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning
Personality psychology -
the study of an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Industrial-organizational psychology (I/O)
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
Human factors psychology
– the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments
Counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
Clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
Critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
Theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
Hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
Replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
Case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
Population
all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
Random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Correlation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
Correlation coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
Scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests he direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)
Illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
Experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
Random assignment
assigning participants to experiment and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug evaluation studies
Placebo (Latin for “I shall please”) effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
Experimental group
in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
Control group
in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experiment group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
Independent variable
– the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
Confounding variable
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
Dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
Mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then diving by the number of scores
Range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Normal curve
a symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of date; most scores fall near the mean (68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes
Statistical significance
statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
Culture
– the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Informed Consent
an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
Debriefing
the postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.