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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Sensation
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system recieve and represent stimulus energies from our enviroment.
Perception
the process of organizing and interperting sensory information, enabling us to reconize meaningful objects and events
Bottom-up processing
analysis that begins with sense receptors and works to the brains integration of sensory information
Top-down processing
information processing guided by higher level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on experience and expectations
Psychophysics
The study of the relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our physical experience of them
Absolute Threshold
the minimum stimulation need to detect a particular stimulius 50 percent of the time
Signal Detection Theory
a theory predicting how and when we dectect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation. Assumes there is no absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, and level of fatigue
Subliminal Stimulation
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
difference threshhold (jnd)
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for dectection 50 percent of the time. We experence this as a just noticeable difference
Weber's Law
The principle that, to be precieved as different, two stimuli must differ by constant minimum percentage(rather than a constant amount)
Sensory Adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
Selective attention
the focus of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect
Transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulse
Wavelength
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths varry from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of raido transmission
Hue
the demension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green....
intensity
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we preceive as brightness or loundness, as determined by the wave's amplitude
Pupil
The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Iris
a ring of musscle tissue that forms the color portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupile opening
Lens
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
Accommodation
the process by which the eye's lense changes shape to focus on far objects of the retina
Retina
the light sensitive innner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
Acuity
the sharpness of vision
Nearsightedness
a condtion in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina
Farsightedness
A condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina.
rods
retinal receptors that detect black,white, and gray; nessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones dont respond
Cones
receptor cells that are concetrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight as well as lit conditions. Detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations
Optic nerve
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
blind spot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, because no receptor cells are located there
fovea
the central focual point in the retina, around which the eye's cone clusters
Feature detectors
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape angle, or movement
Parallel processing
the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brains natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic (Three color) theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors- one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue- which when simulated in combination can produce the preception of any color