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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the scientific discipline devoted to the study of mental processes and behavior
any action or reaction of a living organism which can be observed
Movement, Activity, Action
What are the four fundamental factors that influence behavior?
1 Organism
2 Motivation
3 Cognition (knowledge)
4 Competence
the biological characteristics of a living biological entity
what drives the behavior; may include the goal of a behavior;
what and how the organism thinks, knows, and remembers
the skills and abilities of an organism
soul, form, function, or mind
Rene Descartes
(1596-1650); believed in Dualism
belief that humans have a dual nature; one part mental and one part physical
belief that only one type of nature exists in humans (mix of physical and mental)
18th Century Belief
all mental activities were the work of a particular area of the mind
the study of analyzing the mind by examining the shape of the skull
Gustav Fechner
(1801-1887); wrote Elements of Psychophysics
Wilhelm Wundt
(1832-1920); first laboratory devoted to psychology in Leipzig, Germany
Ten Major Approaches
1 stuchturalism
2 functionalism
3 behaviorism
4 gestalt
5 biological
6 cognitive
7 humanistic
8 psychodynamic
9 evolutionary
10 socio-cultural
the theory that the mind could be divided into mental elements; concerned with what the mind is
Wilhelm Wundt
derived the Structuralism theory; studied mainly the concious mind; first laboratory devoted to psychology in Leipzig, Germany;
an experimental method where subjects reported the content of their own mind; drawback is that the data can be manipulated by the subjet and the experimenter
concerned with what the mind does and why; inspired by Darwin's theory of evolution; behavior and mental processes help organisms to adapt to a changing environment
Functionalists expanded their studies beyond perception to?
Learning, Motivation, and Problem Solving,
William James
(1842-1910); functionalist; coined the phrase "stream of conciousness" to describe the way the mind experiences perception and thouht as a constant flow of sensation;
John Dewey
(1859-1952); a functionalist that introduced the concept of learning and thus adaptation to the evironment;
developed by John B. Watson; believed that the mind was a black box; useful in treating menatally retarded patients;
John B. Watson
(1878-1958); Behaviorist; stated that mind didn't even exist; stated that behavior was produced through stimuli(events in one's environment)
"black box"
a description of the mind; processed information about the stimuli and then mechanically generated the behavior
Behaviorists believed
that all behavior could be broken down into a collection of conditioned reponses(CRs). all behavior was supposed to be the result of learning
Leaders in the study of animal behavior were
(it was said that humans and animal behavior weren't different)
Edward C. Tolman (1886-1959); Clark L. Hull (1884-1952); Edwin R. Guthrie (1886-1949)
Gestalt Psychology
founded by Max Wetheimer; emphasizes on the organizational processes in behavior, rather then the content of behavior; focuses on problems of perception;
Gestaltists believe that
behavior and experiences consisted of patterns and organized sets; "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts";
the study of natural, unanalyzed perception; studied learning, thought, and problem solving; Gestalt's used introspect without the structuralist elaboration;
W. Kohler
(1887-1967); argued that learning and problem solving were organizational processes like perception; "moment of insight"
"Moment of Insight"
when the solution to a problem suddenly crystallizes as a whole gestalt our of reasoning and intuition;
Biological psychologists
study the effect that changes in an organism's physical body or environment have on behavior;
Biological psychology
covers genetics, the nervous system, and endocrine system; study the effects of biological factors on eating, drinking, aggression, speech disorders, dyslexia, and learning;
Ivan Pavlov
main contributer to biological psychology; got dogs to salivate when a bell rings;
Cognitive psychology
concerned with the processes of thinking and memory, as well as attention, imagery, creativity, problem solving, and language use;
Noam Chomsky
published his theories generated by rules on language as a system with infinate, nonlearned possibilities;
Humanistic psychology
sought to begin a psychology of mental health by studying creative people;
Carl Rogers
a humanistic who believed that people are constantly striving to develop their potential;
a process of constantly striving to develop your potential; part of humanistic psychology;
Humanistic psychology grew out of?
phenomenology and existentialism
the idea that behavior is based on subjective perception; stressed by Gestalts;
humans' basic existential anxiety is fear of death;
Psychodynamic approach
developed by Sigmund Freud; used the process of psychoanalysis;
Sigmund Freud
(1856-1939); most famous psychologist who developed psychoanalysis;
patients work with a therapist to explore their past to discover the sources of their illness by stressing early experience andunconscious "repressed" memories;
futher developed his theories to cover women's development, learning throughout life, interpersonal influences on personality, and social interation;
Neo-Freudians include
Eric Erikson, Karen Horney, C.G. Jung and Alfred Adler;
evolutionary psychologists
explore ways in which some behaviors might be the product of humans' adaption to their environment during the course of evolution;
socio-cultural approach
explaining behavior in terms of the ways in which others influence us;
individualist cultures
U.S. and Western Europe; encourage people to pursue personal goals rather than group goals;
collectivist cultures
Japan and Korea; encourage people to pursue group goals over personal goals;
the humans or animals who are observed;
naturalistic observation
the systematic observation of an event or phenomenon in the environment as it occurs naturally;
experimental group
those exposed to the cause of a certain kind of behavior;
control group
those not exposed to the cause of a certain kind of behavior;
random assignment
randomly assigining people to the experimental and control groups;
placeo effect
behavior being different because the subjects known that they are exposed to a special treatment;
naturalistic observation
the systematic observation of an event or phenomenon in the environment as it occurs naturally;
experimental group
those exposed to the cause of a certain kind of behavior;
control group
those not exposed to the cause of a certain kind of behavior;
random assignment
randomly assigining people to the experimental and control groups;
placeo effect
behavior being different because the subjects known that they are exposed to a special treatment;
a fake pill so that the control group experiences the placebo effect as well;
blind study
a study where the subjects don't know whether they are taking the placebo or the real stuff
double-blind study
a study where the subject and the eexperimenters don't know whether they are giving/recieving the placebo or the real stuff;
Correlational studies
allow reasearchers to determine whether a relationship exists between two variables;
positive realtionship
high scores on one variable tend to be paired with high scores on the second variable;
negative relationship
high scores on one variable tend to be paired with low scores on another variable
correlation coefficient
describes the strength of the relationship between two variables;
cross-sectional studies
people of different ages are assessed at a single point in time;
a group of people born during a particular period of time;
longitudinal studes
following a group of people over time;
cross-sequential studes
following people of different ages over time; combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal studiesd;
used to discover beliefs, opinions, and attitudes; used to find a corrilation based upon age, gender, social class, and so on;
case studies
where a single individual is studied intensely to examine a problem or issue relevant to that person; used a lot by Freud;
refers to the consistency of individuals' performances on a test;
test-retest reliability
refers to the extent that overall scores on a psychological test are consistent from one test to the next;
internal-consistency reliability
refers to the consistency of scores across items within a test;
whether a test measures what the examiner wants it to measure;
construct validity
the extent to which scores on a test are related to scores on other similiar tests;
criterion-related validity
how effective a test is in predicting an individual's behavior in specified situations;
Institutional Review Boards; review boards to determine the ethical implications of all research;
informed consent
telling subjects all features of the experiment prior to the study;
descriptive statistics
used to describe the data that you collect
central tendency
the values around which people's scores on some measure tend to "clump"
mean, median, mode, range
average, middle, most frequent, distance between highest and lowest
how spread out the scores are from the average;
standard deviation
how far scores tend to fall from the mean;
normal distribution curve
one standard deviation, 68%; two standard deviations, 95%
inferential statistics
allow you to make inferences about popultions based upon the characteristics of your sample;
sample, population
a representative subset; the larger group, such as all Americans;
significance level
the level at which your results become significant instead of by chance; psychologists generally used 5% or .05