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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The degree to which a person is socially and psychologically integrated into a new culture.
The formation of a new conditioned response tendency.
A methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem.
Alternative outcomes effect
Phenomenon that occurs when people's belief about whether an outcome will occur changes depending on how alternative outcomes are distributed, even though the assumed probability of the alternative outcomes is held constant.
Availability heuristic
Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind.
Any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism.
Belief perseverance
The tendency to hang onto beliefs in the face of contradictory evidence.
The acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabularies, and grammatical rules.
Confirmation bias
The tendency to seek information that supports one's decisions and beliefs while ignoring disconfirming information.
Conjunction fallacy
An error that occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone.
Decision making
The process of evaluating alternatives and making choices among them.
The premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation.
Fast mapping
The process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure to the word.
Field dependence-independence
Individuals' tendency to rely primarily on external versus internal frames of reference when orienting themselves in space.
How issues are posed or how choices are structured.
Functional fixedness
The tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use.
Gambler's fallacy
The belief that the odds of a chance event increase if the event hasn't occurred recently.
A strategy, guiding principle, or rule of thumb used in solving problems or making decisions.
In problem solving, the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error.
Intelligence tests
Psychological tests that measure general mental ability.
A set of symbols that convey meaning, and rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages.
Language acquisition device (LAD)
An innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language.
Linguistic relativity
The theory that one's language determines the nature of one's thought.
Mean length of utterance (MLU)
The average length of children's spoken statements (measured in phonemes).
Mental set
Persisting in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past.
Metalinguistic awareness
The ability to reflect on the use of language.
The smallest units of meaning in a language.
Using a word incorrectly to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to.
In children, incorrect generalization of grammatical rules to irregular cases where they do not apply.
The smallest units of sound in a spoken language.
Problem solving
Active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily available.
Problem space
The set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver.
Psychological test
A standardized measure of a sample of a person's behavior.
Representativeness heuristic
Basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event.
Risky decision making
Making choices under conditions of uncertainty.
The collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study.
The area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations.
A system of rules that specify how words can be combined into phrases and sentences.
Telegraphic speech
Speech that consists mainly of content words; articles, prepositions, and other less critical words are omitted.
Theory of bounded rationality
Simon's assertion that people tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus on only a few facets of available options and often result in “irrational“ decisions that are less than optimal.
Trial and error
Trying possible solutions sequentially and discarding those that are in error until one works.
Errors that occur when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it is meant to.
Noam Chromsky
Leda Cosmides & John Tooby
Gerd Gigerenzer
Daniel Kahneman
Steven Pinker
Sue Savage-Rumbaugh
Herbet Simon
B.F Skinner
Amos Tversky