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371 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Aaron Beck
American cognitive psychologist, believed one became depressed because of thinking depressing thoughts
Absolute Threshold
The lowest amount of any stimulus one can detect
Achievement Tests
Tests knowledge/what you know. Think SOL
Aptitude Tests
Tests that measure ability. Think SAT
Action Potential
Nerve is firing
Resting Potential
Ready to fire
Good or 20/20 vision
Ainesworth Strange Situation (Attachment Theory)
Babies who have a secure attachment to their mother tend to behave better when new situations are presented.
Albert Bandura
Discovered observational learning, proved it with BoBo doll experiment - kids are more likely to act violently after seeing an adult act violently.
Albert Ellis
Pioneered a kind of therapy called "Rational Emotive Therapy." Basically, it's a kind of cognitive therapy that (like Aaron Beck) believes that one's psychological problems stem most likely from illogical, self-defeating and irrational thinking. But Ellis' approach is rather blunt and in your face, whereas Beck's approach is not so confrontational.
Alfred Adler
Inferiority complex
All or Nothing Law
It states that once a neurons builds up it's electrical charge to fire, all of the neuron will fire or none of it will fire. It can't half fire, becoming totally polarized or depolarized.
Altruism/Pro-Social behavior
Doing something good for someone else without thinking of what you'll get in return. More likely to partake if you're not in a hurry, and if you have helped/have been helped in the past.
American Psychological Association (APA)
governing organization that represents professional psychologists in the United States. Among other things, it licenses psychologists, approves research, makes sure ethical guidelines are followed in experiments, provides accreditation for psychology programs at universities, lobbys for mental health issues and publishes a ton of professional journals.
Anteriograde Amnesia
Memory loss in which new stuff will not stick
Solomon Asch & findings
Did studies in conformity, line segement study, more likely to conform if in minority, thinks highly of those we disagree with and if we have not made a public committment to the statement
Bonding between child and parents, takes about nine months, not immediate as in some animals (imprinting)
Attribution Theory
Whether or not we do it conciously, we judge people's action based on their situation or their personal disposition
Aversive conditioning
Using an unpleasent stimulus to train behavior, such as spanking or the pukey alcohol thing. Can have negative effects like anger towards those disciplining, and also doesn't teach what to do, only what not to do.
Aversive Conditions
and upleasant stimulus like sunlight, or a shock
Babinsky reponse
neurological test for infants, stoke the base of the foot and the toes respond by spreading, shows that nerves are working
Adaptiveness in humans
behavior changes over time to adjust to the demands of the environment and the situation
bell curve
Show of statistical normality, 68% in the middle
Benjamine Worf
thinking ability is dependent on the language we use. Since people in various cultures use different words to describe things, their thinking must also be different. But, Worf was wrong
Binocular disparity
refers the fact that because we have two eyes, each set about 4 inches apart, our brain really gets two different visual images of things out there, very important for depth perception
Blind Spot
Where the axons from rods and cones exit the eye, a place called the optic disc, there is a small spot known as the blindspot
Blood Brain Barrier
the arteries and veins in the brain are "double sealed" to keep certain molecules, and substances from crossing over the arterial membrane. Very few things can leave the arteries and get into the stuff of the brain which is neurons. Only things like oxygen, glucose, and certain other substances can cross this barrier.
Part of brain shared with animals?
We and animals share the same basic hind brain, at the base of our skull where the brain meets the spinal cord. These structures (medulla, cerebellum, reticular system, pons, etc.) are important for basic vital functions such as heartbeat, balance, digesting and breathing.
A way to generate novel solutions to problems. Everyone in the room just sort of shouts out ideas about something and the ideas are written on the board, no one is allowed to criticize the ideas until everyone has said everything they want. By reducing criticism, there is a free flow of ideas from which you c an go back later on and judge which ones are good or which ones are bad.
Broca’s Aphasia
this is a kind of language disorder that is caused by damage to the left frontal lobe. Damage in this area could lead to an inability to "produce speech
Bystander Intervention (What makes you likely to intervene?)
whether or not you are in a hurry, whether you feel competent, whether the person is like you, whether you are with a small group versus a large group, whether or not you are in a good mood, and whether or not you feel the people around you that aren't helping know something you don't
1) Sometimes we feel the emotion first and only after realize what it did to our body 2) Different emotions may have similar physiological responses (for example both fear and joy might cause the heart to beat) so how can one certain physiological response lead to any specific emotion, and thus the two are simultaneously occuring
Carl Rogers Person Centered Therapy
He sat them up to face him, the therapist, rather than have them lie down and look away, and he believed that if he truly accepted the client, unconditionally, and surrounded the client with unconditional positive regard, then in this accepting and caring relationship he could best help the client grow in the way the client wanted to grow
Carol Gilligan
Critiqued Kohlberg's theory, He seems to suggest that males often reason through moral issues at higher levels than females. Gilligan pointed out the male bias in Kohlberg? research and argued that females have different ways of reasoning through moral issues, this does not make them inferior to male reasoning, but only points out the females value different things when trying to reason through moral issues.
Learning several behaviors seperately then putting them together so it's easier
Character Disorders
(personality disorders) Characterized by personality flaws, such as antisocial disorder or narcissism
Taking lists or numbers in smaller chunks to make them easier to remember, like a phone number or you SS#
Classicial Conditioning
Pavlovian conditioning, learning by association, pairing two stimuli
Clever Hans Experiment
Horse was trained to stomp or neigh to certain verbal cues, which to someone not in the know could be an illusion of the horse answering questions etc.
Cognitive Dissonance
refers to the state of uneasiness within a persons mind whenever they are "shaken up". Suppose you learned that your minister was secretly a serial killer. You would be taken aback, your mind would be in a state of disbelief, the contradiction of what you believed and the new info is the dissonance
Color Blindness
caused because people lack certain photorecptors (neurons tuned to respond to certain frequencies of light) on their retina. Most common form is distinguishing red/green
Complementary colors
Mostly black/white, red/green, blue/yellow. There are pairs of cones that are antagonistic (work oppo site each other) on the retina and they are tuned to these colors.
43. Four kinds of conflicts: Generally, there are four kinds of conflicts that we often get caught in and that will result in stress.
having to choose something that has some good qualities but it also has some bad qualities. You want to go to Princeton but it? so expensive.
having to choose between two things, both of which have something good to offer. You get into Princeton and Harvard and you like them equally the same.
Choosing between two equally bad things. Caught between a rock and a hard place. You can eat your spinach (which you hate) or you can eat your asparagus (which you also hate).
Double Approach/Avoidance
having to choose between two or more things all of which have so mething good and bad about them. You got into Princeton but it? so expensive, you also got into Harvard, but it? too far from home.
Control group
the group in an experiment that serves as a comparison for your experimental group. They usually receive no special treatment and usually get a placebo
Correlation coefficient
A little number signified by the letter "r" that indicates the strength of a correlation. For example, "r=.9" is a very strong positive correlation, whereas "r=.2" is a very weak positive correlation.
Cortexes of the brain
"Cortex" simply means "area" or region of the brain. Some major cortexes are : Auditory cortex, visual cortex, somatosensory cortex, cerebral cortex
Cross cultural studies
these are studies done on different cultures or ethnic groups to see the role played by one? culture. For example, if you were studying IQ levels, you might want to compare the results you get with USA kids with German, French and African kids
Cross Sectional Studies
This is a technique of dividing larger sections of a population into smaller segments. For example, the student body of Hermitage consists of smaller sections such as freshman, sophomore, juniors and seniors. A survey of attitudes here at school should also include a cross sectional analysis of the different classes.
Crystallized intelligence
This is a kind of intelligence that consists of pure "stuff" or "data" that is stored away in our brains. It generally increases with age, which is why older people know more than younger people. Unless it is affected by disease (Alzheime r?) one? crystallized intelligence just keeps on growing.
These are acronyms for terms in classical conditioning. They stand for conditioned stimulus, conditioned response, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response.
Daniel Goleman's Emotional Intelligence
"emotional intelligence" which is the knowledge and ability to manage our emotions, respond appropriately to situations and the ability to make sound emotional decisions. He argues that this kind of intelligence is more important in life than the traditional math/verbal kind of intelligence that schools seem to glorify to the detriment of developing kids with good emotional skills needed to make sound decisions.
David McClelland
American psychologist who studied something called "achievement motivation." His research led him to believe that achievement motivation could be taught and acquired through proper learning. He even went to India once, selected people who fit the personality profile of an "entrepreneur" and then gave them the skills to develop a successful business, or in other words, "taught" them how to be high achievers. Guess what? The project worked. A ten year follow up showed most of his students were quite successful at building businesses. McClelland researched the conditions necessary to develop achievement motivation in people.
defense mechanism
a little mental technique (cognitive strategy) for defending the fragile ego from hurt, shame, embarrassment or guilt. It's sort of a protective device to defend our self-image. Common defense mechanisms are: repression, regression, displacement, projection, sublimation, denial, avoidance, reaction-formation, rationalization, withdrawal, identification, intellectualization, etc.
what happens when people lose a sense of personal identity and accountability (responsibility). We usually think of this happening when people get caught up in a mob and do things that they would never do if acting alone. Factors that contribute to deindividuation are anonymity (darkness, wearing a mask, being one person in a large group) or intense physical activity (dancing, run ning) which floods a persons senses with feedback and they sort of "lose themselves."
what happened across America in the 70s when mental hospitals had to open their doors and let all kinds of folks with mental disorders go. This came about because new drugs were developed that could treat symptoms of many disorders and the folks didn't need to be locked up anymore, and the legal proponents who said we can't lock up someone just because they have bizarre thoughts or actions. So, we let close to 80% of folks with disorders go and asked them to come back twice a week for thei r medications. Of course, they didn't come back, they usually ended up living as street people in the alleys of America.
receives incoming signals from other neurons
Depression drugs?
early drugs used to treat depression were known as "tricyclic" antidepressants. They worked but often had serious side effects and could be quite toxic if mixed with other substances. We don't use them much anymore, relying instead on SSRI drugs like Prozac which target very specific receptor sites in the brain and d on't have the severe side effects.
Descriptive statistics
describes data, inferential statistics try to infer causation between variables
the belief that human behavior can be boiled down to one or two major factors that "determine" everything about you. For example, biological determinism is the belief that biology is destiny. Everything you are can be explained by a few biological principles. Economic determinism (such as communism) would be the belief that everything about humans could be reduced to a few simple economic principles.
Developmental psychology
concerned with changes that occur to humans as we grow throughout the life span. It encompasses changes from infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age.
published by the American Psychiatric Association to help diagnose mental disorders. It merely gives symptoms and statistics about the disorders. It does not give causes nor treatment. It is updated about every 20 years. (Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Volume 4)
Difference Threshold
(Just noticeabe difference) Lowest amount of a change in a stimulus that you can detect, I. E. How much sugar it takes for you to say "Oh the coffee is sweeter"
refers to being able to distinguish between similar stimuli. For example, I can get a dog to back at the sight of a square, but can I get him to distinguish the difference (discriminate) between a square and a rectangle.
Freudian defense mechanisms that refers to taking out your emotion on an object other than the one you would like to take it out on. Suppose you are upset at your professor, really mad. You can't take your anger out on him/her (they're the authority figure and might fail you), so you take it out (displace it) on your boy/girlfriend, you kick the cat, stomp upstairs and slam the door
Dissociative disorders
disorders in which we lose some aspect of ourselves. There are three major dissociative disorders: Dissociative Identity Disorder (multiple personality), fugue states, and amnesia.
Social facilitation
the phenomenon in which the actual or implied presence of other people enhances an individual's performance of a task. For example, we tend to eat faster with other people around, we tend to walk faster when other people join us for a stroll, we tend to get more animated with other people around.
Down syndrome
neurological and physical disorder that is genetic, caused by an extra chromosome on pair 21. It can lead to mental retardation and physical problems such as heart and respiratory problems.
Dream analysis
. Freudians love to believe that dreams can tell us a lot about our unconscious minds. Freud felt there were two levels to dreams. There is the manifest level - the stuff of the dream, the surface level, and there is the latent level, the hidden symbolic meaning of dreams. But all dreams represent the unconscious wishes, desires and interest of the unconscious mind
Human drives
by needs. The drive to eat is motivated by the need for food.
Hermann Ebbinghaus
early pioneer of research on memory. He was a brilliant researcher and most of what we know about memory came from his early work. Among other stuff he developed something known as the "retention curve" or "forgetting curve". He discovered (and graphed) that material that isn't reinforced almost always disappears from our memory in a very short time. Most of the stuff you cram into your head just to pass a vocabulary quiz (if it isn't rehearsed) will leave your head in about two days.
Echoic memory
kind of split second memory you have after initially hearing a sound. It's the lingering of a sound on your eardrum after the sound has occurred. If the sound isn't sent into long term memory, it will fade in a few seconds.
effects of marijuana
affects short-term memory and motivation. That's why we don't recommend it for students, it impairs they ability to get stuff to sink into their memories and, if used more than occasionally, usually makes them apathetic and intellectually lazy.
eidetic memory
what used to be known as a photographic memory. It's the amazing ability to capture material that you "see."
ECT therapy
most effective in the treatment of chronic and debilitating depression. We think that the small doses of electricity delivered to the frontal lobes helps restore serotonin levels in the brain or helps boost the production of endorphins. We're not exactly sure why it works, but it does work wonders on depression. Side effects: short term memory loss a couple days after the procedure
Elizabeth Loftus
on e of the world's leading authorities on memory - especially "eyewitness memory" and "recovered memories." She has written a number of books on the reliability and unreliability of memory, especially when people's eyewitness testimony is used in court. Her research shows that eyewitness memories are notoriously wrong and prone to be filled with mistakes that the person witness "inserts" into the recovered memory.
Endocrine system
all the glands that secrete hormones. The pituitary is called the "master gland" because it's chiefly in charge of making sure the other glands do their job, supervised by Hypothalamus
the brain's natural morphine like substances which act as pain killers. When the body is injured or under stress, the brain is flooded with endorphins which help to counter act "substance p" a known pain causing substance in the synapse
. An "engram" is sort of like a tiny bit of memory stored in a specific place. Psychologist have long sought to find the area of the brain that contained all the engrams in human memory. Karl Lashley spent his entire career trying to find it and ended up saying it couldn't be found. Well, he was partly right and partly wrong. Most memories can't be located in specific areas of the brain but some can be. It's safe, however, to say that most memories are formed by association links to multiple areas of the brain and are not easily located in any one specific area.
Episodic memories
(flashbulb) Sharp and detailed memory of a specific event. Ex. JFK
The equity theory of relationships
basically we like other people because of what they can do for us and vice-versa. We put a lot into a relationship because we expect to get the same in return. The relationship has to do with mutual gain and equitable returns on our personal investment. I like you because you like me. It's 50/50.
Erik Erikson's Eight Stages of Human Development
Stage One Oral-Sensory: from birth to one, trust vs. mistrust, feeding;
Stage Two Muscular-Anal: 1-3 years, autonomy vs. doubt, toilet training;
Stage Three Locomotor: 3-6 years, initiative vs. inadequacy, independence;
Stage Four Latency: 6-12 years, industry vs. inferiority, school;
Stage Five Adolescence: 12-18 years, identity vs. confusion, peer relationships;
Stage Six Young Adulthood: 18-40 years, intimacy vs. isolation, love relationships;
Stage Seven Middle Adulthood: 40-65 years, generativity vs. stagnation, parenting;
Stage Eight Maturity: 65 years until death, integrity vs. despair, acceptance of one's life.
ethical guidelines
confidentiality, no lasting harm, debriefing after the study, informed consent
false consensus effect
Believing more people support your ideas than actually do
Hubel and Wiesel
won the Nobel prize for discovering "feature detector cells" in the visual cortex. These are the specific neurons that help decode specific features of what you see. For example, some detector cells only pick up curves, some pick up end points of a line, some pick up horizontal or vertical lines, some pick up spaces, some pick up angles, some pick up movement, etc.
Feature analysis
is what the brain does when it's scanning objects to help you recognize things. For example, when you're looking for your friend's face in a crowd of people your brain is instantly comparing each face for very specific features and rejecting faces that don't match that of your friend's face
Feral children
kids who have grown up in the wild and raised by animals, or in isloation. There have been about 8 documented cases of such children.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
by a mother drinking alcohol while she is pregnant. Defects in newborn babies include mental retardation, low birth weight, premature birth, brain malformations and a whole host of learning disabilities when the child matures.
figure-ground phenomenon
has to do with an area of psychology that deals with perception. Basically it has to do with being able to discriminate between an object and it's background. For example, if you see a white shooting star against a deep black sky, the star would be the figure and the black would be the ground. Also: Camo
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
a technique that any salesman knows. If you can get someone to make a small commitment then you can ask them later for a larger commitment. If you give someone a penny to save the whales, they will have better success next time they come knocking asking for a dime, then a quarter, then a dollar.
formal operations
(Piaget) occurs during early adolescence (12-15) when youngsters are now capable of performing at the highest levels of cognitive activity and engage in kinds of thinking such as forming hypotheses, abstract reasoning and symbolic thinking. These more complicated mental "operations" can only be achieved with a developed cerebral cortex which is found during adolescence.
part of the eye that is the center of the retina. Here on the center of the retina are most of the cones. Cones are photoreceptor sensory neurons that help us detect colors and fine details
Francis Galton
early English scientist. His contributions include such things as helping develop the first personality tests, developing the science of eugenics (better humans through breeding), using statistics in research, arguing that nature is more important in personality than nurture. He is most well known for his belief in eugenics
Free association
technique developed by Freud in psychoanalysis in which a person simply talks about anything that comes to mind. It is a kind of free flow of consciousness. Freud felt that by allowing his patients to verbally wander where they will, repressed items will be more easily released into consciousness
frequency polygon
simply a graph in which one "connects the dots." The picture you get is something like a mountain range.
Freud's Dream Level Interpretation
two levels of dream interpretation. There is the "manifest" level which is simply the surface level of the dream - what the dream is about- and, there is the "latent" level which is the hidden, symbolic level of the dream, what it really means.
Frued's psychosexual development
Oral Stage, Anal Stage, Phallic Stage, Latency Stage, Genital Stage
frustration-aggression hypothesis
tries to explain anger and violence as stemming from pent up frustration that sort of explodes when it is triggered. People get aggressive not because they are necessarily evil, but because their pent up frustrations reach a threshold and they explode
Functional fixedness
an inability to use an object in any other way than the way in which it was intended. For example, if you can't think of any other use for a paper clip other than holding together papers, they you're suffering from functional fixedness
fundamental attribution error
is overlooking the influence of the power of a particular situation and thereby jumping to conclusions and crediting or blaming the "person" for what happened. Johnny continually comes late to school and we tend to immediately regard him as a slacker when in reality he has to catch three busses to school and often the traffic makes him late.
The galvanic skin response (GSR)
physiological measure of the skin's ability to conduct electricity. The more you sweat, the more you conduct electric current. The GSR is often one of the measures in a polygraph (along with respiration, heartbeat, pulse, etc.). The theory is that the more aroused you are (because you are anxious about lying) the more you are likely to sweat and this will increase your GSR rate.
neurons found outside the brain and spinal cord along the course of peripheral nerves.
Gansfeld Procedure
experimental design which supposedly enables people who claim to have mental telepathy to read the minds of others. The person covers their eyes, has white noise (subtle hissing or humming) played low into their ears, softens the lights and this kind of sensory deprivation supposedly enables them to block out distractions so they can concentrate on reading someone's mind in another room.
Gate Control Theory
explains why and how a person can control the amount of pain running up the spinal cord to the brain. Pain is mediated by different neural pathways, some fast and some slow. Also, pain pathways must compete with other bodily sensations like temperature control, pressure and vibrations. At the spinal cord there are little gates that open one pathway and close another. For example, if you stub your toe (sending pain messages to your brain) but you put ice on the toe (sending cold messages to the brain) the cold messages will win out over the pain messages and thus the gate for pain closes. This is why rubbing a boo boo helps make the pain lessen.
genotype vs phenotype
Your genotype is your genetic coding, your phenotype is how your genes express themselves
Gestalt Theory
movement in psychology that emphasizes the idea that human experience is best underst ood when we consider the "big picture" rather than trying to dissect human behavior into little bits. Gestalt psychologists argue that we see the forest before we see the individual trees. They argue that we must examine experience as a "whole" rather than the sum of its parts
Glial cells
neural helper cells. They outnumber neurons 4 to 1. They provide many maintenance functions like moving neurons, feeding them, carrying away debris, and coating the neurons with spiderlike webs to kind of keep neural networks together.
Group therapy
has a number of advantages over individual therapy. First of all, its cheaper to counsel 10 people at a time than each one individually, groups provide support to individual members, they keep members honest because you might be able to fool your therapist, but one alcoholic can't fool other alcoholics, and it's often nice to open up your problems not only to your therapist but to other people who have the same problem as you do.
interesting social phenomenon whereby individuals in a group are uncomfortable in dissenting with what they perceive to be the attitude of the leader or the majority's viewpoint. They don't want to "rock the boat" so they go along with what they perceive the group wants to do. Unfortunat ly, individuals might stifle valid dissent because of a desire to promote harmony. This could lead to awful decisions, such as the Bay of Pigs
gustatory sense
sense of taste (which often works with our sense of olfaction-smell). Some argue that we detect four basic tastes: sweet, sour, salty, bitter
the simplest kind of learning. It's when you decrease your responsiveness to a repeated stimulus thus leading to boredom
Hans Seyle's General Adaptation Response
charts our general reaction to stress. He found that our reaction to stress generally follows the following steps: Alarm (sympathetic system initiates the "fight or flight" response), Resistance (body tries to fight the stress), Exhaustion (prolonged resistence leads to exhaustion.
did lots of studies with primates. Chief among them was his famous study with surrogate (substitute) monkeys, some cloth and some wire. Baby monkeys preferred the contact comfort of cloth mothers even though the wire mothers could nurse. Guess emotion needs like tou ch are more important than even physiological needs like food
Hawthorne Effect
the theory that one effective way to increase worker productivity is simply to pay more attention to them. People who think they are being watched (and evaluated) show increased rates of productivity.
quick and easy mental "rules of thumb" (strategies) that we employ to make quick and speedy decisions or judgements.
Abraham Maslow
one of the founders of Humanistic psychology, pioneered his "Hierarchy of Needs". Find the pyramid-like chart in your book and see what needs he ranks at the bottom and those at the top.
High self-monitors
are real conscious about how they come across to other people, they're very aware of making a right impression and catering to other's expectations and needs (such as a good politician working a crowd)
Low self-monitors
could care less about how they come across to others, thus, their dress, manners and behavior is less responsive to the expectations of others
Hindsight bias
heuristic whereby one says after the fact "see, I knew it would turn out that way."
kind of frequency distribution commonly known as a "bar graph."
body's natural tendency toward balance at a level that is considered normal
Howard Gardner
does not like the narrow view that intelligence is limited to verbal and mathematical reasoning. He argues that there are really seven kinds of intelligence

Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"):
Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart")
Spatial intelligence ("picture smart")
Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart")
Musical intelligence ("music smart")
Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart")
Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart")
Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")
offspring of two different varieties, breeds or species. Can be animal or plant.
Role Enactment Theory
suggests the hypnotized person is merely acting out a part to play a role suggested to him/her by the hypnotherapist
Dissociation Theory
suggests the hypnosis is a kind of dissociation in which the mind splits from itself, allowing one part of it not to experience pain.
this structure in the brain is responsible for regulating most of the autonomic
represents our basic animal, instinctive self
is our rational part of personality that has to deal with reality and make decisions
is our moral conscience that develops over time through socialization
problem solving strategy. The "I" stands for identifying the problem, "D" stands for defining the problem in a clear and operational manner, "E" stands for evaluating the possible strategies, "A" stands for act on a solution, "L" stands for look back and see if your solution worked
Identical twin research
simply refers to the fact that psychologists love to study identical twins, especially those reared apart from each other, because they serve as such useful subjects in controlling for the effects of nature and nurture.
refers to what happens when a young boy or girl copies the traits and habits of their same sex parent. Freud felt that a young boy identifies (imitates) with his father and thus emulates his temperament, style, personality and behavior. That’s how he "grows up" to become a man. Same for young girls. But this identifying doesn’t imply that the child doesn’t develop his/her own personality, it’s just that they used their parent as their number one model
, is much more serious. Internalization is when a young boy/girl not only identifies with the same sex parent, but actually becomes very much like that parent. The morals, habits, traits of the adult actually become those of the child
Illusory correlation
the tendency to see correlations where none really exist. A majority of adult Republicans wear glasses. There is no pattern here between one’s political belief and their eyesight. It is pure coincidence.
PET Scans
Scans reveal whether or not neurons are alive or dead reflected by the a mount of glucose they are consuming
CAT Scans
360 degree colorized x-rays
give us great pictures of soft tissue
and FMRI show us the brain at work by measuring oxygen blood flow. We can see the brain at work as it solves a math problem or as it’s thinking about a particular subject.
of immediate bonding that animals exhibit the moment they are born. Baby ducks, for example, will imprint on the first moving object. Usually it’s their mother, but it could be another animal or the animal handler
are internal or external motivations that drive behavior. We are usually motivated by intrinsic or extrinsic reasons to do something
independent variable
the factor in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter and is given to the experimental group. It’s the one thing that is different between the experimental group and the control group.
dependent variable
the behavior you are measuring, the behavior you think will be affected by applying the independent variable.
Induced motion
the feeling of motion that a stationary person feels if the environment around you moves. Say you are sitting in a theater seat that is fixed to the floor, and all four walls and the ceiling start to move in a clockwise manner around you. Soon, even though you are stationary, you’ll get the sensation you are spinning with the walls.
Inductive reasoning
when you are thinking from specific cases and trying to build up to a general conclusion (sort of like bottom-up processing).
Deductive reasoning
is when you start from a general theory and work your way down to particular instances (top-down processing).
Industrial/organizational psychology (I/O psychology)
applying psychology to the world of work and business. It studies such things as worker motivation, reward systems, job placement, and organizational structure.
Ingroup and outgroup bias
refers to the bias one might feel if you are a member of a group or if you are an outsider looking into a group. When you are a member, you tend t o see greater diversity among your group members than an outsider might see. An outsider, for example, might see all cheerleaders as identical – but to an insider, one of the cheerleaders there is a lot more diversity among the group that someone outside the group might not see. Such biases tend to force us to divide the world into a "us" and "them" mentality.
The vestibular sense
balance) is governed, in great part, by the working of three little semi-circular canals in the inner ear. These little canals have tiny cilia that are activated by the moving of something like a tiny ball bearing that spins around and around whenever we move one of three ways: forward/backward; up/down; left/right.
unlearned, usually complicated, behavior. Spiders instinctively spin webs, nobody teaches them this behavior. Salmon return upstream to spawn, birds fly south, etc., etc
operant conditioning
pioneered by skinner, behaviors are either weakened or reinforced by punishment or reward
pioneered instrumental conditioning and Law of Effect
Law of Effect
learning is basically a trial and error process in which the effect of an action (the consequence) is instrumental in whether or not you will repeat the behavior. Pleasant consequences t end to strengthen a behavior and cause it to be repeated and unpleasant consequences tend to diminish a behavior
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
Intelligence Quotient
simply the score you get on an intelligence test. It got it’s name because the old time intelligence tests were calculated by dividing your mental age (as determined by a test) by your chronological age and multiplying it by 100
Proactive interference
when old material gets in the way with learning new information (your old phone number keeps confusing you as you try to learn your new phone number).
Retroactive interference
when the new information now gets in the way with remembering old stuff
Internal consistency reliability
to whether or not a test is said to be reliable. A test is reliable if it measures something consistently. That is, if you take the SAT test again and again, you ought to (within reason) keep getting near the same score. Well, one way to measure this is to make sure all the parts of the test measure what they are supposed to measure consistently
James-Lange theory
emotions was the fi rst theory presented that tried to explain how emotions occur. Simply put, it states that emotions (fear) comes from our physiological reactions. When I feel my heartbeat, my muscles tense, my adrenaline flow, I feel fear. So, emotions follow our perception of physiological arousal. The problem with this theory is: 1) sometimes fwe experience an emotion prior to being conscious what our body is doing; and 2) different emotions (fear and happiness) might be accompanied by identical physiological responses.
John Garcia
famous American psychologist, pointed out the limits of behaviorist conditioning principles by demonstrating that humans and animals are biologically predi sposed to learn some things and not others. For example, if you get sick off food in the cafeteria, you immediately develop a taste aversion to the food; you don’t develop an aversion to the tray you used, the line you stood in, nor the time of day you ate it, nor the lunch lady that served you. You zero in on only one thing, the food. Thus, Garcia reasoned, we don’t come into the world a tabula rasa being capable of being conditioned by anything.
belief that, in the end, all things considered, people get what they deserve and deserve what they get. The world is basically fair and you’ll reap what you sow. If you believe strongly in this idea, then it's a short leap to also assuming that those who flourish must be good and those sho suffer must deserve their fate.
Karen Horney
was a brilliant woman psychoanalyst who split with Freud as she disagreed with a number of Freud's basic ideas. first, she emphasized "social", not sexual, tensions as being critical for personality formation. She also countered Freud's assumptions that women have weak superegos and suffer "penis envy," and she attempted to balance the bias she detected in theis masculine view of psychology. She stated "The view that women are infantile and emotional creatures, and as such, incapaable of responsibility and independence is the work of the masculine tendency to lower women's self-respect."
one of the senses people don't even realize they have. It's the sense of knowing where all your body parts are. Your brain is always in touch with where your arms, legs, joints, hands are and this sense of body position works with your vestibular system to keep you balanced and in alignment
Lawrence Kohlberg
important American psychologist who pioneered the study of moral reasoning. He developed his three basic levels of moral reasoning: Preconventional, Conventional and Postconventional level.
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
famous Swiss-American psychiatrist who pioneered the study of the terminally ill. Her book On Death and Dying developed the famous Five Stages of Dying: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression and Acceptance.
Unlike a lot of drugs, it can cross the brain-blood barrier and then it gets converted into dopamine in the brain. It has been used with some success in treating Parkinson's and other illnesses.
learning curve
was first developed by Pavlov to describe the processes of: Acquisition, Extinction, Relearning, Reextinction and Spontaneous Recovery
limbic system
a very ancient but powerful system in the brain that plays an important role in survival behaviors (eating, mating, fighting) as well as memory. It includes structures such as: hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus and pituitary gland
Linear perspective
created by converging lines in the distance. It's an important feature allowing us to perceive depth and size.
Linkage analysis
is a kind of statistical study to determine the role that genetics might play in a trait or illness, such as depression or schizophrenia
a common mineral salt that is often prescribed for the treatment of bi-polar disorders. But it's a trick chemical, and one has to take the right dose, at the right time and under the right conditions
We can tell where a sound is coming from by the differential arrival time that sound waves hit one ear versus the other ear. The brain does the calculus and immediately tell us that the sound is coming from one direction or the other.
Long term potentiation
the neurological term to describe the lining up of neurons and their firing in a certain pattern which forms the neural basis for how memories are formed. So, every time you really learn something new, what's really happening is that the little neural networks are learning to communicate with each other in a certain pattern, and the more you drill the behavior, the stronger the firing (potentiation) becomes.
longitudinal study
one that reflects the study of a group or an individual over a long period of time.
Short term memory storage
Info only lasts about 20 seconds before decaying and we can only store 7 plus or minus 2 items in it (5-9).
Intelligence Quotient
simply the score you get on an intelligence test. It got it’s name because the old time intelligence tests were calculated by dividing your mental age (as determined by a test) by your chronological age and multiplying it by 100
Proactive interference
when old material gets in the way with learning new information (your old phone number keeps confusing you as you try to learn your new phone number).
Retroactive interference
when the new information now gets in the way with remembering old stuff
Internal consistency reliability
to whether or not a test is said to be reliable. A test is reliable if it measures something consistently. That is, if you take the SAT test again and again, you ought to (within reason) keep getting near the same score. Well, one way to measure this is to make sure all the parts of the test measure what they are supposed to measure consistently
James-Lange theory
emotions was the fi rst theory presented that tried to explain how emotions occur. Simply put, it states that emotions (fear) comes from our physiological reactions. When I feel my heartbeat, my muscles tense, my adrenaline flow, I feel fear. So, emotions follow our perception of physiological arousal. The problem with this theory is: 1) sometimes fwe experience an emotion prior to being conscious what our body is doing; and 2) different emotions (fear and happiness) might be accompanied by identical physiological responses.
John Garcia
famous American psychologist, pointed out the limits of behaviorist conditioning principles by demonstrating that humans and animals are biologically predi sposed to learn some things and not others. For example, if you get sick off food in the cafeteria, you immediately develop a taste aversion to the food; you don’t develop an aversion to the tray you used, the line you stood in, nor the time of day you ate it, nor the lunch lady that served you. You zero in on only one thing, the food. Thus, Garcia reasoned, we don’t come into the world a tabula rasa being capable of being conditioned by anything.
belief that, in the end, all things considered, people get what they deserve and deserve what they get. The world is basically fair and you’ll reap what you sow. If you believe strongly in this idea, then it's a short leap to also assuming that those who flourish must be good and those sho suffer must deserve their fate.
Karen Horney
was a brilliant woman psychoanalyst who split with Freud as she disagreed with a number of Freud's basic ideas. first, she emphasized "social", not sexual, tensions as being critical for personality formation. She also countered Freud's assumptions that women have weak superegos and suffer "penis envy," and she attempted to balance the bias she detected in theis masculine view of psychology. She stated "The view that women are infantile and emotional creatures, and as such, incapaable of responsibility and independence is the work of the masculine tendency to lower women's self-respect."
one of the senses people don't even realize they have. It's the sense of knowing where all your body parts are. Your brain is always in touch with where your arms, legs, joints, hands are and this sense of body position works with your vestibular system to keep you balanced and in alignment
Lawrence Kohlberg
important American psychologist who pioneered the study of moral reasoning. He developed his three basic levels of moral reasoning: Preconventional, Conventional and Postconventional level.
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
famous Swiss-American psychiatrist who pioneered the study of the terminally ill. Her book On Death and Dying developed the famous Five Stages of Dying: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression and Acceptance.
Unlike a lot of drugs, it can cross the brain-blood barrier and then it gets converted into dopamine in the brain. It has been used with some success in treating Parkinson's and other illnesses.
learning curve
was first developed by Pavlov to describe the processes of: Acquisition, Extinction, Relearning, Reextinction and Spontaneous Recovery
limbic system
a very ancient but powerful system in the brain that plays an important role in survival behaviors (eating, mating, fighting) as well as memory. It includes structures such as: hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus and pituitary gland
Linear perspective
created by converging lines in the distance. It's an important feature allowing us to perceive depth and size.
major neurotransmitters
serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, GABA, epinephrine, norepinephrine
Martin Seligman
famous American psychologist (Professor at Pennsylvania University) who is credited with, among other things, the development of the concept of "Learned Helplessness".
three measures of central tendency
mean (average), mode (most f requently occuring event) and the median (midpoint). These measures tend to tell us something about the "center" of a set of statistics. On a curve of normal distribution, they all fall on the same point.
Measures of variability
. The range is the difference between the highest and lowest value and the standard deviation tells us where the scores "hang" in relation to the mean
Sensory memory
only holds information for a split sec ond, it's the lingering of an image on the retina
mental age
was developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed this term which refers to the chronological age typical of a given performance
Mental set/Perceptual set
It refers to a collection of beliefs (schema) or predispositions based on prior experience that one might use to solve a problem or interpret a situation. It's sort of like a bias, or a way of intrepreting things.
Knowing about knowing "how do I think?"
Method of loci
mnemonic system based on visual imagery involving a series of loci(places) that are firmly fixed in memory. To remember a list of words, you create a mental image for each of the words and "place" each image in one of your loci. Then to recall the list, you take a "walk" past your loci and see what images they contain.
Milieu/Community Therapy
defined as the type of treatment in which the patient's social environment is manipulated for his benefit. One type of this treatment is the therapeutic commun ity, in which patients stay at a residence where they lead a highly structured life. All of their interractions and relationships are geared toward helping them get better. This approach can be used for substance abusers, or people with severe disorders that impair their ability to function in normal living.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still consideered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes. It measures such things as the degree of depression, psychopathic deviancy, masculinity/femininity scale, paranoia, sc hizophrenia, social introversion and hypochondriasis.
misinformation effect
Human memory is not as good as people like to think. There are times when you are 100% confident in your memory of something and the reality is, your memory is wrong. This is often seen in eye witness testimony situations. According to the misinformation effect, when we witness an event and then get some incorrect information about that event, we incorporate that incorrect information (misinformation) into our memory of the event.
a form of learning where individuals ascertain how to act or perform by observing another individual. Think of it this way, you may know how to tell a joke better because you have watched Jay Leno's standup routine on TV. Or, if you have ever felt uncomfortable at a party and someone gives you the advice of: "When in Rome, do as the Romans do"
Cues of depth that can be detected by one eye instead of two. For example, size is a monocular clue.
Binocular Cues:
Humans are able to see things that are both far and near, and can actually identify where those objects are in space (meaning, they can determine if those objects are close or far away). This sort of depth perception requires both of our eyes, which is referred to as binocular cues (depth cues that requires both of our eyes).
motion aftereffect
why do I still feel I’m moving if I’ve stopped, spin around and you still feel like you're spinning,
motion parallax
Mountain road at 60 mph versus Interstate 95; things closer seem like they are going by faster
myelin sheath
Myelin is a fatty substance that covers neurons. Around your neurons is a myelin sheath (a layer of myelin) that helps increase the speed at which information can travel on the neurons
(self-love: an exceptional interest in and admiration for yourself) An excessive preoccupation with one’s own personal importance, or with achieving one’s own chosen goals rather than bonding with others, or with associating only with others whom one chooses. Sometimes psychologists associate narcissism with psychopathology and lack of conscience, but this need not be the case
nature vs. nurture controversy
This is one of if not the longest running debate since the science of psychology began…what makes us who we are and drives how we behave, our genes (nature) or our experiences (nurture)? For example, if a person commits a violent crime, did they do so because of their genetic makeup (they are genetically pre-wired to be violent) or because of their experiences (e.g., growing up in an impovershed area, not getting a good education, no parental guidance or some other experience)? This is the nature-nurture debate.
Neural transmission (information being sent from neuron to neuron) works at both the electrical and chemical levels. When the space between two neurons is small enough the electrical signal can simply jump the gap and continue on its way. However, when the gap is too large, the signal must be converted from electricity to chemicals. These chemicals are neurotransmitters, which can be defined as chemicals released by neurons which carry information from one neuron to another
rooting reflex
a baby’s tendency , when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple
when ppl go around a circle reading words or saying names, their poorest memories are for what was said by the person just before them; when next in line, we focus on our own performance and often fail to process the last person’s words
normative social influence
Sometimes people behave in ways just to gain approval from others, even if they don't necessarily believe in what they are doing. This is normative social influence -- influence resulting in the desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. For example, if you go to a play, many times you will applaud when others do even if you didn't really like the play that much. You do this to avoid the disapproval of the other people.
Norms are the unwritten but understood rules of a society or culture for the behaviors that are considered acceptable and expected. For example, in some countries it is the norm to put large piercing through the face as decoration or indication of belonging to a particular group. This same behavior might be considered unacceptable in another place.
novelty preference
response to habituation (decreasing responsiveness w/ repeated stimulation. As infants gain a familiarity w/ repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner)
obesity (role of hypothalamus)
The state of being overweight. Interestingly, this definition seems to change so often that providing a definition is silly. It used to be that obesity was defined as being a certain percentage above the "normal" weight for a specific age and height. According to that definition, a person who was 20% above the average weight for a specific height and age was considered obese. However, in more recent years, obesity has been defined by specific weight ranges for people within a specific age and height. (Since the specific ranges seem to change regularly, I do not include them here.)
Hypothalamus—lateral (left)—hunger; tells you that you are hungry / Ventromedial (right)— satiety (feeling of fullness)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (OCD)
An anxiety disorder where individuals are unable to stop thinking the same thoughts or performing the same tasks over and over again. A common obsessive-compulsive disorder is frequent hand washing. Individuals attempt to alleviate their fear or anxiety by performing certain rituals (e.g.., washing hands 63 times before leaving the house). These rituals are to the extent that they have trouble carrying on with their daily activities.
occipital lobe
The brain can be divided into four main areas, one of which is the occipital lobe, which is the area of the brain located at the rear of the head. The occipital lobe is responsible for sight
Oedipal conflict
according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mothe r and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father / The Oedipus complex is a concept developed by Sigmund Freud, who inspired Carl Jung (he described the concept and coined the term "Complex"), to explain the maturation of the infant boy through identification with the father and desire for the mother.
one eye problem
what you couldn't do well if you had only one eye- depth perception—allows us to estimate distance; ability to see objects in 3 dimensions although images that strike the retina are 2-D; allows us to judge distance; binocular clues—require 2 eyes; depth clues, such as retinal disparity and convergence
operationalizing a definition
A statement of the procedures or ways in which a researcher is going to measure behaviors or qualities. For example, let's say you wanted measure and define "life change". You could do this by giving people the Social Readjustment Rating Scale and then operationally define "life change" as the score on the social readjustment rating scale
opponent-process theory of emotions
- A theory suggested by Solomon where emotional reactions to a stimulus are followed by opposite emotional reactions. This theory may explain why stunt people enjoy their work. First the individual will feel intense anxiety before performing a stunt and then the person will receive an opposite reaction of relief after the stunt is completed. The theory also postulates that repeated exposure to the stimulus will cause less of an initial reaction and a stronger opposing reaction. This may explain why drugs, such as opiates, give diminishing returns after prolonged use yet the effects of withdraw become more intensified and unpleasant
opponent-process theory of visual processing
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green; yellow-blue; white-black) e nable color vision. For ex., some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
optic disc
The small blind spot on the surface of the retina where cells of the retina converge to form the optic nerve; the only part of the retina that is insensitive to light. / The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point in the eye where the optic nerve enters the retina; it is not sensitive to light. Inspection of the optic disc by ophthalmoscopy can give an indication of glaucoma and other optic neuropathies, optic neuritis, or papilledema (i.e. optic disc swelling produced by raised intracranial pressure).
The optic nerve
one of the twelve cranial nerves. The optic nerve is behind the eyeball and transmits visual information to the brain.
An organ behind the lower part of the stomach that is about the size of a hand. It makes insulin so that the body can use glucose (sugar) for energy. It also makes enzymes that help the body digest food.
panic attacks
Period of extreme anxiety and physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, shakiness, dizziness, and racing thoughts. Initial attacks are often reported to feel like a heart attack due to the heart palpitations. A medical exam should be conducted to rule out any such condition.
Panic attacks are symptoms of anxiety disorders where individuals experience brief episodes of intense anxiety. Physical symptoms involve increased heart rate, trembling, and adrenaline rushes. Often these people seem to feel that they are going to lose control of themselves. These attacks generally are not attached to a specific event or object but instead seem to come from nowhere.
paradoxical sleep
There are two types of sleep, REM and NREM (non-REM). REM, which is also known as paradoxical sleep, stands for Rapid Eye Movement and occurs in cycles every 60-90 minutes throughout your sleep period. T his means that every 60-90 minutes you enter a REM stage during which you have rapid eye movements and your muscles become almost paralyzed (this is why it's called paradoxical sleep - the rest of your body is active but your muscles are inactive). The majority of dreams occur in REM sleep, but not all of them.
is an impairment of mental function caused by damage to the brain from untreated syphilis. It is now extremely uncommon; Partial or incomplete paralysis characterized by weakness and reduction in muscular power; weakness of a limb (usually arms and legs)—NOT a total loss of function
perceptual constancy
The ability to perceive objects as unchanged despite the change noticed by t he senses (e.g., the ability to understand and see buildings as remaining the same height even though they appear larger as we get closer to them).
perceptual set
theory stresses the idea of perception as an active process involving selection, inference and interpretation.
Perceptual set is a bias or readiness to perceive certain aspects of available sensory data and to ignore others. (can be influence by expectations and context)
personal space
The "space bubble" or the kinesphere that one occupies; it includes all levels, planes, and directions both near and far from the body's center; kinesphere that one occupies;
Biological Perspective
To understand behavior by understanding the biological processes associated with those behaviors. This includes the brain, nervous system, genetics, and more. This is becoming more prominent all the time.
Biopshysiological Perspective
The psychological school of thought based on the premise that physiological influences and factors are the most important factors in developing, determining, and causing behaviors and mental processes. In the classic "nature-nurture" debate, the physiological perspective IS the "nature”
Cognitive Perspective
psychological viewpoint that the focuses on the how people (and other animals) process, store, and retrieve information and how this information is used to reason and solve problems. Obviously, the part about reasoning is generally reserved for humans, although there is some argument concerning the possibility that other animals also reason and engage in problem-solving behaviors
Humanistic Perspective
This is the psychological perspective popularized by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (hierarchy of needs) that emphasizes the human capacity for choice and growth. The overriding assumption is that humans have free will and are not simply fated to behave in specific ways or are zombies blindly reacting to their environments. So, the Humanists stated that the subject matter or psychology (what psychology should focus on) is the human subjective experience of the world - how humans experience things, why they experience things, etc.
Psychoanalytic Perspective
The psychoanalytic approach focuses on the importance of the unconscious mind (not the conscious mind). In other words, psychoanalytic perspective dictates that behavior is determined by your past experiences that are left in the unconscious mind (people are unaware of them). This perspective is still based on Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective about early experiences being so influential on current behavior, but the focus on sex is not as great.
Psychodynamic Perspective
This psychological perspective originated from Freudian psychoanalysis which emphasizes the unconscious components such as conflicts, instinctual energies, etc. Many of Freud’s students of psychoanalysis broke off and went their own way, but kept the main aspect of psychoanalysis (the unconscious). As a result, the term psychodynamic is a more general term that incorporates all of these components, but keeps the unconscious as a primary element. The more hard line, scientifically focused psychologists often dismiss this perspective specifically because of the emphasis on the unconscious – their claim is, since you can’t observe it, you can’t measure it, so how can it be science. You be the judge
phenylketonuria (PKU)
- congenital condition in which the body lacks a specific enzyme. This causes abnormal metabolism that may result in brain damage.; an inherited (autosomal recessive) metabolic disorder, marked by the deficiency of the enzyme that converts phenylalanine (an amino acid) to tyrosine; accumulation of phenylalanine in the blood can lead to mental retardation and other neurologic problems; treatment includes a low-phenylalanine diet and a phenylalanine-free medical food
phi phenomenon
One such visual illusion is the phi phenomenon in which lights next to each other blinking on and off in succession appear to actually move. For example, a string of lights across a house appear to "run" even though you know it's just one light turning off and the one next to it turning on and so on down the line
sets of basic sounds (in fact, the smallest set of sounds) that are the building blocks to all spoken language. Unlike morphemes, phonemes are not units of speech that convey meaning when used in isolation
The smallest units of speech that convey meaning. All words are composed of at least one morpheme. For example, the word "work" is a single morpheme, but the word "working", which implies some action, is made up of two morphemes
A cell that is specialized for converting the rate at which it absorbs photons to the magnitude of a signal, which can be relayed to and interpreted by the organism's central nervous system.; light sensitive neuron. Photoreceptors interact with light which produces changes in their electrical properties which are communicated to other neurons. They constitute the first stage in the physiological process which underlies vision. The human retina, like the retina of most vertebrates, contains two broad classes of photo-receptors, rods and cones.
Piaget's stages
(Birth-2 yrs)
(2-7 years)
Concrete operational
(7-11 years)
Formal operational
(11 years and up)
Formal operational
Can think logically about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systemtically
Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems
Concrete operational
7-11 years
Can think logically about objects and events
Achieves conservation of number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9)
Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size.
2-7 years
Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words
Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others
Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of colour
Birth-2 yrs
Differentiates self from objects
Recognises self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise
Achieves object permanence: realises that things continue to exist even when no longer present to the sense (pace Bishop Berkeley)
pineal gland
- tiny organ in the cerebrum that produces melatonin. Also called pineal body or pineal organ; small cone-shaped component of the epithalamus attached in the midline by a stalk to the dorsocaudal 3rd ventricle. Also known as the epiphysis cerebri. This endocrine organ secretes serotonin and melatonin in sync with light cycles. Prior to puberty the pineal exerts an inhibitory influence of the reproductive system. After the age of 16 the gland becomes infiltrated with calcareous material which renders it a useful landmark for determining the presence of space-occupying intracranial masses in radiographs; en docrine organ found in the brain. In some animals, it seems to serve as a light-influenced biological clock.
tones highness of lowness; depends on frequency
pituitary gland
The pituitary gland, which is part of the endocrine system, is a small structure located just below the hypothalamus. This is a very influential gland releases hormones that affect your growth as well as influencing the activities of other glands. For this reason the pituitary gland is often referred to as the master gland
– the brain’s capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (esp. in kids) and in exp. On the effects of experience on brain development
positive reinforcement
A stimulus which increases the frequency of a particular behavior using pleasant rewards. A doggy treat can pleasantly coerce your new puppy to sit (positive reinforcement) just as a pull to the choke collar can achieve the same affect (negative reinforcement). The difference is that the positive reinforcer is pleasant, but make sure you un derstand that both increase the frequency of the behavior!
post-traumatic stress disorder
a psychological disorder where individuals suffer nightmares and other types of emotional distress from a traumatic past experience or set of experiences. Stimulus that reminds them of the event or events can cause flashbacks and irritability
Premack principle
This is a principle of operant conditioning originally identified by David Prprimacy effect emack in 1965. According to this principle, some behavior that happens reliably (or without interference by a researcher), can be used as a reinforcer for a behavior that occurs less reliably.
For example, most children like to watch television--this is a behavior that happens reliably (they learn to like TV all on their own and it is something they will do willingly without any interference from their parents)--and parents often use this behavior to reinforce something children like to do less such as washing dishes. So, some parents might condition children to wash dishes by rewarding dish washing with watching television. I'm not saying that is the right thing to do, only that it is an example of the Premack Principle
primacy effect
This is the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be rem embered better or more easily, or for them to be more influential than those presented later in the series. If you hear a long list of words, it is more likely that you will remember the words you heard first (at the beginning of the list) than words that occurred in the middle. This is the primacy effect. You should also note that you will be likely to remember words at the end of the list more than words in the middle, and this is called the recency effect
projective tests: TAT & Rorschach
A test which requires an individual to respond to indistinct stimuli. The individual's interpretation about the stimuli is meant to reveal aspects of their personality. The Rorschach, which has individuals describe various ambiguous inkblot pictures is a clas sic example of a projective test. These types of tests usually work the following way: A test taker is presented with a dark circular drawing and is asked to describe what he or she sees. Let us say that the test taker states that it is a basketball, the test scorer may then presume that the individual likes sports and probably favors basketball oppose to tennis or any other sport. This type of reasoning is a primary illustration of how these types of tests work
Thematic Apperception Test
This is a projective test that is used to help people express their feelings in a non-threatening manner. This is done by having people create stories about ambiguous characters, scenes, and situations. People are shown ambiguous pictures and then asked to make up stories about them. This allows the person to "project" their own feelings and interests onto the picture. So rather than saying, I feel really angry, the person may indicate that the person in the picture looks really angry and upset about something.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
There are many types of projective tests, but the most widely used is the Rorschach Inkblot Test. In this test individuals are shown various ambiguous inkblot pictures and asked to describe what they see. By analyzing the responses given by the people, psychologists attempt to understand the person's inner feelings, thoughts, and issues
pro-social behavior
what is it and give an example - occurs when someone acts to help another person, particularly when they have no goal other than to help a fellow human; altruistic behavior; varies with context as much as between people. Men will tend to be chivalrous for short periods, whilst women will work quietly for longer periods. People who are in a good mood are more likely to do good, as are people who are feeling guilty. People in small towns are more likely to help than those squashed together in cities; positive, constructive, helpful behavior
– geographic nearness—most powerful predictor of friendship—provides opportunities for aggression, but often breeds bonding; greater availability of those we meet
BEST example or cognitive representation of something within a certain category. Prototypes are used to enhance memory and recall, since you can keep a prototype of something and then match new, similar things to the prototype in order to identify, categorize, or store this new thing. For example, if I ask you to imagine a dog, what do you imagine? You may consider a German Shepard your prototype for a dog by which you compare all other dogs. So if you see another dog, you could say that other dog is small (compared to your prototype), heavy, ugly, beautiful, etc.
why it may not be effective and might backfire - Any stimulus that represses a behavior. It is important to note that punishment is not the same as negative reinforcement. Is failing a test negative reinforcement or punishment? If it motivates you to study more it is negative reinforcement (i.e., it increases the behavior of studying). However, if you feel that studying is actually hurting your performance (due to, for example, test anxiety) you will perceive that failing the test was due to studying too hard. Next time, you will not study (i.e., decrease your behavior) so that you will not be punished for it. Now you just need to convince your professor that bad grades are actually causing you to study less
Rational Emotive Therapy
- This type of therapy was created by Albert Ellis who himself defines rational-emotive therapy (also known as rational-emotive behavior therapy) as, " a humanistic, action-oriented approach to emotional growth which emphasizes individuals' capacity for creating their own emotions; the ability to change and overcome the past by focusing on the present; and the power to choose and implement satisfying alternatives to current patterns." The approach to this therapy is to aggressively challenge irrational, illogical, or altered views people have of themselves to help them see that their views are indeed irrational, illogical, etc.
reality principle (function of ego)
The ego has a tough job trying to satisfy the needs of the id without giving it everything it wants and engaging in inappropriate and unacceptable behaviors. The ego manages to satisfy the id without engaging in all sorts of inappropriate acts by following the reality principle--the guide directing our unacceptable sexual and aggressive urges to more acceptable targets. For example, when you walk down the street and see an extremely attractive person, the ego, working on the reality principle, helps us realize that it is not socially acceptable to cross the street, grab the person, and have sex with them. Instead, the ego follows the reality principle which tells us that there will be other, more appropriate people, places, and times to fulfill these needs.
recessive vs. dominant genes
Genes are the biochemical units of heredity that form the chromosomes. The genes are essentially the segments of DNA molecules that contain the code for particular peptides or proteins which then determine who we are (at birth and what we can become - let's not forget about the importance of environment, but the genes give us the starting point). Our eye color, skin color, hair color and type, athletic potential, "smarts" potential, etc., are all influenced at this level.
refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). Every person has two copi es of every gene, one from mother and one from father. If a genetic trait is recessive, a person needs to inherit two copies of the gene for the trait to be expressed. Thus, both parents have to be carriers of a recessive trait in order for a child to express that trait. If both parents are carriers, there is a 25% chance with each child to show the recessive trait.
to the allele that causes a phenotype that is seen in a heterozygous genotype. Every person has two copies of every gene, one from mother and one from father. If a genetic trait is dominant, a person on ly needs to inherit one copy of the gene for the trait to be expressed.
reflex arc
how are the neurons here different from the rest of the nervous system? What's the role of "interneurons"? – neural path of a reflex; route followed by nerve impulses to produce a reflex act, from the periphery through the afferent to the nervous sys., and thence though the efferent nerve to the effector organ; is the neural pathway that mediates a reflex. It generally does not involve the brain. In higher animals it is composed of a spinal "reflex integration center" composed of interneurons to connect affector (sensory stimulation) and effector (response) signals. While the reflex generation may be initiated by nociceptive input, extensive processing takes place within the spinal cord. The neural connection from the primary sensory neurons to the motor neurons is a poly-synaptic pathway (Andersen).
extent to which test yields constant results, as assessed by consistency of scores on 2 halves of the test, on alt forms of the test, or on retesting
extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep, recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. AKA paradoxical sleep b/c the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body sys are active
When explaining repression, Freud compared the process to "condemnation" and stated the following: "Let us take a model, an impulse, a mental process seeking to convert itself into action: we know that it can suffer rejection, by virtue of what we call 'repudiation' or 'condemnation'; whereupon the energy at its disposal is withdrawn, it becomes powerless, but it can continue to exist as a memory. The whole process of decision on the point takes place with the full cognizance of the ego. It is very different when we imagine the same impulse subject to repression: it would then retain its energy and no memory of it would be left behind; the p rocess of repression, too, would be accomplished without the cognizance of the ego."
Wow - what does all that mean? In a nutshell, Freud was saying that when we have memories, impulses, desires, and thoughts that are too difficult or unacceptable to deal with, we unconsciously exclude them from our consciousness (some people like to say we "push" them down from our consciousness to our uncosciousness). This is similar to suppression with one key difference - suppression is a conscious exclusion (or "pushing" down) of these painful memories, thoughts, etc., and is more similar to Freud's explaination of condemnation.
reticular formation
Reticular activating system is a structure in the brain stem that is responsible for arousal and sleep. The reticular activation system is responsible for getting you up in the morning and putting you asleep at night
The reticular formation is a part of the brain which is involved in stereotypical actions, such as walking, sleeping, and lying down. It is absolutely essential for life.
The reticular formation, phylogenetically one of the oldest portions of the brain, is a poorly-differentiated area of the brain stem, centered roughly in the pons, but with the ascending reticular activating system connecting to areas in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cortex, and the descending reticular activating system connecting to the cerebellum and sensory nerves.
There is some reason to regard the reticular formation as "motivation central" for the brain, as it appears not only to control physical behaviors such as sleep, but also has been shown to play a major role in alertness, fatigue, and motivation to perform various activities. Some researchers have speculated that the reticular formation controls approximately 25 specific and mutually-exclusive behaviors, including sleep, walking, eating, urination, defecation, and sexual activity.
The reticular formation has also been traced as one of the sources for the introversion and extroversion character traits. Introverted people have been found to have a more easily stimulated reticular formation, resulting in a diminished desire to seek out stimulus. Extroverted people, however, have a les/s easily stimulated reticular formation, resulting in the need for more stimulation to maintain brain activity.
retinal disparity
binocular cue for perceiving depth : the greater the disparity (diff) b/t the 2 images the retina receives of an obj., the closer the obj is to the viewer
Robert Rescorla's findings on conditioning
when 2 significant events occur close together in time, an animal learns the predictability of the 2nd event; animal learns expectancy; more predictable the association, the stronger the conditioned response
: If a shock always is preceded by a tone, and then sometimes also by a light that accompanies the tone, a rat will react with fear to the tone but not the light. Although the light always is followed by the shock, the tone better predicts impending shock. The more predictable the association, the stronger the conditioned response. It’s as if the animal learns an expectancy, an awareness of how likely it is that the UCS will occur. The rat is thinking, just like a scientist, watching which stimulus is paired with what response. (That thinking little devil!) Thus, Rescorla concluded that S-R learning “is not a stupid process by which the organism willy-nilly forms associations between any two stimuli that happen to occur. ” Even in classical conditioning, leaning is not the simple CS-UCS association, it’s not a simple “stamping in” of a new response to a stimuli, it’s the thought that counts.
The human eye has many different parts that are all needed to help us see, including rods, the optic nerve, and cones. The cones are receptor cells that help us see fine details of things and tend to help us see in situations where there is light or daylight. The majority of cones are in the center of the retina (we have approximately 6 million cones in each eye). When you squint to try to read or see something more clearly, what you are actually doing is focusing the image on this grouping of the cones in order to see the fine details. Cones also help us with color perception.
There are two types of receptor cells in the human eye; the cones and the rods. The rods are the receptors in the eye which detect movement. Rods are also used in night vision.
rooting reflex
reflex occurs in infants (we outgrow it) and is a tendency for the infant, when stroked on the side of the face, to move its face in the direction being stroked, open its mouth, and search for a nipple. This reflex is for survival as it helps infants locate food.
When conducting research there are lots of factors to consider. Psychologists may want to study, for example, the effect of some new test on all college students in the world (which would be considered the "population"), but this is obviously not possible. Instead, what they do is test a smaller group of college students, known as a sample. In this example, everyone who could possibly be a participant in the study (meaning, all college students) is part of the population. Thus, a sample is a relatively small number of participants drawn from an entire population.
most often used to plot correlations – is a graph used in statistics to visually display and compare two or more sets of related quantitative, or numerical, data by displaying only finitely many points, each having a coordinate on a horizontal and a vertical axis
Fixed Ratio
There is a fixed number of responses that must occur before you get the reward 1:3 schedule. Every three times you pull the lever you’ll get a prize
Variable Ratio
The number of responses will vary before you get the reward The # of times you have to pull the lever changes every time – like a slot machine
Fixed Interval
There’s a set amount of time that must pass after you do a behavior before you get a reward Getting paid every two weeks.
Variable Interval
Don’t know how much time must pass before you get the reward. Don’t know when boy/girl friend will call. Never know when a teacher will praise you.
concept of framework that org and interprets info
group of sever psychotic disorders characterized by disorg and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
selective attention
what is it and what part of the brain governs this? - I've always been somewhat bothered by this term because it seems somewhat redundant to me…see what you think. Selective attention is purposely focusing your conscious awareness onto a specific stimulus. This means that if you are in a noisy place with lots of people and you purposely pay attention to the person you are speaking with, you are engaging in selective attention. Easy enough, right? So how is this different from "paying attention" or simply "attention"? I know there are subtle differences, but it seems redundant to me. Reticular system
(from Bandura) how much are you in control of your life; an individual’s estimate of his ability to cope with a situation, and outcome expectancy; an individual’s estimate of the likelihood of certain consequences occurring. This combination of assessments of potential threat and coping resources determines how anxious an individual may become in a given situation.
self-fulfilling prophecy
is a prediction that, in being made, actually causes itself to become true. For example, in the stock market, if it is widely believed that a crash is imminent, investors may lose confidence, sell most of their stock, and actually cause the crash. Or, if a candidate in an election openly declares they do not believe they can win, this may increase voter apathy and result in poor support for their campaign
self-serving bias
readiness to perceive oneself favorably
semantic memory
one of the three types of long-term memory (the others are episodic and procedural) in which we store general world knowledge like facts, ideas, words, problem solving, etc.
serial position effect
a memory-related term and refers to the tendency to recall information that is presented first and last (like in a list) better than information presented in the middle. Sometimes I experience this when I go to the store and don't write a list. My wife tells me the things we need and I try to remember them by rehearsing them (I say the list over and over). This keeps the information in short-term memory longer. But in the time it takes me to get to the store and then with all the distractions of getting items, looking at labels, etc., I tend to remember the items that were first on the list (probably because I rehears ed them so much) and the last items (probably because those were the ones I heard most recently) but always forget the ones in the middle.
set point
the pt. at which an individuals “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restores lost weight
Primary Sex Characteristics
Men and women both have have hair on our heads, our face, etc. However, primary sex characteristics are body structures that are specific to sex. Females have ovaries whereas men have testes. These are primary sex characteristics because they are specific to the sex of the person (men typically don't have ovaries) and are related to reproduction.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
These are the physical features other than reproductive organs that distinguish men from women. Unlike primary sex characteristics which are the main sex-specific reproductive organs (i.e., ovaries and testes), secondary sex characteristics are nonreporductive sexual characteristics such as breasts (on females) and an adam's apple on men.
Gender Identity
Gender identity is one's own perception or sense of being male or female. Please do not confuse this with sexual orientation (as heterosexual or homosexual) or the strength of one's gender-typing; it is just a person's own knowledge and feelings of being a male or female.
Sexual Identity
the sex with which a person identifies, or is identified. The term is used by some recent writers in the general area of sexology
One's self-identity as homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexual.
This is a behavioral term that refers to gradually molding or training an organism to perform a specific response (behavior) by reinforcing any responses that are similar to the desired response. For example, a researcher can use shaping to train a rat to press a lever during an experiment (since rats are not born with the instinct to press a lever in a cage during an experiment). To start, the researcher may reward the rat when it makes any movement at all in the direction of the lever. Then, the rat has to actually take a step toward the lever to get rewarded. Then, it has to go over to the lever to get rewarded (remember, it will not receive any reward for doing the earlier behaviors now…it must make a more advanced move by going over to the lever), and so on until only pressing the lever will produce reward. The rat’s behavior was “shaped” to get it to press the lever.
signal detection theory
I often like to change a complex psychological definition into a precise and clear one that everyone understands, but the definition for Signal Detection Theory is pretty straight forward. Here is one that I found in one of my texts: "Signal Detection Theory holds that the detection of a stimulus depends on both the intensity of the stimulus and the physical and psychological state of the individual." And that's really all it is....Your abili ty or likelihood to detect some stimulus is affected by the intensity of the stimulus (e.g., how loud a noise is) and your physical and psychological state (e.g., how alert you are). For example, when you walk to your car that is parked in an empty parking lot late at night all by yourself, you might be much more aware of noises because the situation is somewhat threatening (you are primed and listening carefully to hear anything and everything). In this case, you may hear some slight noises that you might otherwise not hear if you were in a different situation that was not as threatening. Thus, your ability to detect signals or noises has been affected by these factors. See what I mean?
sleeper effect
When a message has a greater delayed than immediate attack on the receiver’s attitudes. According to Lariscy and Tinkham (1999), this was first named by Hovland, Lumsdaine & Sheffield in 1949. The effect is counterintuitive in that the strength of attitudes typically decreases over time. It can occur when the message is sent by a source that is not credible, and over time, the source and the message become dissociated. sleeper effect identified by psychologist Carl Hovland refers to the "hidden" effect of a propaganda message even when it comes from a discredible source
social cognitive theory
relevant to health communication. First, the theory deals with cognitive, emotional aspects and aspects of behavior for understanding behavioral change. Second, the concepts of the SCT provide ways for new behavioral research in health education. Finally, ideas for other theoretical areas such as psychology are welcome to provide new insights and understanding. It explains how people acquire and maintain certain behavioral patterns, while also providing t he basis for intervention strategies (Bandura, 1997). Evaluating behavioral change depends on the factors environment, people and behavior.
social exchange theory
There are many different theories about why we help each other. According to social exchange theory people help each other when there is a positive cost-benefit analysis; when the benefits outweigh the costs.The benefits can be tangible or intangible, physical or psychological. All that really matters is that the person perceives the benefits to be greater than the costs.
social facilitation
Norman Triplett, way back in 1898, noticed that people in bicycle races went faster when they were competing against each other directly than when they were racing individually (e.g., an individual time trial). This observation was the basis for social facilitation, which states that people perform certain tasks better when they are in the presence of other people. This is true for simple tasks, tasks people are good at already, or already learned tasks, but not for difficult or novel tasks.
social loafing
When more people are involved in a task, the task is done faster, more easily, and better…right? Not necessarily! Social loafing is the tendency for people in a group to put less effort into the task when the effor t is pooled (when they are all supposed to work on the task) compared to when they are all responsible for their own contributions. By having more people involved in the group task, each person can put in a little less effort, thinking that others will make up for their lack of effort. You may have seen this type of situation with, for example, road crews…sometimes there are 10 on the crew, 3 are working hard, 2 are sort of working, and the other 5 are sitting around talking. Are they all putting in as much effort as they would if each worked alone? Probably not.
social trap
situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Somatoform disorders
disorders that have some type of bodily symptom (soma = body) but don’t appear to have any physical cause.
This does not mean that the symptoms are not real, only that a physical cause for the real symptoms can't be found. This may be the result of anxiety, stress, among other causes.
ex: Conversion disorder
somatosensory cortex
brain region that processes information coming from the muscles, joints, and skin. Stimulants A class of drugs that elevates mood, increases feelings of well-being, and increases energy and alertness. These drugs also produce euphoria and are powerfully rewarding. Stimulants include cocaine, methamphetamine, and methylphenidate (Ritalin).
somatosensory system includes multiple types of sensation from the body - light touch, pain, pressure, temperature, and joint and muscle position sense (also called proprioception). However, these modalities are lumped into three different pathways in the spinal cord and have different targets in the brain.
stages of learning
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery
when the behavior is first learned
behavior dies out because associations are not made or presented
Spontaneous Recovery
after a time delay, the behavior may resurface on its own
behavior goes away again
relearning of a previously extinguished behavior, this usually takes much less time than the initial Acquisition on phase
standard deviation
Standard Deviation is a measure of variation (or variability) that indicates the typical distance between the scores of a distribution and the mean. Looking at an example will help us make sense of this.
Stanley Milgram's experiment with obedience
The Milgram experiment was a famous scientific experiment of social psychology. The experiment was first described by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University in an article titled Behavioral Study of Obedience published in the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology in 1963, and later summarized in his 1974 book Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View. It was intended to measure the willingness of a participant to obey an authority who instructs the participant to do something that may conflict with the participant's personal conscience.
Stanley Schachter's Two Factor Theory
human emotions contain two factors or parts: physical arousal and a cognitive label.
both of these elements must be present for you to experience an emotion. Some form of arousal occurs (e.g., increased heart rate, persperation, etc.), you then put some label on this arousal, and then experience the emotion. For example, imagine playing a physically demanding game like basketball. As soon as you are done with the game (and you are hot, your heart is racing, etc., which is the state of arousal) someone gives you some bad news. In response, you get angry (label the emotion as anger), and feel that anger. The question is, would you have gotten less angry about this news if you were not aroused from playing basketball? According to Schacter, you'll get angrier if aroused
stereo type
We're all someone what familiar with this term and know it's not such a good thing, but do you know how to define it? Well, you will now…a stereotype is a "fixed" way of thinking about people in which you classify others into specific categories without much room for individualism or variation. For example, if you believe that Asian people are smarter than other people, you are making a blanket statement that does not allow for some individual variation - such as some Asian people who are not so smart. In this case, you categorize all Asians as having the same characteristic and don't leave open the possibility that some people don't have these characteristics
stimulus generalization
transfer of a response learned to one stimulus to a similar stimulus

or rather

responding to a unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned response because that stimulus is similar to a conditioned stimulus
stranger anxiety
: Although many people might get anxious around strangers, this term refers to a developmental situation in which infants become anxious and fearful around strangers. This usually occurs around 8 months of age and includes outward, fearful behaviors by the child in the presence of stranges, including crying, recoiling, clinging, etc. This is not an unusual situation and occurs at the same time as object permanence
systematic desensitization
This is a form of treatment or therapy for phobias, fears, and aversions that people have. The premise is to reduce a person's anxiety responses through counterconditioning - a person who learned to be afraid of something is associating fear with that object or behavior, and the way to eliminate this is to teach the person to replace the feelings of anxiety with feelings of relaxation when the object or behavior is present. This approach is based on conditioning relaxation with the feared object or object of anxiety. For example: A) the fear - fear of dating women B) the client is asked to create a hierarchy of anxiety (what makes the client afraid, from least fear producing to most fear producing). 1 ) sitting next to a woman in class (least) 2) talking to a woman in class 3) walking with a woman on campus 4) calling a woman on the phone 5) eating a meal with a woman 6) going out on a date with a woman (most) C) the therapist then teaches the client some relaxation technique and then has the client use the relaxation technique when encountering (or just thinking about) the first level (sitting next to a woman in class). Once the client is comfortable with this, they move on to the next level, and so on until the client becomes relaxed and is able to go out on a date with a woman.
Tay-Sachs disease
genetic disorder carried by an estimated one in 30 Eastern European Jews; babies born with Tay-Sachs lack an essential enzyme and die in early childhoo d. A preconception test can determine whether potential parents are carriers of the disease
testable hypothesis
specific statement or proposition, stated in a testable (researchable) form, predicting a particular relationship among multiple variables; A testable scientific idea that can be proved right or wrong with experiments. A hypothesis is a formulation of a question that lends itself to a prediction. This prediction can be verified or falsified. A question can only be use as scientific hypothesis, if their is an experimental approach or observational study that can be d esigned to check the outcome of a prediction
The thalamus is a structure deep within the brain stem that receives sensory information from the nervous system and passes the information to the cerebral cortex and other parts of the brain. It acts as a director of information related to bodily functions such as seeing, sleeping, hearing, waking, tasting, and touching.
Sense of smell doe NOT get routed through here (olfactory)
thyroid gland
gland located beneath the voice box (larynx) that produces thyroid hormone. The thyroid helps regulate growth and metabolism.; secretes the hormone thyroxine, which helps regulate body growth and metabolism; and calcitonin controls the level of calcium in the blood.
token economy
A behavior therapy procedure, based on operant conditioning principles, in which institutionalized patients are given tokens, such as poker chips, for socially constructive behavior, and are withheld when unwanted behaviors are exhibited. The tokens themselves can be exchanged for desirable items and activities such as cigarettes and extra time away from the ward.
An operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior. A patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats
Tourette's syndrome
neurological disorder characterized by involuntary body movements called tics, and uncontrollable speech; A disorder characterized by involuntary, sudden, rapid and recurrent movement or vocalization. Common motor tics are eye blinking, neck jerking, shoulder shrugging and facial grimacing. Vocal tics can include repeated coughing, throat clearing, grunting. sniffling, snorting, barking and swearing. If not diagnosed, these behaviors can cause a child to be misunderstood with major ramifications. Certain drugs have allowed dramatic improvement in some patients.
tragedy of the commons
a metaphor used to illustrate the conflict between individual interests and the common good. The term was popularized by Garrett Hardin in his 1968 Science article
The idea that where there is no clear ownership of rights to a natural resource, the users of the resource are likely to overexploit it. This becomes an argument either for strong government intervention or for privatization of rights to the resource.
is the process of converting one form of energy into another. As it relates to psychology, __________ refers to changing physical energy into electrical signals (neural impusles) that can make their way to the brain. For example, your ears receive energy (sound waves) and transduce (or convert) this energy into neural messages that make their way to your brain and are processed as sounds
Turner's syndrome (X with missing chromosome)
genetically determined condition that is associated with the presence of only one complete X chromosome and no Y chromosome and that is characterized by a female phenotype with underdeveloped and infertile ovaries. When these women grow up, they are often infertile but have very normal mental acuity; chromosomal abnormality of the woman in which one of the sex chromosomes are missing. this results is abnormal development of the ovaries. Such women are usually of short stature, infertile, and never menstruate; This disorder leads to multiple problems involving different organs, such as the heart, bones, urinary tract and thyroid gland. There may also be problems with growth and fertility.
vestibular sense
equilibrium: a sensory system located in structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head; system in the body that is responsible for maintaining the body’s orientation in space, balance, and posture; also regulates locomotion and other movements and keeps objects in visual focus as the body moves.
visual cliff
test given to infants to see if they have developed depth perception. The way it works is there is a platform that is covered with a cloth that is draped all over the place (on the platform, down to the floor, all over...). Then, a piece of glass or other clear material is placed on top of the platform and extends well off of the platform, creating a sort of bridge. An infant is then placed on the platform, and the infant's mother stands on the other side of the clear bridge. The mother calls for the child who, if it crawls off the platform and onto the clear bridge, it does not yet have depth perception. If it stops when it gets to the edge of the pla tform, looks down, and either is reluctant to cross or refuses to cross, then the child has depth perception. The reason is that the end of the platform looks like a cliff (the child doesn't yet understand that there is some kind of bridge there) and going off the edge of the platform would have bad consequences.
water balance (role of hypothalamus)
The body also has two triangular adrenal (pronounced: uh-dree-nul) glands, one on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands have two parts, each of which produces a set of hormones and has a different function. The outer part, the adrenal cortex, produces hormones called corticosteroids (pronounced: kor-tih-ko-ster-oydz) that i nfluence or regulate salt and water balance in the body, the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function. The inner part, the adrenal medulla (pronounced: muh-duh-luh), produces catecholamines (pronounced: kah-tuh-ko-luh-meenz), such as epinephrine (pronounced: eh-puh-neh-frun). Also called adrenaline, epinephrine increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress.
Weber's law
Discovered by Ernest Heinrich Weber in 1834. States that the smallest detectable change (jnd) in intensity is a constant fraction of the level of stimulation; "Weber's law explains why you don't notice your headlights are on in the daytime;” principal that, to perceive the difference between two stimuli, they must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than by a constant amount).
Wernicke's aphasia
Issues with understanding language, like a stroke patient.
Wilder Penfield's research on the brain
neurosurgeon who mapped motor cortex in hundreds of wide-awake patients—needed to know possible side effects of removing diff. Parts of brain, they would painlessly (brain has no sensory receptors) stimulate diff, cortical areas and note body responses—found that when they stimulated diff areas of motor cortex at back of frontal lobe diff. Body parts moved—mapped motor cortex according to body parts it controlled—those areas of the brain requiring precise control (fingers , mouth) occupied greatest amount of cortical space
Wilhelm Wundt (structuralism)
) was an attempt to study the mental world with introspection, the tool that Descartes thought most appropriate for the mental realm. It attempted to use that data to fit into the mechanical realm of science. This early attempt to cut across Cartesian dualism was not successful. Introspectors could not agree on the data, and thus the scientific necessity of confirming results in other laboratories could not be met. Structuralism basically ended with the death of Wundt's most devoted pupil
relied on a method called introspection
William James (functionalism)
the psychological school of thought that followed Structuralism and moved away from focusing on the structure of the mind to a concern with how the conscious is related to behavior... How does the mind affect what people do? One of the major proponents of Functionalism was Thorndike (created the ever-popular puzzle box) who studied the primary issue of functionalism...WHAT FUNCTION DOES A BEHAVIOR HAVE. In addition, this school of thought focused on observable events as opposed to unobservable events (like what goes on in someone’s m ind).
F—theory that all elements of a culture are functional in that they serve to satisfy culturally defined needs of the people in that society or requirements of the society as a whole…. philosphical view of mind according to which mental processes are characterized in terms of their abstract functional (opr computational) relationships to one another, and to sensory inputs and motor outputs
Yerkes/Dodson Arousal Law
This law states that an organism's performance can be improved if that organism is aroused in some manner. However, if the level of arousal increases too much, performance decreases. Of course, this level is different in everyone. An example of this is an athlete who performs better under real game situation than he/she does during practice games. There is more arousal (stress, excitement) during the real games which increases their performance. But, if the pressure becomes too much, their performance can decrease (e.g., missing an easy shot with time running out and losing the game -- choking!).
Zajonc's "Mere Expose Effect"
Have you ever met someone you didn't like very much at first and then over time, even if you didn't really have personal interactions with the person you started liking them (or disliking them less)? This might have been due to the mere exposure effect in which you begin to like something simply because you are exposed to it over and over again. I bet if you think about it you can come up with all sorts of things that you like simply because you are exposed to it repeatedly. There are many advertisers who bombard you with their products for this reason.
Zimbardo's (stanford) prison experiment
a landmark psychological study of the human response to captivity, in particular, to the real world circumstances of prison life. It was co nducted in 1971 by a team of researchers led by Philip Zimbardo of Stanford University. Volunteers played the roles of guards and prisoners and lived in a mock prison. However, the experiment quickly got out of hand and was ended early--Ethical concerns
The experiment very quickly got out of hand. Prisoners suffered — and accepted — sadistic and humiliating treatment at the hands of the guards, and by the end many showed severe emotional disturbance….experiment's result has been argued to demonstrate the impressionability and obedience of people when provided with a legitimizing ideology and social and institutional support. It is also used to illustrate cognitive dissonance theory and the power of authority
Someone who is androgynous has both male and female traits. This is not to say that the person has male and female genitalia, but that the person exhibits both male and female behaviors, emotions, etc. This type of person is very much a mix of maleness and femaleness.
Catharsis is a psychodynamic principle that, in its most basic sense, is simply an emotional release. Further, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that aggressive or sexual urges are relieved by "releasing" aggressive or sexual energy, usually through action or fantasy. For example, a young male may watch a film in which an attractive woman engages in sexual behavior. The young male may become sexually aroused from this and subsequently frustrated because of his inability to act out his sexual desires. To release this sexual tension, the young male may go outside and play sports or engage in fantasies about himself and the woman.
haptic memory
Sensory memory for touch
In traditional logic, a syllogism is an inference in which one proposition (the conclusion) follows of necessity from two others (known as premises). The definition is traditional, but is derived loosely from Aristotle's Prior Analytics, Book I, c. 1. The Greek "sullogismos" means "deduction;" Aristotle's logical theory involving a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion; Syllogism refers to a three-step deductive argument that moves logically from a major and a minor premise to a conclusion. A traditional example is "All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal."
expectancy theory
Many people approach problems in similar ways all the time even though they can't be sure they have the best approach or an approach that will even work. Doing this is an example of mental set -- a tendency to approach situations the same way because that way worked in the past. For example, a child may enter a store by pushing a door open. Every time they come to a door after that, the child pushes the door expecting it to open even though many doors only open by pulling. This child has a mental set for opening doors.
methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular prob. Contrasts w/ the usually speedier—but also more error-prone—use of heuristics; step-by-step
tendency of most people to use their own way of life as a standard for judging others; now also indicates the belief, on the part of most individuals, that their race, culture, society, etc., are superior to all others; belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures
Barnum effect
Forer effect (also called personal validation fallacy or the Barnum effect after P.T. Barnum) is the observation that individuals will give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. The Forer effect can provide a partial explanation for the widespread acceptance of some pseudosciences, such as astrology, graphology and fortune telling
mimicking particular neurotransmitter (may temp. produce a high by amp norm. sensations of arousal or pleasure)
blocking neurotransmitters (is enough like the natural neurotransmitter to occupy its receptor site and block its effect, but not similar enough to stimulate the receptor
Cooper's research on visual processing (using cats)
He reared kittens in darkness, except for 5 hrs each day during which they were placed in a horizontally or vertically striped environment. Kittens raised w/o exposure to horizontal lines later had difficulty perceiving horizontal bars, and those raised w/o vertical lines had difficulty seeing vertical bars. He found that whether such visual cells responded mostly to horizontal or vertical lines depended on the kittens early visual exp.
Primary Reinforcer
This is a term used in conditioning, and it refers to anything that provides reinforcement without the need for learning to an organism. This means that the reinforcer is naturally reinforcing to the organism. For example, water is naturally reinforcing because organisms don't need to learn to be reinforced by it, they naturally get reinforced especially in times of being thirsty.
Secondary Reinforcer
Unlike primary reinforcers which are naturally reinforcing, secondary reinforcers are reinforcing only after the organism has been conditioned to find it reinforcing. Some stimulus that does not naturally provide reinforcement is paired with a primary reinforcer so that the organism begins to associate the secondary reinforcer with the primary reinforcer. For example. If you recall the Pavlov's dog case, the dog naturally salivated to the presence of meat powder. The meat powder serves as a primary reinforcer. But then pairing a sound with the meat powder over and over again, the sounds became reinforcing to the dog because it had been associated with the primary reinforcer (meat powder)
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon refers to the experience of feeling confident that one knows an answer, yet is unable to produce the word. For example, in conversation or writing most people have had the occasional experience of trying, but failing to retri eve someone's name or a word from memory. This type of memory retrieval has been referred to as a tipof-the-tongue (TOT) state because one experiences the frustrating feeling that the retrieval of the word is imminent and on the "tip of the tongue." Although psychologists have long been aware of this phenomenon, Roger Brown and David McNeill (1966) conducted one of the first experimental studies of TOT states. In this study, they attempted to experimentally induce TOT states in college students by presenting definitions of relatively rare words (e.g., to give up the throne). The subjects' task was to name the word for the definition (e.g., abdicate). Brown and McNeill found that they could induce a TOT state on approximately 10 percent of trials
Flynn effect
the continued year-on-year rise of IQ test scores, an effect seen in all parts of the world, although at greatly varyin g rates. It is named after New Zealand political scientist James R. Flynn, its discoverer. The average rate of rise seems to be around three IQ points per decade. Attempted explanations have included improved nutrition, a trend towards smaller families, better education, greater environmental complexity, and heterosis
Divergent Thinking
A cognitive process (a mode of critical thinking) in which a person generates many unique, creative responses to a single question or problem. This is different from convergent thinking which attempts to find a single, correct answer to a problem.
Convergent Thinking
A cognitive process (a mode of critical thinking) in which a person attempts to find a single, correct answer to a problem. This is opposite from divergent thinking in which a person generates many unique, creative responses to a single question or problem.
Completely burnt out.
Bryce's brain
Intrinsic Motivation
Why do you work or come to class or study for a test? Do you do it because you want to money, a degree, and good grades? If so, you are extrinsically motivated - motivated to perform specific behaviors to achieve promised outside rewards or to avoid punishment from others. However, if you are working at a job because you get a great feeling of personal satisfaction from it, and you are trying to perform the behavior for its own sake (not for money), then you are intrinsically motivated. We are not saying that this is better or worse than extrinsic motivation, only different. Intrinsic motivation does seem to be more satisfying to people though. People who are extrinsically motivated tend to be less satisfied and become unhappy more easily (in general, not always).
Extrinsic Motivation
Why do you work, go to class, or study for a test? Do you do it because you want to money, a degree, and good grades? If so, you are extrinsically motivated - motivated to perform specific behaviors to achieve promised outside rewards or to avoid punishment from others. You are not working at a job because you get a great feeling of personal satisfaction from it or because it makes you feel good about yourself (that you are a good person), but rather to gain some kind of reward. We are not saying there is anything wrong with this. We are only trying to explain the concept to you.
Conductive deafness
caused by the failure of the three tiny bones inside the middle ear to pass along sound waves to the inner ear. Another common cause of conductive deafness is the failure of the eardrum to vibrate in response to sound waves. A build-up of fluid in the ear canal, for example, could dampen the movement of the eardrum. In many cases, treatment is available for conductive deafness and normal hearing will return
Nerve deafness
caused by disease, trauma or some other disruptive event targeting the cochlear nerve. The rest of the ear - including the tiny bones and eardrum - may be working, but the electrical impulses aren't able to reach the brain. In other cases, the problem is in the brain itself, which can't 'translate' the messages from the cochlear nerve. Most cases of nerve deafness don't respond to treatment.
Postive Symptoms
Presence of something that should not be there.

Hallucinations, delusions, ticks, inappropriate emotions
Negative Symptoms
An absence of what should be there.

Flat affect, no speech,
Garcia effect
the study of taste aversion conditioning; CTA, or Conditioned Taste Aversion, is an example of classical conditioning. The CTA is also known as the Garcia effect (after Dr. John Garcia). This conditioning simply theorizes that if animals that eat certain foods that cause them sickness or illness, they will refuse to consume that food if they come upon it again. Even if the food may not caus e illness or sickness again, the animal would refuse it due to its past experience with the food.
Inability to fall asleep
Unwilling and spontaneous falling asleep