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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
attribution theory
suggests how we explain someone's behavior --by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that pre-dispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussions within the group.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
an unjustifiable (and usually negative)attitude toward a group and its members. prejudice generally includes stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory actions.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members.
"us"-people with whom one shares a common identity.
"them"-those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one's own group.
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get. Karma
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate agression.
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mere exposure effect
the phenomemon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
compassionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
reciprocity norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
social-responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction--a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.