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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
associative learning
learning that certain events, (two stimuli in classical conditioning), occur together.
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus, (UCS), begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian conditioning.
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
the view that psychology:
1. should be an objective science
2. studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
Most research psychologists today agree with 1, but not with 2
unconditioned response, (UCR)
in classical conditioned, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, UCS), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
unconditioned stimulus, (UCS)
in classical conditioned, a stimlus that unconditionally - naturallly and automatically - triggers a response.
conditioned response, (CR)
in classical conditioned, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus, (CS)
conditioned stimlus, (CS)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, (UCS), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
the initial astage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned resonse.
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus, (UCS), does not follow a conditioned stimulus, (CS)
spontaneous recovery
the reappearnce, after a rest period, of an extinguished condtioned response.
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditoned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a cnoditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stmiulus.
associative learning
learning that certain events, (a response and its consequences in operant conditioning), occur together.
operant condtioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
operant chamber, (Skinner box)
a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to botain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing ork ey pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal.
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that staisfies a biological need
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its assocation with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial, (intermittent), reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a repsonse but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinfrocement.
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcemnett that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
variable-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcmenet that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
variable-interval schedule
in operant condtioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinfroces a reposnse at unpredictabletime intervals.
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after explorking a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
latent learning
learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
overjustification effect
the effect of promising a reward for doing what one alread likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.
intrinsic motivation
a desired to preoform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective.
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
observational learning
learning by observing others
the process of boserving and imitating a specific behavior.
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.