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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Biological phenomenon
Every idea, mood, memory, and behavior that an individual has ever experienced
Phrenology
theory that linked our mental abilities to bumps on the skull
Biological Psychologists
study links between biology and behavior
Dendrites
Receive messages from other neurons
Neurons
Neural system built up fro, billions of nerve cells, consists of a cell body and its branching fiber
Axon
Carries information to other neurons
Myelin sheath
insulates speed and transmission of info
axon terminals
sends info across the synapse
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that affect mood
nucleus
contains DNA
Action potential
neural impulse or brief electrical charge that travels down the axon
depolarization
when sodium ions rush in cell
polarization
inactive neuron, also said to be at its resting potential
repolarization
when potassium ions rush out of the cell (fired)
Inhibitory role
- ions allowed in, prevents firing
Excitatory role
+ ions allowed in, causes firing
All or none response
The idea that increasing a stimulus above threshold will not increase a neural impulse's intensity
Threshold
The amount of excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals require to trigger a neural impulse
Acetycholine
enables muscle action, leaning, and memory
--> alzheimers
Dopeamine
Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
-->tremors, parkinsons disease
Serotonin
affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
lack --> depression
Norepinephrine
controls alertness and arousal

lack --> depress mood
GABA
Major inhibitory neurotransmitter, keeps brain calmed

--> seizures, tremors, insomnia
Glutamate
Excitatory transmitter, involved in memory

-->overstimulate producing migraines or seizures
Agonist
helps NT do job
Antagonist
blocks NT from doing job
CNS
Brain and spinal cord
PNS
sense receptors, muscles, glands
nerves
sensory and motor axons bundled into electrical cables
sensory neurons
carry info to CNS
motor neurons
carry info from CNS to PNS
interneurons
carry info from all intervened neurons in the CNS
reflex
automatic response to stimuli
Neural networks
work groups of neural clusters, produce results to learning
Sonamic NS
controls conscious thoughts and movements of skeletal muscles
Autonomic NS
controls unconscious thoughts and behaviors of internal organs
Sympathetic
AROUSAL
Parasympathetic
calm
Lession
Tissue Destruction
EEG
amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface
CT scan
examines the brain by taking x-ray photographs that can reveal brain damage
PET scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a task

"food for thought"
MRI
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radiowaves to produce computer generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue
Brainstem
Oldest part and central core of the brain
medulla
controls heartbeat and breathing
reticular formation
nerve network in BS that plays an important role in controlling arousal
thalamus
sensory switchboard, receives all sense BUT smell
cerebellum
Influences one type of nonverbal learning and memory, major function is coordination of voluntary movement and muscle control
IMPLICIT
Hippocampus
Processes memory
EXPLICIT
Limbic system
regulates emotions and motivations
hypothalamus
Hunger, thirst, sex; pleasure center
occipital lobe
receives visual info form opposite visual field
frontal lobe
involved in speaking, muscle movement, making plans, and judgements
parietal lobe
registers and processes body sensations
temporal lobe
receives auditory info from the opposite ear
amygdala
neural centers linked to emotion, mainly fear and aggression
pituitary gland
secretes hormones that make you grow
reward deficiency system
A stem of genetic pleasure in the form of alcoholism, drug abuse, food binging, and other addictive disorders
cerebral cortex
the most complex functions of human behavior and the most developed
Glial cells
support, protect and nourish cortical neurons
association areas
areas of the brain that don't receive sensory information or direct movement but integrate and interpret information received by other regions
aphasia
impairment in language
Broca's area
involved in producing speech
Wernickie's area
involved in understanding speech
angular gyrus
involved in recoding printed words into auditory form
plasticity
the quality of the brain that makes it possible for the undamaged brain areas to take over the functions of damaged regions
Left hemisphere
words and logic
Right hemisphere
art, music, intuition
sensory cortex
registers and processes body sensations
motor cortex
control voluntary movements
refractory period
when ions are being pushed back to where they started