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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
PUPIL?
the opening of the center of the iris that regulates the amount of light entering the eye
DIURESIS?
the excess formation of urine
ENDOCRINE?
secreting into the blood or tissue fluid rather than into a duct opposite of exocrine
EXOCRINE?
secreting into a duct, opposite of endocrine
GIGANTISM?
a condition produced by hypersecretion of growth homone during the early years of life; results in a child who grows to gigantic size
GLUCOCORTICOIDS?
hormones that influence food metabolism; secreted by the adrenal cortex
GLUCONEOGENESIS?
formulation of glucose or glycogen from protein or fat compounds
GLYCOGENOLYSIS?
hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose-6-phosphate or to glucose
GOITER?
enlargement of the thyroid gland
HORMONE?
substance secreted by an endocrine gland
HYPERCALCEMIA?
a condition in which there is harmful excessive of calcium in the blood
HYPERGLYCEMIA?
higher than normal blood glucose concentration
HYPOGLYCEMIA?
lower than normal blood glucose concentration
LUTEINIZATION?
the formation of a golden body (corpus luteum) in the ruptured follicle
MINERALOCORTICOIDS?
hormone that influences mineral salt metabolism, secreted by the adrenal cortex; aldosterone is the chief mineralocorticoid
MYXEDEMA?
condition caused by deficiency of thyroid hormone in adults
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK?
a method for keeping body conditions within a normal range and maintaining homeostasis
PROSTAGLANDINS?
a group of naturally occurring fatty acids that affect many body functions
SECOND MESSENGER?
provide communication within a hormone's target cell; for example, cyclic AMP
STEROIDS?
category of lipids that includes the hormones of the sex glands and the adrenal cortex
STRESS?
when extreme stimuli act on the body, they produce and internal state or condition known as stress
TARGET ORGAN CELL?
organ or cell acted on by a particular hormone and responding to it
AQUEOUS HUMOR?
watery fluid that fills the anterior chamber of the eye, in front of the lens
AURICLE?
part of the ear attached to the side of the head; earlike appendage of each atrium of the heart
CATARACT?
opacity of the lens of the eye
CHEMORECEPTOR?
receptors that respond to chemicals and are responsible for taste and smell
CHOROID?
middle layer of the eyeball that contains a dark pigment to prevent the scattering of incoming light rays
COCHLEA?
snail shell or structure of similiar shape
COCHLEAR DUCT?
membranous tube within the body cochlea
CONJUNCTIVA?
mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the sclera (whites)
CRISTA AMPULLARIS?
a specialized receptor located within the semicircular canals that detect head movements
ENDOLYMPH (within membrane)?
a thicker fluid
GLAUCOMA?
disorder characterized by elevated pressure in the eye
GUSTATORY CELLS?
cells of taste
LACRIMAL GLAND?
the glands that produce tears, located in the upper lateral position of the orbit
LENS?
the refracting mechanism of the eye that is located directly behind the pupil
MECHANORECEPTOR?
receptors that are mechanical in nature; for example; equilibrium and balance sensors for the ears
ORGAN OF CORTI?
the organ of hearing located in the cochlea and filled with endolymph
OSSICLES?
little bones, found in the ears
PAPILLAE?
small nipple-shaped elevations
PERILYMPH?
watery fluid that fills the bony labyrinth of the ear
PHOTORECEPTOR?
called rods and cones, they respond to light stimulus by producing a nervous impulse
PRESBYOPIA?
farsightedness of old age
PROPRIOCEPTORS?
receptors located in the muscles, tendons, and joints; allows the body to recognize its position
RETINA?
innermost layer of the eyeball; contains rods and cones and continues posteriorly with the optic nerve
SCLERA?
"the white of your eyeball", the outer coat of the eye
SEMICIRCULAR CANALS?
located in the inner ear; contains a specialized receptor called crista ampullaris that generates a nerve impulse on movement on the head
TYMPANIC MEMBRANE?
membranes between the external and middle ear that transmits sound waves to the bones of the middle ear, eardrum
VITREOUS HUMOR?
jelly like substance that fills the eyeball, holds the shape of the eye
CORTICOIDS?
hormones secreted by the three cell layers of the adrenal cortex
CRETINISM?
dwarfism caused by hyposecretion of the thyroid gland
CUSHING'S SYNDROME?
condition caused by the hypersecretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex
DIABETES MELLITUS?
a condition resulting when the pancreatic islets secrete too little insulin, resulting in increased levels of blood glucose
DIABETES INSIPIDUS?
condition resulting from hyposecretion of ADH in which large volumes of urine are formed and, if left untreated, may cause serious health problems