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47 Cards in this Set

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detente
reference to the period of relaxation or thaw in relations between the superpowers during Khrushchev's rule in the Soviet Union
dialectical materialism
the idea, according to Karl Marx, that change and development in history result from the conflict between social classes. Economic forces ipmel human beings to behave in socially determined ways
Bartholomew Diaz
first European to reach the southern tip of Africa, 1487-1488
Denis Diderot
one of the authors of "Encyclopedia"
Diggers and Levellers
radical groups in England in the 1650s who called for the abolition of private ownership and extension of the franchise
Directory
the 5 man executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic after Robespierre's execution and prior to Napoleon's coming to power
Benjamin Disraeli
leader of the British Tory Party who engineered the Reform Bill of 1867, which extended the franchise to the working class
divine-right monarchy
the belief that the monarch's power derives from God and represents Him on earth
domestic system
the manufacture of goods in the household setting, a production system that gave way to the factory system
dreadnought
a battleship with increased speed and power over conventional warships, developed by both Germany and Great Britain to increase their naval arsenals
Alfred Dreyfus
French and Jewish army captain unfairly convicted of espionage in a case that lasted from 1894 to 1906
Dual Monarchy
an 1867 compromise between the Germans of Austria-Bohemia and the Magyars of Germany to resolve the nationalities problem by creating the empire of Austria and the kingdom of Hungary, with a common ministry for finance, foreign affairs and war
Duma
Russian nat'l legislature
Dutch East India Company
gov't chartered joint-stock company organized in 1602 that controlled the spice trades in the East Indies
Edict of Nantes
the edict of Henry IV that granted Huguenots the rights of public worship and religious toleration in France
Elizabeth I
Protestant ruler of England who helped stabilize religious tensions by subordinating theological issuesto political considerations
Emancipation Edict
the imperial law that abolished serfdom in Russia and, on paper, freed the peasants. In actuality they were collectively responsible for redemption payments to the gov't for a number of years
Ems telegram
the carefully edited dispatch by Bismark to the French ambassador that appeared to be insulting and thus requiring retaliation by France for the seeming affront to French honor in 1870
Enabling Act
Article 48 of the Weimar constitution, which enabled Hitler to issue decrees carrying the force of law
encirlcement
before both world wars, the policy of other European countries that, Germany claimed, prevented German expansion, denying it the right to aquire "living room" (lebenstraum)
Friedrich Engels
collaborator with Karl Marx. _______ was a textile factory owner and supplied Marx with the hard data for his economic writings, notably "Das Kapital"
Enlightenment
the intellectual revolution of the 18th century in which the philosophes stressed reason, natural law, and progress in their criticism of prevailing social injustices
Entente Cordiale
the 1904 "gentleman's agreement" between France and Britain, establishing a close understanding.
Estates-General
the French nat'l assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime
European Economic Community (Common Market)
organization, begun on Jan 1st 1958, including France, the German Federal Rebulic, Italy, and the Benelus nations (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg). By 1966 according to the treaty establishing it, the Common Market would eliminate all customs barriers between the countries, would set up a common tariff policy on imports, and would gradually remove all restricitions on the movement of workers and capital
European Free Trade Association
1959- an association of Western European nations agreeing to favor each other in respect to tariffs. Members were Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Switzerland, and Great Britain. Sometimes referred to as the Outer Seven (IE: outside the common market)
existentialism
a label for widely different revolts against traditional philosophy, stressing choice, freedom, decision, and anguish, and emerging strongly during and after the WWII years
Fabian Society
group of English socialists, including George Bernard Shaw, who advocated electoral victories, rather than violent revolutions, to bring about social change
Factory Act
limited children's and adolescents' workweek in textile factories in England
facism
the political and economic methods of Mussolini in Italy. The name comes from the faces, or bundle of rods tied around an axe, the symbol of authority in ancient Rome
feudalism
a decentralized political system in which lords and their vassals, both members of the aristocracy, allied to fight wars and defend territorial gains
J.G. Fichte
German writer who believed that the German spirit was nobler and purer than that of other peoples
Fifth Republic
gov't established in France in October 1958. The 1st lasted from 1792-1804; the 2nd from 1848-1852; the 3rd from 1870-1940; and the 4th from 1945-1958
Final Solution
Hitler's policy of virulent anti-Semitism, cluminating in the Holocaust, the genocide of 6 million Jews and other peoples
Charles Fourier
a leading utopian socialist who envisaged small communal societies in which men and women cooperated in agriculture and industry, abolishing priate property and monogamous marriage as well
Fourteen Points
Wilson's peace plans after WWI calling for freedom of the seas, arms reduction, and the right of self-determination for ethnic groups
Frederick the Great
the Prussian ruler who expanded his territory by invading the duchy of Silesia and defeating Maria Theresa of Austria
Frederick William
the "Soldier's King," who built a strong Prussian army and infused military values into Prussian society
Frederick William IV
King of Prussia who promised and later reneged on his promises for constitutional reforms in 1848
Free French
supporters of Charles de Gaulle who refused to acknowledge the French armistice in 1940. In 1944, de Gaulle's Committee of Nat'l Liberation was proclaimed and recognized as the French provisional gov't
free trade
an economic theory or policy of the absence of restrictions or tariffs on goods imported into a country. There is no "protection" in the form of tariffs against foreign competition
French Academy of Sciences
organized body for scientific study, founded in the 1600s
French classicism
the style in the 17th century art and literature stressing discipline, balance, and restraint and thus resembling the arts in the ancient world and in the Renaissance (IE: the works of Poussin, Moliere and Racine)
Sigmnud Freud
Viennese psychoanalyst whose theory of human personality based on sexual drives shocked Victorian sensibilities
Fronde
the last aristocratic revolt against a French monarch, specifically nobility-led riots against the monarchy between 1648 and 1660
Galileo
Italian scientist who formulated terrestrial laws and the modern law of inertia; he also provided evidence for the Copernican hypothesis
Father Gapon
leader of the factory workers who assembled before the czar's palace to petition him on January 1905 (Bloody Sunday) for social and political reforms