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63 Cards in this Set

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Allegory
the device of using character and/or story elements sybolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning.
Alliteration
the repetition of sounds, expecially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words
Allusion
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work or art. They can be historic, literary, religious, or mythical.
Ambiguity
The mutliple menaing, either intentional or unintentional, or a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
Analogy
a similarity or comparison between two different things or teh relationship between them.
Antecedent
The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.
Aphorism
A terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral priciple.
Apostrophe
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love.
Atmosphere
the emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly byt he author's choice of objects that are described
Clause
A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb. Independent: a main clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand alone in a sentence. Dependent: a subordinate cluase that cannot stand alone in a sentence and must be accompanied by an independent clause.
Colloquial/Colloquialism
the use of slang or informalities in speech or writing
Conceit
A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects.
Connotation
The nonliteral, associative meaning of a word, the implied, suggested meaning.
Denotation
the strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word
Diction
Related to style, writer's word choices, especially with regard to thier correctness, clearness, or effectiveness.
Euphemism
Greek for "good speech." A more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept
Extended metaphor
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work
Figurative Langugage
Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning...imaginative and vivid
Figure of Speech
a device used to produce figurative language
Generic Conventions
this term describes traditions for each genre...defines each genre
Genre
the major category into which a literary work fits...3 basic divisions: prose, poetry, and drama.
Homily
literally means "sermon" but more informally it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice
Hyperbole
a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement...has a comic effect and produces irony
Imagery
the sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions...five senses
Inference/Infer
to draw a resonable conclusion from the information presented
Invective
an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language
Loose sentece
a type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses
Metaphor
a figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike objects or the substitution of one for the other
Metonomy
Greek for "changed label" or "substitute name"...a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it
Narrative
the telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events
Onomatopoeia
a figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words (buzz, hiss, hum, crack, whinny, and murmor)
Oxymoron
Greek for "pointedly foolish"...is a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms to suggest a paradox
Paradox
a statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity
Parody
a work that closely imitates the style or content of another with specific aim of comic effect and/ or ridicule
Pedantic
an adjective thta describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish.
Periodic sentence
a sentence that presents its centeral meaning in a main clause at the end...the independent clause is preceded by a phrase that cannot stand alone
Personification
a figure of speech in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions
Point of view
in literature, the perspective from which a story is told (first person narrative "I", third peson narrator "he" "she" "it" (omniscient, limited omniscient))
Predicate nominative
a noun, groups of nouns, or noun clause that renames the subject
Prose
one of the major divisions of genre, refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all its forms, because they are written in ordinary language and most closely resemble everyday speech.
Repetition
the duplication, either exact or approximate, of any element of languge, such as a sound, word, phrase, clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern.
Rhetoric
Greek for "orator", describes the principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively
Rhetorical Modes
describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing (4 common types)
1. exposition, expository writing is to explain and analyze information
2. argumentation is to prove the validity of an idea
3. description is to re-create, invent, or visually represent a person, place, event, or action
4. Narration, is to tell a story
Sarcasm
Greek for "to tear flesh", involves bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something
Satire
a work that targets human vices and follies or social situations and conventions for reform or ridicule
Semantics
the branch of linguistics that studies the meaning of words, thier historical and psychological development, their connotations, and their relation to one another
Style
has two purposes 1. an evaluation of the sum of choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices 2. classification of authors to a group and comparison of an author to similar authors
Subject Complement
the word or clause that follows a linking verb and complement, or completes, the subject of the sentence by either renaming it, or describing it
Syllogism
Greek for "reckoning together"...it is a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises that inevitably lead into a sound conclusion

A=B
B=C
therefore A=C
Parallelism
term comes from Greek roots meaning "beside one another"..it refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity
Symbol/ symbolism
anything that represents, stands for, something else..is something concrete (natural, conventional, and literary)
Syntax
the way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences..smiliar to diction, but GROUPS of words
Theme
central idea or message of a work, hte insight it offers into life
Thesis
is the sentence or group of sentences that directly expres the author's opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition
Tone
describes the author's attitude toward his or her material, the audience, or both
Transition
a word or phrase that links different ideas
Understatement
the ironic minimalizing fact, presents something as less significant than it is
Wit
intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights...humorous and terse language
Didactic
From the Greek, means "teaching." These types of works have the primary aim of teaching or instructing.
Irony/ ironic
the contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant (verbal, situational, and dramatic)...to create poignancy or humor
Mood
1)grammatical and deals ith verbal units and a speaker's attitude (indicative, subjunctive, and imperative)
2) literary, meaning the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work

...is similar to tone and atmosphere
Subordiante Clause
this word group contains both a subject and a verb, but unlike the independent clause, it cannot stand alone..it does not express a complete thought
Predicate adjective
one type of subject complement - an adjective, group of adjectives, or adjective clause that follows a linking verb