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174 Cards in this Set

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Acromegaly
(ak-roh-MEG-ah-lee) acr/o # extremities -megaly # enlargement
A chronic metabolic condition characterized by gradual, noticeable enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, jaw, and extremities due to oversecretion of the pituitary gland after puberty.
Adenohypophysis
(ad-eh-noh-high-POFF-ih-sis) The anterior pituitary gland.
Adenoma
(ad-eh-NOH-mah) aden/o # gland -oma # tumor
A glandular tumor.
Adenopathy
(ad-eh-NOP-ah-thee) aden/o # gland -pathy # disease
Any disease of a gland, characterized by enlargement.
Adrenalectomy
(ad-ree-nal-EK-toh-mee) adren/o # adrenal gland -ectomy # surgical removal
Surgical removal of one or both of the adrenal glands.
Adrenocortical
(ad-ree-noh-KOR-tih-kal) adren/o # adrenal gland cortic/o # cortex -al # pertaining to
Pertaining to the cortex of the adrenal gland(s).
aldosterone
(al-DOSS-ter-ohn) A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates sodium and potassium balance in the blood.
Androgen
(AN-droh-jen) Any steroid hormone (e.g., testoterone) that increases male characteristics.
Antidiuretic
(an-tye-dye-yoo-RET-ik) anti- # against di/a # through ur/o # urine -etic # pertaining to
Pertaining to the suppression of urine production; an agent given to suppress the production of urine.
Cortex
(COR-tex)Pertaining to the outer region of an organ or structure.
Cortisol
(COR-tih-sal) A steroid hormone occurring naturally in the body; also called hydrocortisone.
Cretinism
(KREE-tin-izm)
A congenital condition (one that occurs at birth) caused by a lack of thyroid secretion.
This condition is characterized by dwarfism, slowed mental development, puffy facial features, dry skin, and large tongue.
diabetes, gestational
(dye-ah-BEE-teez, jess-TAY-shun-al)
A condition occurring in pregnancy characterized by the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus (such as impaired ability to metabolize carbohydrates due to insulin deficiency, and elevated blood sugar level).
These symptoms usually disappear after delivery of the baby.
diabetes insipidus
(dye-ah-BEE-teez in-SIP-id-us)
A metabolic disorder characterized by extreme polydipsia (excessive thirst) and polyuria (excessive urination).
This is a disorder of the pituitary gland due to a deficiency in secretion of the antidiuretic hormone.
diabetes mellitus
(dye-ah-BEE-teez MELL-ih-tus)
A disorder of the pancreas in which the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas fail to produce an adequate amount of insulin, resulting in the body’s inability to appropriately metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
diabetic ketoacidosis
(dye-ah-BEH-tik kee-toh-ass-ih-DOH-sis)
A dangerous condition that occurs as a result of severe lack of insulin, causing the body to break down body fats instead of glucose for energy.
The stored fat is broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.
The liver changes the fatty acids into ketone bodies (acids), which leads to an increase in acidity of the blood (acidosis)—called diabetic ketoacidosis
(DKA).
Also known as diabetic coma.
Dwarfism
(DWARF-ism) A condition in which there is an abnormal underdevelopment of the body. This condition is characterized by extremely short height and is usually caused by undersecretion of the pituitary gland (growth hormone).
endocrine gland
(EN-doh-krin) endo- # within crin/o # secrete -e # noun ending
A ductless gland that produces a chemical substance called a hormone, which is secreted directly into the bloodstream instead of exiting the body through ducts.
Endocrinologist
(en-doh-krin-ALL-oh-jist) endo- # within crin/o # secrete -logist # one who specializes in the study of
A physician who specializes in the medical practice of treating the diseases and disorders of the endocrine system.
Endocrinology
(en-doh-krin-ALL-oh-jee) endo- # within crin/o # secrete -logy # the study of
The field of medicine that deals with the study of the endocrine system and of the treatment of the diseases and disorders of the endocrine system.
Epinephrine
(ep-ih-NEF-rin)
A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla.
This hormone plays an important role in the body’s response to stress by increasing the heart rate, dilating the bronchioles, and releasing glucose into the bloodstream.
Estrogen
(ESS-troh-jen) One of the female hormones that promotes the development of female secondary sex characteristics.
Euthyroid
(yoo-THIGH-royd) eu- # well, easily, good, normal thyroid/o # thyroid gland
Pertaining to a normally functioning thyroid gland.
exocrine gland
(EKS-oh-krin) exo- # outward crin/o # secrete -e # noun ending
A gland that opens onto the surface of the skin through ducts in the epithelium, such as an oil gland or a sweat gland.
Exophthalmia
(eks-off-THAL-mee-ah) ex- # outward ophthalm/o # eye -ia # condition
An abnormal condition characterized by a marked outward protrusion of the eyeballs.
Exophthalmos
(eks-off-THAL-mohs) ex- # outward ophthalm/o # eye -os # a suffix indicating a singular noun
An abnormal condition characterized by a marked outward protrusion of the eyeballs.
Gigantism
(JYE-gan-tism) An abnormal condition characterized by excessive size and height. This condition is usually due to an oversecretion of the pituitary gland (growth hormone).
Glucagon
(GLOO-kuh-gon) A hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose.
Glucogenesis
(gloo-koh-JEN-eh-sis) gluc/o # sugar, sweet -genesis # production of; formation of
The formation of glycogen from fatty acids and proteins instead of carbohydrates.
Glucose
(GLOO-kohs) The simplest form of sugar in the body; a simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits; also a major source of energy for the human body.
Glycogenesis
(glye-koh-JEN-eh-sis) glyc/o # sugar, sweet -genesis # production of; formation of
The conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver for later use as needed.
Glycosuria
(glye-kohs-YOO-ree-ah) glycos/o # sugar, sweet -uria # urine condition
The presence of sugar in the urine.
Goiter
(GOY-ter) Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to excessive growth (hyperplasia).
Gonads
(GOH-nadz) A term used to refer to the female sex glands (ovaries) and the male sex glands (testes).
Graves’ disease
Hyperthyroidism.
growth hormone
(soh-mat-oh-TROH-pik)
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that regulates the cellular processes necessary for normal body growth; also called the growth hormone.
Hirsutism
(HER-soot-izm) A condition in which there is excessive body hair in a male distribution pattern.
Hypercalcemia
(high-per-kal-SEE-mee-ah) hyper- # excessive calc/i # calcium -emia # blood condition
Elevated blood calcium level.
Hyperglycemia
(high-per-glye-SEE-mee-ah) hyper- # excessive glyc/o # sugar -emia # blood condition
Elevated blood sugar level.
Hypergonadism
(high-per-GOH-nad-izm) Excessive activity of the ovaries or testes.
Hyperinsulinism
(high-per-IN-soo-lin-izm) An excessive amount of insulin in the body.
Hyperkalemia
(high-per-kal-EE-mee-ah) hyper- # excessive kal/i # potassium -emia # blood condition :; An elevated blood potassium level.
Hypernatremia
(high-per-nah-TREE-mee-ah) hyper- # excessive natr/i # sodium -emia # blood condition
An elevated blood sodium level.
Hyperparathyroidism
(high-per-pair-ah-THIGH-roy-dizm) hyper- # excessive para- # near, beside thyroid/o # thyroid gland -ism # condition
Hyperactivity of any of the four parathyroid glands, resulting in an oversecretion of parathyroid hormone.
Hyperpituitarism
(high-per-pih-TOO-ih-tair-izm) hyper- # excessive
Overactivity of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Hyperthyroidism
(high-per-THIGH-roy-dizm) hyper- # excessive thyroid/o # thyroid gland -ism # condition
Overactivity of the thyroid gland; also called Graves’ disease.
Hypocalcemia
(high-poh-kal-SEE-mee-ah) hypo- # under, below, beneath, less than normal calc/i # calcium -emia # blood condition
Less than normal blood calcium level.
Hypoglycemia
(high-poh-glye-SEE-mee-ah) hypo- # under, below, beneath, less than normal glyc/o # sugar, sweet -emia # blood condition
Less than normal blood sugar level.
Hypokalemia
(high-poh-kal-EE-mee-ah) hypo- # under, below, beneath, less than normal kal/i # potassium -emia # blood condition
Less than normal blood potassium level.
Hyponatremia
(high-poh-nah-TREE-mee-ah) hypo- # under, below, beneath, less than normal natr/i # sodium -emia # blood condition
Less than normal blood sodium level.
Hypophysectomy
(high-poff-ih-SEK-toh-mee) Surgical removal of the pituitary gland.
Hypothyroidism
(high-poh-THIGH-roy-dizm) hypo- # under, below, beneath, less than normal thyroid/o # thyroid gland -ism # condition
Less than normal activity of the thyroid gland.
insulin shock
(IN-soo-lin)
A state of shock due to extremely low blood sugar level caused by an overdose of insulin, a decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise by a diabetic patient who is insulin dependent.
Severe hypoglycemia is a medical emergency.
Medulla
(meh-DULL-lah) The internal part of a structure or organ.
Metabolism
(meh-TAB-oh-lizm) The sum of all physical and chemical processes that take place within the body.
Myxedema
(miks-eh-DEE-mah)
The most severe form of hypothyroidism in the adult.
This condition is characterized by puffiness of the hands and face; coarse, thickened edematous skin; an enlarged tongue; slow speech; loss of and dryness of the hair; sensitivity to cold; drowsiness; and mental apathy.
Norepinephrine
(nor-ep-ih-NEH-frin) A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla. This hormone plays an important role in the body’s response to stress by raising the blood pressure.
Oxytocin
(ok-see-TOH-sin) oxy- # rapid, sharp -toc/o # childbirth -in # enzyme A hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. This hormone stimulates the contractions of the uterus during childbirth and stimulates the release of milk from the breasts of lactating women (women who breastfeed) in response to the suckling reflex of the infant.
Polydipsia
(pall-ee-DIP-see-ah) poly- # many, much, excessive -dipsia # thirst Excessive thirst.
Polyphagia
(pall-ee-FAY-jee-ah) poly- # many, much, excessive phag/o # eating -ia # condition Excessive eating.
Polyuria
(pall-ee-YOO-ree-ah) poly- # many, much, excessive -uria # urine condition The excretion of excessively large amounts of urine.
Progesterone
(proh-JESS-ter-ohn)
A female hormone secreted by the ovaries.
This hormone is primarily responsible for the changes that occur in the endometrium in anticipation of a fertilized ovum, and for development of the maternal placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum.
somatotropic hormone
(soh-mat-oh-TROH-pik) A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that regulates the cellular processes necessary for normal body growth; also called the growth hormone.
Syndrome
(SIN-drohm) syn- # joined, together -drome # that which runs together A group of symptoms occurring together, indicative of a particular disease or abnormality.
T cells
Specialized lymphocytes that are involved in the immune response.
Tetany
(TET-ah-nee) A condition characterized by severe cramping and twitching of the muscles and sharp ? exion of the wrist and ankle joints; a complication of hypocalcemia.
Thymopoietin
(thigh-moh-POY-eh-tin)
A hormone secreted by the thymus, thought to stimulate the production of T cells (which are involved in the immune response).
Thymosin
(thigh-MOH-sin)
A hormone secreted by the thymus.
This hormone is thought to stimulate the production of specialized lymphocytes, called T cells, which are involved in the immune response.
Thyroiditis
(thigh-royd-EYE-tis) thyroid/o # thyroid gland -itis # inflammation
Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
Thyroxine
(thigh-ROKS-in) A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. This hormone helps maintain normal body metabolism.
Triiodothyronine
(try-eye-oh-doh-THIGH-roh-neen) A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. This hormone helps reglate growth and development of the body, and helps control metabolism and body temperature.
Virilism
(VEER-il-izm)
The development of masculine physical traits in the female (such as growth of facial and body hair, increased secretion of the sebaceous glands, deepening of the voice, and enlargement of the clitoris); also called masculinization.
This condition may be due to an abnormality or dysfunction of the adrenal gland, as in adrenal virilism.
acr/o
extremities
aden/o
gland
adren/o
adrenal glands
adrenal/o
adrenal glands
andr/o
man, male
calc/o
calcium
cortic/o
cortex
crin/o
secrete
-crine
secrete
dips/o
thirst
-dipsia
thirst
gonad/o
sex glands
gluc/o
sugar, sweet
glyc/o
sugar, sweet
kal/i
potassium
lact/o
milk
myx/o
relating to mucus
natr/o
sodium
oxy-
sharp, quick
pancreat/o
pancreas
parathyroid/o
parathyroid glands
somat/o
body
thym/o
thymus gland
thyr/o
thyroid gland
thyroid/o
thyroid gland
toxic/o
poisons
-tropin
stimulating effect of a hormone
-uria
urine condition
acromegaly
A chronic metabolic condition characterized by the gradual noticeable enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, jaw, and extremities due to hypersecretion of the human growth hormone after puberty.
The cause of oversecretion of the human growth hormone is most often due to a tumor of the pituitary gland.
Treatment for acromegaly is aimed at reducing the size of the pituitary gland through surgery or radiation.
diabetes insipidus
A condition caused by a deficiency in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the posterior pituitary gland, characterized by large amounts of urine and sodium being excreted from the body.
The person experiencing diabetes insipidus will complain of excessive thirst and will drink large volumes of water.
The urine is very dilute, with a low specific gravity. ADH (vasopressin) is administered as treatment for diabetes insipidus.
dwarfism
Generalized growth retardation of the body due to the deficiency of the human growth hormone; also known as congenital hypopituitarism (or hypopituitarism).
The abnormal underdevelopment leaves the child extremely short, with a small body.
There is an absence of secondary sex characteristics.
The condition may have a connection with other defects or varying degrees of mental retardation.
Gigantism
A proportional overgrowth of the body’s tissue due to the hypersecretion of the human growth hormone before puberty.
The child experiences accelerated abnormal growth chiefly in the long bones.
The cause of oversecretion of the human growth hormone is most often due to an adenoma of the anterior pituitary.
Hypopituitarism
A complex syndrome resulting from the absence or deficiency of the pituitary hormone(s). Metabolic dysfunction, growth retardation, and sexual immaturity are
symptoms of hypopituitarism
.cancer, thyroid gland
Goiter
Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland.
This condition results from a deficient amount of iodine in the diet, required for the synthesis of T3 and T4 thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland.
When the body identifies the low levels of thyroid hormone, the anterior pituitary gland secretes the hormone thyrotropin—which continually stimulates the thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4.
Consequently, the overstimulation increases the number of cells in the thyroid gland and a goiter is produced.
Graves’ disease
Hypertrophy of the thyroid gland resulting in an excessive secretion of the thyroid hormone that causes an extremely high body metabolism, thus creating multisystem changes.
Hyperthyroidism occurs most often in the form of Graves’ disease, which has three distinguishing characteristics:
1. Hyperthyroidism
2. Thyroid gland enlargement (goiter)
3. Exophthalmia (unnatural protrusion of the eyes)
The symptoms of Graves’ disease are the result of hyperthyroidism, and thus of hypermetabolism (which affects all body systems).
Hyperthyroidism causes a rapid heartbeat, nervousness, inability to sleep, excitability, increased appetite, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, excessive thirst, and profuse sweating.
The speeding up of physical and mental responses result in varied emotional responses from extreme happiness to hyperactivity or delirium.
The goiter results from hyperactivity of the thyroid gland, which leads to an increase in the size of the thyroid gland (hypertrophy) and an increase in the number of thyroid cells (hyperplasia).
The gland may enlarge up to three to four times the original size. The person with hyperthyroidism will have decreased levels of serum cholesterol.
Hypothyroidism
A condition in which there is a shortage of thyroid hormone, causing an extremely low body metabolism due to a reduced usage of oxygen; also called myxedema in the most severe form.
Hypothyroidism may be the result of:
1. congenital thyroid defects (cretinism) 2. faulty hormone synthesis 3. thyroiditis or iodine deficiency 4. use of antithyroid medications 5. loss of thyroid tissue due to surgery or radioactivity 6. thyroid gland atrophy
: In the more severe cases, symptoms include slowed physical and mental function, an obvious apathetic fatigued appearance, bradycardia, anemia, difficulty breathing, decreased urinary output, decreased peristalsis, constipation, transient musculoskeletal pain, dry scaly skin, loss of hair, expressionless face, cold intolerance, and slow movement. A goiter may be a manifestation of hypothyroidism.The person with hypothyroidism will have increased levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the effect on lipid metabolism.
Myxedema
is the most severe form of hypothyroidism, identified by water retention all over the body in the connective tissues.
The person with myxedema has a puffy appearance and a thick tongue.
Myxedema coma occurs with an extreme reduction in metabolic rate and is manifested by hypoventilation, hypotension, and hypothermia.
Goiter production
Thyroiditis can also be acute or subacute. The body recognizes a decrease in the level of thyroid hormone and stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete thyrotropin, which continually stimulates the thyroid gland to produce T3 and T4. Consequently, the stimulation increases the number of cells in the thyroid gland in an attempt to compensate and a goiter is produced.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
is a common form of primary hypothyroidism (see hypothyroidism).
thyroid storm
An acute, sometimes fatal, incident of overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone.Thyroid storm is characterized by a critically high fever and pulse rate, dehydration, extreme irritability, and delirium. A thyroid storm is a medical emergency typically precipitated by infection, surgery, trauma, labor and delivery, a myocardial infarction, medication overdosage, or undiagnosed or untreated hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis is made on the clinical picture of the person. Also known as thyroid crisis.
Hyperparathyroidism
Overactivity of any one of the parathyroid glands, which leads to high levels of calcium in the blood and low levels of calcium in the bones.The accelerated activity of the parathyroid gland in primary hyperparathyroidism is due to the effects of a parathyroid tumor or hyperplasia of the parathyroid gland (excessive increase in the number of cells).
Secondary hyperparathyroidism
is usually related to renal disease or endocrine disorders.
Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism
are due to hypercalcemia and include muscle weakness and atrophy; nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal pain; increased irritability of the heart muscle (leading to arrhythmias); bone tenderness and fragility leading to bone fractures; and deposits of calcium in soft tissue leading to renal calculi and low back pain.
Hypoparathyroidism
Decreased production of parathyroid hormone resulting in hypocalcemia, characterized by nerve and muscle weakness with muscle spasms or tetany (a state of continual contraction of the muscles).
Hypoparathyroidism Symptoms
include hair loss, brittle nails, malabsorption, arrhythmias, mood disorders, and hyperactive reflexes. Blood phosphate levels are elevated.Treatment of hypoparathyroidism is aimed at increasing calcium levels. Immediate administration of intravenous calcium will aid in decreasing tetany. Long-term calcium supplements, an increase of calcium in the diet, and vitamin D therapy are usually helpful to raise the blood calcium level.
Addison’s disease
A life-threatening disease process due to failure of the adrenal cortex to secrete adequate mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids resulting from an autoimmune process, a neoplasm, an infection, or a hemorrhage in the gland.
Addison’s Symptoms
include low blood glucose, low blood sodium, weight loss, dehydration, generalized weakness, gastrointestinal disturbances, increased pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes, cold intolerance, anxiety, and depression.
Conn’s disease
A condition characterized by excretion of excessive amounts of aldosterone, the most influential of the mineralocorticoids, which causes the body to retain extra sodium and excrete extra potassium—leading to an increased volume of blood (hypervolemia) and hypertension. Other symptoms include headache, nocturia (excessive urination during the night), fatigue, ventricular arrhythmias, tetany, and muscular weakness. Conn’s disease is caused by an aldosteronoma, a benign aldosteronesecreting adenoma or adrenal hyperplasia.
Cushing’s syndrome
A condition of the adrenal gland in which there is a cluster of symptoms occurring as a result of an excessive amount of cortisol or ACTH circulating in the blood. The high levels of circulating cortisol have been either secreted from the adrenal cortex or are present because of the administration of very large doses of glucocorticoids for some time. A benign or malignant adrenal tumor is the cause of primary Cushing’s syndrome, causing the excessive production of cortisol.
Secondary Cushing’s syndrome
occurs as a result of Cushing’s disease, a disorder of the pituitary or hypothalamus (which results in the increased release of ACTH).
Pheochromocytoma
A vascular tumor of the adrenal medulla that produces extra epinephrine and norepinephrine, leading to persistent or intermittent hypertension and heart palpitations.
Other symptoms include flushing of the face, sweating, severe headaches, muscle spasms, and high blood glucose.
Possible complications of pheochromocytoma consist of weight loss, cardiac dysrhythmia, and heart failure.
Virilism
Development of male secondary sex characteristics in the female due to the excessive secretion of adrenocortical androgens from the adrenal cortex.
The overactivity of the adrenal gland may be caused by an adrenal tumor or hyperplasia.
Virilism typically occurs in adult women 30 to 40 years of age.
Symptoms include excessive hair on the body and face (hirsutism),absence of menstruation (amenorrhea), deepening of the voice, acne, oily skin, muscular hypertrophy, atrophy of the breasts and uterus, and ovarian changes.
Treatment consists of tumor resection, adrenalectomy, and administration of cortisol to suppress androgen production.
diabetes mellitus
A disorder of the pancreas in which the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas fail to produce an adequate amount of insulin, resulting in the body’s inability to appropriately metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Classic characteristics of the Diabetes
hyperglycemia and ketosis.
The classic symptoms of diabetes mellitus are glycosuria (sugar in the urine), polydipsia (excessive thirst), and polyuria (excessive urine output).
Other symptoms include increased eating (polyphagia) and weight loss, presence of ketones in the urine, itching (pruritus), muscle weakness, and fatigue.
Diabetes mellitus classification
Classified as either type 1 diabetes (formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes) or type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes).
Type 1 diabetes usually occurs before the age of 30, having a sudden onset.
Individuals with type 1 diabetes usually have no pancreatic activity and require administration of insulin injections to control the disease.
These individuals are prone to developing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
Type 2 diabetes
usually appears in adults after the age of 40, having a gradual onset.
The majority of these individuals are obese. Individuals with type 2 diabetes usually have some pancreatic activity but experience insulin resistance (reduced ability of most cells to respond to insulin) or impaired insulin secretion.
For these individuals, losing weight and gaining muscle helps the body use insulin more efficiently.
Sometimes oral antidiabetic drugs are used in addition to control blood sugar levels.
Approximately 80% of all diabetics have type 2 diabetes.
diabetic retinopathy
A disorder of the blood vessels of the retina of the eye, in which the capillaries of the retina experience localized areas of bulging (microaneurysms), hemorrhages, leakage, and scarring.
This disorder occurs as a consequence of an 8- to 10-year duration of diabetes mellitus.
The scarring, along with the leakage of blood, causes a permanent decline in the sharpness of vision.
The inability to get the oxygen and nutrients needed for good vision to the retina will eventually lead to permanent loss of vision.
In the United States, diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness.
gestational diabetes
A disorder in which women who are not diabetic before pregnancy develop diabetes during the pregnancy; that is, they develop an inability to metabolize carbohydrates (glucose intolerance)—with resultant hyperglycemia.
pancreatic cancer
A life-threatening primary malignant neoplasm typically found in the head of the pancreas.
Of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, 95% lose their lives one to three years after diagnosis.
The occurrence of pancreatic cancer for smokers is twice that for nonsmokers.
Other related risk factors include high-fat diet, pancreatitis, exposure to chemicals and toxins, and diabetes mellitus.
With a slow onset, pancreatic cancer causes nonspecific symptoms such as nausea, anorexia, dull epigastric pain, weight loss, and flatulence.
As the tumor grows, the pain worsens.
If there is an early diagnosis, surgical removal of the tumor may be possible.
Pancreatitis
An acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas.
Acute pancreatitis presents itself quickly and creates symptoms that vary from mild self-limiting pancreatic edema to massive necrotizing hemorrhagic pancreatitis.
The initial outstanding symptom is severe, continuous epigastric and abdominal pain, which radiates to the back and follows the ingestion of excessive alcohol or a fatty meal.
Other symptoms include rigid abdominal distension, decreased bowel sounds, nausea and vomiting, hypotension, elevated temperature, and clammy cold skin.
After 24 hours, mild jaundice may appear.
In addition to alcohol abuse, other causes of acute pancreatitis include trauma, surgery, metabolic disorders, drugs, infections, or ruptured peptic ulcers.
Chronic pancreatitis
Permanent, progressive destruction of pancreatic cells identified with fibrosis, atrophy, fatty degeneration, and calcification.The causes of chronic pancreatitis include alcoholism, malnutrition, surgery, and neoplasm. Symptoms include abdominal pain, large fatty stools, weight loss, and signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus. Treatment includes the administration of pancreatic enzymes, antiemetics, antacids,and insulin if its production is stopped or decreased.
fasting blood sugar
(FBS) Blood glucose sample taken usually early in the morning after the person has been without food or drink since midnight. FBS is a more accurate evaluation of the blood glucose level because of the fasting state of the body.
glucose tolerance test (GTT)
A test that evaluates the person’s ability to tolerate a concentrated oral glucose load by measuring the glucose levels:
1. prior to glucose administration
2. 30 minutes after glucose administration
3. one hour after glucose administration
4. two hours after glucose administration
5. three hours after glucose administration
In persons with diabetes mellitus, the serum glucose levels will be markedly increased from one to sometimes five hours.
The person whose insulin response is appropriate will have only a minimal elevation in serum glucose levels during the first hour.
Hemoglobin A1C Test
The hemoglobin A1C test is a blood test that shows the average level of glucose in an individual’s blood during the last 3 months.
A small sample of blood is collected from a vein and is sent to the lab for analysis.
Glucose binds chemically to the hemoglobin molecules in the red blood cells.
Therefore, if the blood glucose level is elevated the HgbA1C will be elevated.
The normal range of HgbA1C is 4-5.9%.
In poorly controlled diabetes the HgbA1C level may be 8.0% or higher (8% correlates to a mean blood sugar level of 205).
The ADA recommends a HgbA1C level of less than 7.0% (7% correlates to a mean blood sugar level of 170).
At a level of less than 7%, the individual can significantly reduce his or her risk for serious complications from diabetes.
radioactive iodine uptake
A thyroid function test that evaluates the function of the thyroid gland by administering a known amount of radioactive iodine and later placing a gamma ray detector over the thyroid gland to determine the percentage or quantity of radioactive iodine absorbed by the gland over specific time periods.
Persons in hyperthyroid states will have an increased uptake of the iodine.
A decreased uptake is seen in persons with hypothyroid conditions.serum glucose tests
Serum glucose tests measure the amount of glucose in the blood at the time the sample was drawn.
True serum glucose elevations are indicative of diabetes mellitus.
However, the value must be evaluated according to the time of day and the last time the person has eaten.
A glucose level can be collected in a tube or evaluated with a finger stick.
thyroid echogram
An ultrasound examination important in distinguishing solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules.
The type of nodule will provide information for treatment.
In addition to differentiating the type of nodule, the thyroid echogram is used to evaluate the reaction to the medical therapy for a thyroid mass.thyroid function tests
Tests that measure the blood levels of the hormones T3, T4, and TSH.
These thyroid hormones aid in maintaining the body’s metabolic rate and tissue growth and development.
Hormones T3 and T4 are secreted in response to TSH.
thyroid scan
An examination that determines the position, size, shape, and physiological function of the thyroid gland through the use of radionuclear scanning.
An image of the thyroid is recorded and visualized after a radioactive substance is given.
Nodules are readily noted with this scan and are classified as hot (functioning) or cold (nonfunctioning).
The thyroid scan is helpful in the diagnosis of the following cases:
1. Neck or substernal masses
2. Thyroid nodules (thyroid cancers are typically cold)
3. Cause of hyperthyroidism
4. Evaluating metastatic tumors with an unknown primary site
hyroid-stimulating hormone TSH blood Test
A test that measures the concentration of TSH in the blood.
This test is used in differentiating primary hypothyroidism (due to a defect in the structure or function of the thyroid gland) from secondary hypothyroidism (due to insufficient stimulation of the normal thyroid gland).
In addition to differentiating primary and secondary hypothyroidism, the serum level of TSH is used to monitor thyroid hormone replacement.
It is important to remember that TSH levels are decreased in persons with a severe illness.
LTH
Lactogenic hormone
MSH
melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Na
sodium
NIDDM
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; also known as type 2 diabetes
OT
oxytocin
PBI
protein-bound iodine
PTH
parathyroid hormone
RAI
radioactive iodine
RAIU
radioactive iodine uptake
T3
triiodothyronine (thyroid hormone)
T4
thyroxine (thyroid hormone)
TFT
thyroid function test
TSH
thyroid-stimulating hormone
VLDL
very-low-density lipoprotein
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic hormone
ADH
antidiuretic hormone
BMR
basal metabolic rate
Ca
calcium
DI
diabetes insipidus
DKA
diabetic ketoacidosis
DM
diabetes mellitus
FBS
fasting blood sugar
FSH
follicle-stimulating hormone
GH
growth hormone
GTT
glucose tolerance test
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
HgbA1C
hemoglobin A1C
IDDM
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; also known as type 1 diabetes
K
potassium
LH
luteinizing hormone
thyroiditis, chronic
Chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to enlargement of the thyroid gland.
This is a disease of the immune system in which the gland tissue is destroyed by antibodies and replaced with fibrous tissue.
Chronic inflammation causes massive infiltration of the thyroid gland with plasma cells and lymphocytes.