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84 Cards in this Set

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Allusion
reference to a well-known historical or literary event, person, or work
Attitude
a speaker's, author's, or character's disposition toward or opinion of a subject
Details
specific items or parts that make up a larger picture or story
Devices of Sound
techniques of deploying the sounds of words, especially in poetry, such as rhyme, alliteration, assonance, consonance, and onomatopoeia
Diction
word choice --any word that is important to the meaning and the effect of a passage
Epiphany
a sudden realization by the reader and/or a character of the true nature of a person, place, object, or situation (near end of work
Figurative Language
figures of speech, such as metaphor, simile, and irony etc.
Imagery
sensory details such as visual, auditory, or tactile images evoked by the words of a literary work; also used to apply to figures of speech
Irony
a figure of speech in which intent and actual meanign differ: verbal, situational, dramatic
Metaphor
a figurative use of language in which comparison is expressed without the use of comparative term like "as," "like," or "than"
Narrative Techniques
methods involved in telling a story such as point of view, manipulation of time, manipulation of pace, dialogue, or interior monologue, etc.
Point of View
any of several possible vantage points from which a story is told: 1st person, 3rd person objective, limited omniscient Persona: the mask or voice of the author or author's creation in a work when the narrator is in the 1st person
Resources of language
a general phrase for the linguistic devices or techniques that a writer can use such as style, rhetoric, diction, syntax, figurative language, imagery, etc.
Rhetoric
the science of literary composition, especially prose; the combination of syntax and diction to create effective writing
Rhetorical techniques
the devices used in effective or persuasive language; some of the many techniques include: contrast, repetition, parallelism, paradox, understatement, sarcasm, rhetorical question etc.
Satire
writing that seeks to arouse a reader's disapproval of an object by ridicule with an eye to correcting vice and folly
Strategy (or rhetorical strategy)
the management of language for the specific effect; the planned placing of elements to achieve an effect
Structure
the arrangement of materials within a work; the relationship of the parts of a work to the whole; the logical divisions of a work. The most common principles are series (A,B,C,D,E), contrast (A vs. B, C vs. D, E vs. A), and repetition (AA, BB, AB)
Setting
the physical location of a play, story, or novel; usually includes both time and place
Style
the characteristic manner of expression of an author; examples of elements to discuss include diction, syntax, figurative language, imagery, selection of detail, sound effects, and tone
Symbol
something that is simultaneously itself and a sign of something else
Syntax
the structure of a sentence; the arrangement of words in a sentence; elements to be considered include: length or brevity; kinds of sentences (questions, exclamations etc.; periodic or loose sentences; simple complex, compound etc.)
Theme
the main thought expressed by a work; sometimes the questions ask for the "meaning of the work"
Tone
the manner in which an author expresses his or her attitude; the intonation of the voice that expresses meaning. Tone is described by adjectives. The tone may shift within the selection, and the student is expected to note the shift. Tone is the result of allusion, diction, figurative language, imagery, irony, symbol, syntax, style etc.
Allegory
a story in which people, things, and events have another meaning
Ambiguity
multiple meanings, especially two meanings that are incompatible
Antithesis
a direct contrast of structurally parallel word groupings, generally for the purpose of contrast: ie. sink or swim
Apostrophe
direct address, usually to someone or something that is not present
Coonotation
the implications of a word or phrase, as opposed to its exact or literal meaning
Convention
a device of style or subject matter so often used that it becomes a recognized means of expression
Denotation
the dictionary meaning of a word, as opposed to the connotation of a word
Didactic
explicitly instructive
Digression
the use of material unrelated to the subject of a work
Epigram
a pithy saying, often using contrast; also a verse form, usually brief and pointed
Grotesque
characterized by distortions or incongruities
Hyperbole
deliberate exaggeration, overstatement without the intention of being accepted literally
Jargon
the special language of a profession or group; usually has pejorative associations with the implication that jargon is evasive, tedious, and unintelligible to outsiders
Literal
not figurative; accurate to the letter
Lyrical
songlike; characterized by emotion, subjectivity, and imagination
Meiosis
the opposite of hyperbole; it is a kind of irony that deliberately represents something as being must less than it really is: ie. "I could probably manage on $5,000,000 a year."
Oxymoron
a combination of opposites; the union of contradictory terms into a single expression ie. sweet sorrow
Parable
a story designed to suggest a principle, illustrate a moral, or answer a question; allegorical stories
Paradox
a statement that seems to be self-contradicting but, in fact, is true ie. The more you know, the more you you don't know
Parody
a composition that imitates the style of another composition, normally for comic effect
Personification
a figurative use of language which endows the nonhuman with human characteristics
Reliability
a quality of some fictional narrators whose word the reader can trust; there are both reliable and unreliable narrators
Rhetorical question
a question asked for effect, not in expectation of a reply because the question presupposes only one possible answer
Soliloquy
a speech in which a character who is alone speaks his or her thoughts aloud
Stereotype
a conventional pattern, expression, character, or idea
Syllogism
a form of reasoning in which two statements are made and a conclusion is drawn from them
Thesis
the theme, meaning, or position that a writer undertakes to prove or support
Alliteration
the repetition of identical or similar consonant sounds, normally at the beginning of words
Assonance
the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds
Ballad meter
a four-line stanza rhymed abcd with four feet in lines 1 and 3 and three feet in lines 2 and 4
Blank Verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter
Caesura
a pause within a line of poetry, usually marked by a piece of punctuation
Dactyl
a metrical foot composed of an accented syllable followed by two unaccented syllables
End-stopped
a line of poetry with a pause at the end of the line
Enjambement/enjambment
a line of poetry which runs on into the next line because it has no punctuation at the end of the first line
Free Verse
poetry which is not written in a traditional meter but is still rhythmical
Heroic couplet
two-end stopped iambic pentameter lines rhymed aa, bb, cc, with the thought usually completed in the two-line unit
Hexameter
a line containing six feet
Iamb
a metrical foot composed of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented syllable; the most common foot in English poetry
Internal Rhyme
rhyme that occurs within a line, rather than at the end
Onomatopoeia
the use of words whose sound suggest their meaning
Pentameter
a line containing five feet
Rhyme royal
a seven-line stanza of iambic pentameter rhymed ababbcc, used by Chaucer and other medieval poets
Simile
a direct comparison using 'like' or 'as'
Sonnet
a fourteen-line iambic pentameter poem
Stanza
usually a repeated grouping of three or more lines with the same meter and rhyme scheme
Terza rima
a three-line stanza rhymed aba, bcb, cdc
Tetrameter
a line of four feet
Antecedent
that which goes before, especially the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers
Clause
a group of words containing a subject and its verb that may or may not be a complete stenence
Ellipsis
the omission of a word or several words necessary for a complete construction that is still understandable
Indicative
the mood that makes a factual statement
Imperative
the mood of a verb that gives an order
Modify
to restrict or limit in meaning; adjectives modify nouns
Parallel structure
a similar grammatical structure within a sentence or within a paragraph
Periodic sentence
a sentence which is grammatically complete only at the end; a LOOSE SENTENCE: is grammatically complete before the period
subjunctive
the mood of a verb that expresses a condition contrary to fact
Voice
the use of active or passive voice
Conceit
An elaborate metaphor, using elements of science or mathematics to point to a striking parallel between two seemingly dissimilar things; used by the metaphysical poets.
syntax
the structure of a sentence