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35 Cards in this Set

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The word Eagle ideas of liberty and have little to do with the words literal meaning
Connotation
Associations or implicatins that go beyond the literal meaning of a word.
use of "pass away" instead of "die"
Euphemism
The substitution of a mild or less negative word or phrase for a harsh or blunt one, as in the use of "pass away" instead of "die"
the cup he chooses cause him to disintegrate horribly an onlooker observes, "He choose poorly"
Understatement
The opposite of Hyperbole. Figure of speech that says less than is intended.
To write with a broken pencil is pointless
Pun
A play on words that have similar sounds but different meanings
using statistics and the experience of other states to make a case against a proposed new law.
Logos
an appeal based on logic or reason
visual images of sick children in an ad promoting international aid
Pathos
an appeal baseds on emotion
featuring doctors in a commercial about malpractice reform
Ethos
an appeal based on the qualifications of the speaker
A work that uses ridicule, humor, and wit to critcize and provoke change in human nature and institutions
Satire
the art of ethical persuassion
Rhetoric
may be characterized as ironic, sad or happy, private or public, angry or affectionate, bitter or nostalgic, or any other attitudes and feelings that human beings experience
Tone
The authors implicit attitude toward the reader of the people, places, and events in a work as revealed by the elements of the authors style
A person drowning at a lifegaurd convention
Irony of Situation
where there is an incongruity between what is expected to happen and what actually happens.
"I just love being kept waiting in the rain."
Verbal Irony
a figure of speech that occurs when a person says one thing but means the opposite.
"He ate everything in the house"
Hyperbole
boldly exaggerated statemant that adds emphasis without intending to be literally true
"crunk"
Colloquialism
a word or phrase of form of pronunciation that is acceptable in casual conversation but not in formal , written communication
"He's like the oldest, wisest soul in the world, and he's five years old."
Paradox
a statement that seems illogical or contradictory at first but may actually point to an underlying truth
Imagine a car commercial- the waterfall in the background and the beautiful girl in the foreground have nothing to do with the cars performance
Non Sequitur
a support for an argument that doesnt connect logicall wo the actual claim
a breif narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident, used to illustrate a point
ANecdote
"wheels" for "car" or "threads" for "clothes"
Synechdoche
A figure of speech in which a part represents the whole
"Good morning, heartache"
Apostrophe
a statement, question or request addressed to an inanimate object or concept or to a nonexistent or absent person
a story or poem in which EVERYTHING is symbolic. For example Animal Farm
Allegory
a narrative technique in which characters representing things or abstract ideas are used to convery a message or teach a lesson. a story or poem in which EVERYTHING is symbolic.
"Old habits persist, even where people want better relations."
loose sentence
sentence in which the main idea comes first
"Even where people want better relations, old habits persist."
periodic sentence
sentern where the main idea comes last
"Long is the way back to my car."
inversion
a change in customary word order
"I speak as briefly as possible because too much harm has already been done with irresponsible words of bitterness and selfish political opportunism. I speak as briefly as possible because the issue is too great to be obscured by eloquence."
anaphora
repition of beginning words or phrases
"The time for the healing of wounds has come. THe moment to bride the chasms that divide us has come."
epistrophe
repetition of concluding words or phrases
"We use words like honor, code, loyalty..."
asyndeton
omission of conjunctions where they would customarily appear
"I know of no town, no city, that has been besieged for 18 years that still lives with the vitality and the force and the hope and the determination of the city of west berlin."
polysyndeton
inclusion of conjunctions where they would not customarily appear.
"If, in my high moments, i have done some good, offered some service, shed some light, healed some wounds, rekindled some hope..."
parallel structure
similarity of syntactical structure in successive words or phrases
"We find ourselves rich in goods but ragged in spirit..."
antithesis
deliberate juxtaposition of two contrasting ideas.
Debater A: I dont think that children should play out in the busy streets."
Debaterb: I think its very cruel to deny children their freedom to play outdoors, or to go wherever they please. Children should not be kept locked-up in their own homes as my opponet suggests
straw man
Fallacy of refuting a caricatured or extreme version of somebody's argument rather than the actual argument they made
Before Women got to vote there were no nuclear weapons
Post hoc reasoning
The fallacy of assuming that A caused B simply because A happened prior to B
Assuming that being a traitor is the only alternative to being a loud patriot
Either-Or-Fallacy
assuming there are only two alternatives when in fact there are more
Ultimate frisbee is the most interesting sport in the world because it is so fascinating
Circular Reasoning
The thing to be proved is used as one of your assumptions
Hondas never get better gas mileage that Volkswagens
Overgeneralization
drawing a broad conclucion from a small number of perhaps unrepresentative cases
Putting NAtive AMericans on reservations is like sentencing them to death row
False Analogy
a fallacy comparing things that do resemble each other but that are not alike in the most important aspects