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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
types of pronouns
--possessive
--nominative
--objective
possessive pronouns
my
hers
his
nominative pronouns
I
he
she
it
they
objective pronouns
it
they
me
him
her
types of verbs
transitive
intransitive
linking
gerund
gerund verb
"ing" verb that acts a noun

ex. I love running
linking verb
to be verbs

ex. am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been
transitive verb
has a direct object
intransitive verb
has no direct object

ex: Shannon talks during chapel.
interjection
words used to express surprise or emotion

ex. "YAY!"
"OH NO!"
types of conjunction
coordinating
subordinating
coordinating conjunctions
and
or
for
nor
yet
but
so
subordinating conjunctions
who
what
where
when
why
how
predicate
the verb plus its complements, objects, and modifiers
predicate noun
word that comes after the linking verb; re-naming the subject
predicate adjective
word that comes after the linking verb, describing the subject
phrase
a group of words that lacks a subject, verb, or both
appositive/essential appositive
a phrase that renames a noun

don't mark with commas
verbal(s) phrase
a verb used as a different word form, combined with other words that constitute a phrase
participial verb
a conjugated verb form used as an ADJECTIVE, combined with other words that constitute a phrase
clause
a group of words that contain both a subject and a verb
dependent clause
a clause that requires an independent clause in order to stand alone
independent clause
a clause that may stand alone
simple sentence
contains one independent clause

ex: Joanna eats and drinks
compound sentence
contains at least two independent clauses

ex: Joanna eats and drinks, but Maddie hungers.
complex sentence
contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause

ex: (While) Joanna eats and drinks, (while) Maddie hungers.
compound-complex sentence
contains at least two independent clauses and at least on dependent clause

ex. While Shannon laughs, Joanna eats and drinks, but Maddie hungers.
declarative sentence
used to make statements
imperative sentence
used to issue requests or commands
exclamatory sentence
used to make exclaimations
interrogative sentence
used to ask questions
rhetorical sentence
used to move the reader towards a position

ex. Are you stupid?
natural/basic sentence
basic sentence patterns are built around verbs and their verb forms
types of natural/basic sentence
1) subject-verb [intransitive]
2) subject-verb-object [transitive]
3) subject-verb-adjective [linking verbs]
4) subject-verb-adverb [linking/intransitive verbs]
5) subject-verb-noun [linking/to-be verbs]
inverted sentence
a sentence in which the word oder violates standard English.

ex: A jolly old soul was he.
cumulative sentence
extended variety of the loose sentence. often used in description, the cumulative sentence begins witha general statement that it then expands in a series of particulars
ex: The geriatric section is always the most unattractive, poorly lighted, no brightness, no pictures, no laughter.
loose sentence
a type of sentence in which the main idea (an independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses. works with lots of these seem informal, relaxed, and conversational
periodic sentence
a sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. this independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone.

ex. Ecstatic with my AP scores, I let out a loud shout of joy!
interrupted sentence
a sentence in which the main iea is interrupted by another thought and then resumed

ex. Will you allow me, or do i ask too much, to introduce my sister to you?
parallel sentence
a sentence in which the parts of a list use the same structure

ex. The British museum is a place where you can find ancient art, explore artifacts, and discover textiles
balanced sentence
a sentence in which the parts are similar in structure

ex. He wasn't being nervous; he was being prevented.
allegory
the device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning
alliteration
the repetition of sounds, especially initial consonants sounds, in two or more neighboring words
allusion
a direct or indirect reference to something which is presumable commonoly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art
ambiguity
the multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, or a word, phrase, sentence or passage
analogy
a similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them
an expressed metaphor- it spells out the nature of the comparison
antithesis
the opposition of contrast of ideas; the direct opposite
aphorism
a terse statement of known authorship whcih expresses a general truth or a moral principle
apostrophe
a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love
caricature
a verbal description, the purpose of which is to exaggerate or distort, for comic effect, a person's distincitve physical features or other characteristics
atmosphere
the emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are described
clause
a grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb
colloquialism
the use of slang or informalities in speech or writing. not generally acceptable for formal writing, these give a work a conversational, familiar tone. inclue local or regional dialects
conceit
a fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or a surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects
connotation
the non-literal, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning. connotations may involve ideas, emotions, or attitudes
denotation
the strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion,attitude, or color
didactic
have the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles
diction
related to style, diction refers to the writer's word choice, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness
dysphemism
dysphemisms heighten the offensiveness of a generally unpleasant word or concept. it exists inorder to contradict social expectations or standards, often for comedic or ironic effect

ex. 'croaked' instead of 'died'
euphemism
a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept. it may be ussed to adhere to standards of social or political correctness or to add humor or ironic understatement

ex. 'earthly remains' instead of 'corpse'
extended metaphor
a metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work
figurative language
writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid
figure of speech
a device used to produce figurative language. many compare dissimilar things.

ex. metaphor, oxymoron, simile, hyperbole, synecdoche, understatement
generic conventions
describes traditions for each genre
genre
the major category into which a literary work fits

ex. prose, poetry, drama
homily
literally means "sermon", but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice
hyperbole
a figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement
imagery
the sensory details or figurative language usd to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. physically, imagery uses terms related to the five senses:
visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile
inference
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented

"authors imply, readers infer"
invective
an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language
irony/ironic
the contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is actually meant, or the difference between what appears to be and what is actually true
verbal irony
when the words literally state the opposite of the writer's (or speaker's) meaning
situational irony
when events turn out the opposite of what was expected; when what the characters and readers think ought to happen is not what does happen
dramatic irony
when facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work
romantic irony
when an author is persisently present in his or her work, meant to ensure that the audience will maintain critical detachment and not simply accept the writing at face value
cosmic irony
when the depiction of fate or the universe is malicious or indifferent to human suffering, creating a painful contrast between our purposeful activity and its ultimate meaninglessness
loose/non-periodic sentence
a type of sentence in which hte main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses. if a period were placed at the end of the independent cluase, the clause would a complete sentence
metaphor
a figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the other, suggesting some similiarity