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392 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are our five senses?
(1)smell (2)sight (3)hearing (4)touch (5)taste
What is our 5th senses?
vestibular sense
What might one day be considered the 7th sense?
the pheromones sense
What is another name for the smell sense?
olfaction
NAME
can also be called olfaction
smell
What is the vestibular sense?
is the ability to detect the orientation of the body
NAME
is the ability to detect the orientation of the body
vestibular sense
What is pheromones sense?
is the detection of chemical signals
NAME
is the detection of chemical signals
pheromones
T or F
touch is stimulated by one stimulus
false
How is touch different from the other senses?
is not stimulated by one a single stimulus
NAME
is not stimulated by one stimulus
touch
What singals can give information about tactile senstation or stimulate touch? (4)
(1)pain (2)touch (3)temperature (4)pressure from the skin, muscles, joints, and internal organs
internal signals like pain, touch, temperature, pressure from the skin, muscles, joints, and internal organs can stimulate (1) senstations
tactile or touch
The skin contains many (1) to detect various situations in which our body is exposed
sensors
T or F
touch receptors are equally distrubed through out our body
False
are touch receptors equally distrubed through out our body?
n
T or F
some parts of the body are more senstive than others
True
In senstive areas of the body, (1)
nerve endings are close togethere
in (1) of the body, nerve endings are close together
senstive areas
NAME
these ares get a larger representation in the somatosensory cortex of the parietal lobe
senstitive areas
senstive areas of the body get a larger represnetation in the (1)
somatosensory cortex of the parietal lobe
Give a example of a senstive area in the body and explain how it has a larger represnetation in the somatosenory cortex of the parietal lobe
for example, the fingertips are more senstive than the back of the leg (2)a larger portion of the cortex is involved with integrating singals from the fingertips than from the leg
What are nocieceptors?
are receptors that detect pain
NAME
are receptors that detect pain
nociceptors
NAME
are senestive to pressure, temperature, and chemicals
nociceptors
Nociceptors are senstive to (1), (2), and (3)
(1)pressure (2)temperature (3)chemicals
T or F
most people are physcially responsive to similar levels of painful stimuli
true
What else can influence a person's response to levels of a pain stimuli? (2)
(1)the emotional state of a person (2)fearing a procedure may increase the perception of pain
how are humans senses compared to animals?
humans are fairly insenstive to odors
What is the limbic system?
is an area important in memory and emotion
NAME
is an area important in memory and emotion
limbic system
Signals from the olfactory tracts go directly to the (1)
limbic system
signals from the (1) go directly to the limbic system
olfactory tract
it has been shown that certain odors actually can produce a (1)
physiological response
Give a example of how certain odors can produce a physiological response
the smell of lavender will change brain wave recordings and may lower blood pressure via changes in the hypothalamus
NAME
this will change brain wave recordings and may lower blood pressure via changes in the hypothalamus
the smell of lavender
NAME
is our intimate sense
taste
What makes taste unique when compared to other tastes?
all the other senses can be experienced from a distance but this one
NAME
all other senses can be experienced from a distance but this one
taste
What are the five tastes?
(1)sweet (2)sour (3)salty (4)bitter (5)umami
NAME
include sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and unami
five tastes
What does umami refer to?
refered to as savory when eating foods with glutamate
NAME
is refered to as "savory" when eating foods with glutamate
umami
What are the taste buds?
are the individual organs for taste
NAME
are the individual organs for taste
taste buds
What are papillae?
are the raised bumps visible on the tongue
NAME
are the raised bumps visible on the tongue
papillae
T or F
the raised bumps on the tongue are taste buds
false
How many taste buds does each papillae have?
250 taste buds
Each (1) has aproximately 250 taste buds
papillae
Each taste buds has aproximately, how many taste cells?
100
Each (1) has aproximately 100 taste cells
taste buds
How often are taste cells replaced?
every few weeks
How are taste cells damaged?
due to exposure to extreme temperatures or chemicals
T or F
taste cells are placed every few weeks since they are damaged due to exposure to extereme temp or chemicals
true
What are the (3) regions of the ear?
(1)the outer ear (2)the middle ear (3)inner ear
NAME
the regions of this include inner ear, middle ear, and inner ear
ear
The outer ear is called (1)
Pinna
NAME
is called the cochlea
inner ear
NAME
refers to the inner ear
cochlea
NAME
refers to the outer ear
Pinna
What is the Pinna?
the outer ear
What does the pinna consist of?
a flap of skin and elastic cartilage
NAME
is a flap skin and elastic cartilage
Pinna
What is the function of the pinna?
it acts to direct and amplify sound waves entering the ear
NAME
it acts to direct and amplify sound waves entering the ear
Pinna
What happens to sound as it enters the outer ear?
journey through the auditory canal to the middle ear
From the (1) sound travels from the auditory canal to the middle ear
outer ear
What produces ear wax?
ceruminous
What does the ceruminous produce?
ear wax
What is the ceruminos?
produces ear wax and helps to repel water in the auditory pathway
NAME
produces ear wax and helps to repel water in the auditory pathway
ceruminous
What products the middle ear from infection?
ceruminous
What helps to protect the middle ear from infection?
ceruminous
NAME
this also helps to protect the ear from infection
ceruminous
The auditory canal leads to the (1)
ear drum
(1) leads to the ear drum
auditory canal
What is the eardrum?
a membrane that divides the outer and middle ear
NAME
is a membrane that divides the outer and middle ear
eardrum
What is the middle ear?
is a small aired-filled cavity
NAME
is a small aired-filled cavity
middle ear
NAME
this contain the tympanic membrane and the oval window
middle ear
What is another name for the eardrum?
tympanic membrane
NAME
another name for this is eardrum
tympanic membrane
What is the oval window?
is the entrance to the inner ear
NAME
is the entrance to the inner ear
oval window
What are the ossicles?
are three bones in the middle ear
NAME
are three bones in the middle ear
ossicles
What are the three ossicles?
(1)malleus (2)incus (2)stapes
NAME
include the malleus, incus, and stapes
ossicles
What is the malleus?
is the hammer bone
NAME
refers to the hammer bone
malleus
What is the incus?
refers to the anivl bone
NAME
refers to the anivil
incus
What is the stapes?
refers to the stirrup
NAME
refers to th stirrup
stapes
How does the middle ear increase the effciency of sound transmission from the outer ear to the inner ear?
by transmitting vibrations from the eardrum to the oval window
NAME
increases the effciency of sound transmission from the outer ear to the inner ear
middle ear
How is the middle ear connected the throat?
by the eustachian tube
NAME
is connected to throat by the eustachian tube
middle
The middle ear is connected to the (1) by the eustachian tube
throat
What is the eustachian tube?
helps to maintain equal air pressure on both sides of the eardrum
NAME
helps to maintian equal air pressure on boths sides of the eardrum
eustachian tube
Sound waves from the outer ear push on the (1)which in turn pushes on the (1)
tympanic membrane (2)three ossicles
sound waves from the (1)push on the tympanic membrane which in turn pushes on the three ossicles
outer ear
What do the ossicles act as when the sound waves push on them?
a lever to conectrate the wave and more forcefully push onto the oval window leading into the inner ear
NAME
acts as a lever to conetrate the wave and more forecfully push onto the oval window leading into the inner ear
ossicles
Descrube What the cochlea is?
is a coiled fluid filled chamber
NAME
is a coiled fluid filled chamber
cochlea
Leading in to the cochlea is the membrane called the (1)
oval window
Inside the cochela are a number of (1)
membrane receptors for hearing
What is the basailar membrane?
is a floppy membrane of the inner ear
NAME
is a floppy membrane of the inner ear
basailar membrane
What is the organ of corti?
is a membrane that sits atop the basailar membrane and contains the hair cells
NAME
is a membrane that sits atop the basailar membrane and contains the hair cells
organ of corti
What are hair cells?
are the receptor cells of hearing
NAME
are the receptor cells of hearing
hair cells
Where are the cilla of hair cells?
tectorial membrane
What is the tectorial membrane?
is stiff membrane that has the cilla of hair cells embedded into it
NAME
is a stiff membrane that has the cilla of hair cells embreded into ti
tectorial membrane
What happens as a sound wave enters the inner ear?
when a wave reaches the oval window of the inner ear, it sets up a traveling wave in the fluid of the cochela
What happens after a wave reaches the oval window of the inner ear, it sets up a traveling wave in the fluid of the cochela?
this causes the basilar membrane to vibrate up and dwon, bending the cilla of the hair cells (2)this bending of the cilla cuases a nerve impulse to travel down the auditory nerve to the brain, where they are perceived as sound
in addition to auditory signals, the inner ear also contains organs for (1)
proprioception
NAME
in addition to auditory singals, this also contains organs for proprieception
the inner ear
What is the prorioception?
is the detection of where the body is in space
NAME
is the detection of where the body is in space
proprioeception
Proprioeception refers to the (1) sense
vestibular sense
(1) refers to the vestibular sense
proprioeception
What does the vestibular sytem coordinate? (4)
(1)motor responses (2)eye movements (3)posture (4)equilirbim
NAME
coordinates motor responses, eye movements, posture, and equilibrium
vestibular system
What are the (2) otolith organs?
(1)utricle (2)saccule
NAME
this type of organ includes utricle, and saccule
otolith organs
What do the otolith organs?
detect the linear changes in the direction
NAME
detect the linear changes in the direction
otoltih organs
What can of directions do the otolith organs detect? (5)
(1)foward (2)backward (3)up (4)down (5)side to side
NAME
these organs detect when you move foward, backward, up, down, or even side to side
otolith organs
What are the semicircular canals?
detect rotational movement
NAME
detect rotational movement
semiciruclar canals
What are receptor organs?
are hair cells w cilla embedded into a jelly-like mass
NAME
are hair cells w cilla embedded into a jelly-like mass
receptor organs
NAME
bend w changes and send singals down the vesitbular nerves
cilla
Cilla bend w changes and send (1)
signals down the vestibular nerves
Humans are (1) creatures
visual
T or F
the optic nerves contain over a million nerve fibers
true
What are some structures that help to protect our eyes?
(1)bone cavity of the eyeball (2)eyebrows (3)eyelashes (4)eyelid (5)lacrimal glands
the bone cavity of the eyeball, the eyebrows, the eyelashes, eyelid, and lacrimal glands all help to (1)
protect our eyes
The eyeball rests in a (1)
bony cavity of the skull
What do the eyebrows and the eyelashes do?
prevent sweat and particles from entering the eye
NAME (2)
prevent sweat and particles from entering the eye
eyebrows and eyelashes
NAME
is the thinnest skin in the body
eyelid
What is the eyelid?
is the thinnest skin of the body which covers the exposed portion of the eye
NAME
covers the exposed portion of the eye
eyelid
What are the lacrimal glands?
produce tears that clean and lubricate the eye
NAME
produces tears that clean and lubricate the eye
lacrimal glands
What is the cornea?
is a transparent tissue that helps to focus the entering of light rays to create an image of the retina
NAME
is a transparent tissue that helps to focus the entering of light rays to create an image of the retina
cornea
What can abnormailites in the contours of the cornea result in?
(1)differences in focusing power (2)and when this happens the image on the retina may be out of focus
What can some abnormatilites in the cornea? (3)
(1)myopia (2)hyperopia (3)astigmatism
NAME
this can result in
myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism
abnormatilies in the shape of the cornea
What is myopia?
refers to being nearsighted
NAME
refers to being nearsighted
myopia
What is hyperpopia?
refres to being far sighted
NAME
refers to being far sighted
hyperpopia
What is the sclera?
is the tough outer white portion of the eye
NAME
is the tough outer white portion of the eye
sclera
What is the function of sclera?
it protects the eye and gives it shape
NAME
it protects the eye and gives it shape
sclera
What is the iris?
is the colored part of the eye
NAME
is the colored part of the eye
iris
What is the function of the iris?
it is a muscle that controls the amount of light that enters the pupil
NAME
it is a muscle that controls the amount of light that enters the pupil
iris
Directly beneath the pupil is the (1)
lens
Directly beneath the (1) is the lens
pupil
What is the lens?
is a transparent tissue that changes shape as you focus for near or far vision
NAME
is a transparent tissue that changes shape as you focus for near or far vision
lens
Around the posterior 5/6 of the eyeball runs the (1), a vascular layer
choroid
What is the choroid?
is a vascular layer that runs around posterior 5/6 of the eye ball
NAME
is a vascular layer that runs around poaerior 5/6 of the eye ball
choroid
What is the function of the choroid?
contains a dark pigment that absorbs and muffles light to improve vision
NAME
contains a dark pigment that absorbs and muffles light to improve vision
choroid
What is the retina?
is the innermost coat of the eye
NAME
is the innermost of coat of the eye
retina
What does the retina contain?
rod and cones
NAME
contains rods and cones
retina
What are rods and cones?
light senstive cells found in the retina
NAME (2)
are light senstive cells found in the retina
rods and cones
NAME
is also called the blind spot
optic disc
The optic disc is also called the (1)
blind spot
What is the optic disc?
is the point on the back of the eye by which nerve processes from the rods and cones exit the retina
NAME
is the point on the back of the eye by which nerve processes from the rods and cones exit the retina
optic disc
What is macula lutea?
is a yellow spot at the exact center of the retina
NAME
is a yellow spot at the exact center of the retina
macula lutea
NAME
is a small depression at the center of macula
fovea
What is the fovea?
is a small depression at the center of macula
NAME
the point at which visual acuity is the highest
fovea
T or F
the eye is full of fluid
true
The eye is full of (1)
fluid
How are nutreints for the eye provided?
by the aqueous humor
What is the vitreous humor?
is the jelly-like fluid that helps maintain the spherical shape of the eye
NAME
is the jelly-like fluid that helps maintian the spherical shape of the eye
vitreous humor
What is the aqueous humor?
is btwn the cornea and the lens and provides nutrients for the eye
NAME
is btwn the cornea and the lens and provides nutrients for the eye
aqueous humor
What is the absolute thershold?
the stimulus intesnity that can be detected 50% of the time
NAME
is the stimulus intensity that can be detected 50% of the time?
absoute thershold
What is the absolute thershold for vision?
a candle flame, 30 miles away, on a dark clear night
What is the absolute thershold for smell?
a drop of perfume in a three room apartment
What is the absolute thershold for hearing?
a ticking watch 20 feet away in a quiet place
What is the absolute thershold for taste?
a teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water
What is the absolute thershold for touch?
the wing of a bee falling from 1 cm onto your cheek
NAME
is responsible for allowing substances in and out of the cell
plasma membrane
What is active transport?
requires ATP to get work done
NAME
this transports requires ATP to get work done
active transport
What is passive transport?
does not require ATP
NAME
this transport does not require ATP
passive transport
Why does not passive transport need ATP?
bc the kinetic energy of the particles causes them to move from an area of higher conecntration to a area of lower conecntration
How does passive transport flow?
from a area of higher conecntration to a area of lower concentration
What is Osmosis?
is the movement of water molecules by diffusion across a selectivly permeable membrane
NAME
is the movement of water molecules by diffusion across a selectivy permeable membrane
osomosis
When does osomosis stop?
when ellqirubrim is reached
What is facilated diffusion?
is the movement of a substance down its concentration gradient using a transmembrane protien for transport
NAME
is the movement of a substance down its concentration gradient using a transmembrane protien for transport
facilated diffusion
What is filtration?
is the flow of liquid through the pores of a filter or plasma membrane
NAME
is the flow of a liquid through the pores of a filter or plasma membrane
filtration
Why does the movement in filtration ocur?
to hydrostatic pressure
What is vesicular transport?
is the movement of substance into a cell via vesicles that form at or fuse w the plasma mebrane
NAME
is the movement of substances into a cell via vesicles that for at or fuse w the plasma membrane
vesicular transport
What is endocyotisis?
movement of a substance into a cell via vesicles forming at the plasma membrane
NAME
is the movement of a substance into a cell via vesicles forming at the plasma membrane
endocytosis
NAME
is a type of endocytosis which is a speacilized movement of solid partilces into a cell by pseudopdia forming a vesicle around the particles
phagocytosis
What is phagpcytosis?
refered to as cell eating
NAME
is refered to as cell eating
phagocytosis
What is pinotyosis?
is refered to as "cell drinking"
NAME
is refered to as cell drinking
pinotyosis
NAME
is a type of endocyotois in which drops of fluid brought into a cell by invagination of the plasma membrane forming a small vesicle
pinocyotisis
What is exocyotis?
is the movement of a substance out of a cell via fusion of secretory vesicles w the plasma membrane
NAME
is the movement of a substance out of a cell via fusion of secretory vesicles w the plasma membrane
exocyotis
Spinal nerves send info from the (1) to the spinal cord and info from the spinal cord to the (2)
(1)peripheral sensory receptors (2)effectors
How many pairs of spinal nerves emerge from each side of the spinal cord through the intervertrebral foramina?
31
Spinal nerves connect to the spinal cord via the (1) and an (2)
(1)posterioer root (2)anterior root
(1) connect to the spinal cord via the posterior root and the anterior root
spinal nerves
What are the posterior and anterior roots together called?
mixed nerves
NAME
are called mixed nerves
anterior and posterior roots
Why are the anterior and posterior roots called the mixed nerves?
bc each nerve contains sensory and motor axons
NAME
each of of these two nerves contains sensory and motor axons
mixed nerves
Each of the spinal nerve is made up of (1)
3 protective connective tissue layers
NAME
has 3 protective connective tissue layers
each spinal nerve
What are the three protective connective tissue layers of each spinal nerve
(1)epineurium (2)perineurium (3)endoneurium
NAME
this connective tissue layer of a spinal nerve surrounds the whole nerve
epineurium
What is the epineurium ?
surrounds the the whole nerve
What does the "neuri" part in epineurium mean?
nerve
What is the perineurium?
encases each fasicicle and the endoneurium
NAME
encases each fasicicle and the endoneurium
perineurium
What is the endoneurium?
covers the mylinated and the unmyelinated axons
NAME
covers the myelinated and the unmyelinated axons
endoneurium
The spinal nerves branch lateral to the (1)
intervertebral foramen
What are the branches of the spinal nerves or rami? (5)
(1)posterior ramus (2)anterior ramus (3)meningeal branch (4)the rami communicantes
What is the posterior ramus?
is the largest branch of the spinal nerves that curves around the dorsal surface and innervates the skin and deep muscles of the back or trunk
NAME
is the largest branch of the spinal nerves that curves around the dorsal surface and innervates the skin and deep muscles of the back or trunk
posterior ramus
What is the anterior ramus?
supplies the muscles and skin of all four limbs as well as the anterior and lateral parts of the body
NAME
supplies the muscles and skin of all four limbs as well as the anterior and lateral parts of the body
anterior ramus
What is the meingeal branch?
serves the vertebrae, vertebral ligaments, branch vessels of the spinal cord, and the meninges
NAME
serves the veretebrae, vertebral ligaments, branch vessels of the spinal cord, and hte meninges
meingeal branch
What is the rami communicantes?
connect to the sympathetic ganglion of the autonomic nervous system
NAME
connects the synpathetic ganglio n of the autonomic nervous system
rami communicantes
How many spinal nerves are there?
31
Of the 31 spinal nerves, how are they divided up?
(1)8 cervical (2)12 thoracic (3)5 lumbar (4)5 sacral (5)1 coccygeal
What is a plexus?
a braided network of spinal nerves that join together before they innervate body structures
NAME
is a braided network of spinal nerves that join together before they innervate body structures
plexus
Where does plexus ocur in the body? (4)
(1)cervical (2)brachial (3)lumbar (4)sacral plexuses
Many nerves join with other spinal nerves to form a braided network or (1)
plexus
What are the thoracic spinal nerves?
ocur from T2-T12 and do not participate in forming plexuses
T or F
the thoracic spinal nerves do participate in forming plexuses
False
NAME
occur from T2-T12 and do not participate in forming plexuses
thoracic spinal nerves
WHat is the cervical plexus?
is formed from one anterior rami of the C1-C5 on both the right and left sides of the spinal cord
NAME
is formed from one either from one anterior rami of the C1-C5 on both the right and left sides of the spinal cord
cervical plexus
What is an imporant paired nerve from the plexus?
phernic nerve
What is the phernic nerve?
occurs from C3-C5 and innervates the diaphragm and its imporant in breathing
NAME
occurs from C3-C5, innervates the diagraphm, and is imporant in breathing
phernic nerve
What is the saying about the cervical nerves?
"cervical nerves 3, 4, and 5 keep the diaphragm alive
Which nerves help with breathing? (be specfic)
the cervical nerves 3, 4, and 5 keep the diaphragm alive
What is the brachial plexus?
serves the shoulder and upper limbs
NAME
serves the shoulders and upper nerves
brachial plexus
Where is the brachial plexus formed?
from the ventral rami of the C5-T1
NAME
is formed from the ventral rami of the C5-T1`
brachial plexus
What are the main nerves that arise from the brachial plexus? (5)
(1)axiallary (2)median (3)musculotcutaneous (4)radial (5)ulnar
The axiallary, median, musculotcutaneous, radial, and ulnar are the main nerves that arise from the (1)
brachial plexus
What is the phrenic?
the diaphragrm is innervated by this nerve
NAME
the diaphragm is innervated by this nerve
phrenic
What is the axillary nerve?
the deltoid and teres minor muscles are innervated by this nerve
NAME
the deltoid and teres minor muscles are innervated by this nerve
axillary nerve
What is the ulnar nerve?
the flexor carpi ulnaris, medial -half of flexor digitroum profoundis, and most hand muscles are innervated by this nerve
NAME
the flexor carpi ulnaris, medial-half of the flexor digitroum profoundis, and the most of the hand muscles are innervated by this nerve
ulnar nerve
What is the musculotcutaneous nerve?
the anterior muscles of the arm are innervated by this nerve
NAME
the anterior muscles of the arm are innervated by this nerve
musculotcutaneous nerve
What is the median nerve?
the muscles of the anterior forearm and some of the muscles of the hand are innervated by this nerve
NAME
the muscles of the anterior forearm and some of the muscles of the hand are innervated by this nerve
median nerve
What is the radial nerve?
the muscles of the posterior arm and forearm are innervated by this nerve
NAME
the muscles of the posterior arm and forearm innervated by this arm
radial nerve
What is the lumbar plexus?
is made up the anterior rami from the L1 to L4
NAME
is made up of the anterior rami from the L1-L4
lumbar plexus
What does the lumbar plexus do?
supplies the skin and muscle of the abdominal wall, external genitalia, and part of the lower limb
NAME
supplies the skin, and muscles of the abdominal wall, external genitalia, and part of the lower limb
lumber plexus
What are the major nerves of the lumbar plexus? (2)
(1)femoral (2)obturator nerves
NAME
its major nerves are the femoral and obturator nerves
lumbar plexus
What does the sacral plexus do?
supplies the buttocks, perieneum, and most of the lower limbs
NAME
supplies the buttocks, perieneum, and most of the lower limbs
sacral plexus
What nerves make up the sacral plexus?
(1)tibial (2)common fibular nerves
NAME
is composed of the tibial and common fibular nerves
sacral plexus
What is the sacral plexus?
is formed from the anterior rami from L4-S4
NAME
is formed from the the anterior rami from L4-S4
sacral plexus
What are the major nerves of the sacral plexus? (2)
(1)pudendal (2)sciatic nerves
NAME
its major nerves are pudendal and sciatic nerves
sacral plexus
What are relfexes?
are rapid involuntary motor responses to an environmetnal stimulis detected by sensory receptors
NAME
are rapid involuntary motor respones to an environmental stimulis detected by sensory receptors
reflexes
A nerve impulse travels from the receptor through a (1) pathway to an effector
reflex arc
What is a reflex arc?
is a pathway to an effector at which a nerve impulse travels from a receptor
What is a somatic reflex?
if the motor response is contraction of a skeletal muscle
NAME
if the motor response is a contraction of a skeletal muscle, the reflex is (1)
a somatic reflex
What is autonomic reflex?
is if the motor response involves cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or glands
NAME
if the motor response involves cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or glands, the reflex is (1)
autonomic reflex
What are spinal relexes?
are reflexes mediated by spinal nerves
NAME
are reflexes mediated by spinal nerves
spinal reflexes
What are cranial reflexes?
are reflexes mediated by cranial nerves
NAME
are reflexes mediated by cranial nerves
cranial reflexes
Most reflexes help our bodies to (1) and therefore have a (2) function
(1)maintain homeostatsis (2)proctive
NAME
most help our body maintain homeostasis and therefore have a protective function
reflexes
What are the (5) components of a reflex arc?
(1)snesory receptors (2)sensory neurons (3)integrating center (4)motor neuron (5)effector
if the stimulus to a sensory receptor is strong enough, an (1) is generated
action potential
NAME
propagates the action potential and synapses w neurons in the spinal cord or brain stem
sensory neuron
Where is the integrating center located?
w/in the gray matter of the central nervous system
NAME
is located w/in the gray matter of the central nervous system
integrating center
What is the integrating center?
transfers info from the sensory neuron to motor neuron
NAME
transfers info from the sensory neuron to motor neuron
integrating center
What is a monosynaptic reflex arc?
is when the intergrating center is a single synapse btwn a sensory and motor neuron
NAME
is when the integrating center is a single synapse btwn a sensory and motor neuron
monosynaptic reflex
What is a polysynaptic reflex?
is when the integrating center sconsists of multiple synapses involving one or more interneuron
What is the differ bwtn a polysynaptic reflex and a monosynaptic reflex?
(1)monosynaptic reflex-is when the intergrating center is a single synapse btwn a sensory and motor neuron
(2)polysnaptic reflex-is when the integrating center sconsists of multiple synapses involving one or more interneuron
What is the motor neuron?
carries the action potential initated by the integrating center to the effector
NAME
carries the action potential iniated by the integrating center to the effector
motor neuron
T or F
Effectors can be a skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or glands
true
What does ipsilateral mean?
is when motor neurons and effectors are all on the same side of the body
NAME
is when motor neurons and effectors are all on the side body
ipsilateral
What does contralateral mean?
that the reflexes arcs involve sensory receptors and neurons on one side of the body and motor neurons and effectors on the opposite side of the body
NAME
means that the reflexes arc involve sensory receptors and neurons on one side of the body and motor neurons and effectors on the opposite side of the body
contralateral
What are bilateral refexes?
involve both sides of the body simulatenously
NAME
involve both sides simultaneously
bilateral reflexes
Bilateral reflexes are also called (1)
contralateral
(1) reflexes are also called contralateral
bilateral
Why are reflex tested used?
to evaluate the nervous system and to diagnose an abnoramaility or dysfunction that may cause an inhibitiion, exaggeration, or absence of reflexes
NAME
are used to evaluate the nervous system and to diagnose an abnormaility or dysfunction that may cause an inhibition, exaggeration, or absence of reflexes
relfex tests
What is the patellar reflex?
is the extension of the knee that ocurs when the quadricps femoris tendon is streched
NAME
is the extension of the knee that occurs when the quadriceps femoris tendon is strecthed
patellar reflex
What does the patellar relex help w?
(1)prevent injury by preventing muscles from oversteching (2)maintain posture and equilibrium
NAME
helps to prevent injury by preventing muscles from overstreching and maintain posture and equlibrium
patellar reflex
What are the components of the patellar reflex? (5)
(1)sensory receptor (2)sensory neurons (3)integrating center (4)motor neurons (5)effector
What are the muscle spindles?
are located in the quadriceps femoris muscle group
NAME
are located in the quadriceps femoris muscle group
muscle spindles
What happens when you tap the quadriceps? (2)
streches the quadriceps femoris muscle group (2) stimualtes the muscle spindles iniiating nerve impulses in axons of sensory neurons
Where is the monosynaptic intergating center in a patellar reflex located?
in the anterior gray horn of the spinal cord
NAME
is located in the anterior gray horn of the spinal cord
monosynaptic intergrating center
the sensory nueron associated w the monosynaptic strech reflex arc is also a component of a (1)
polysyanptic
NAME
inhibits the the motor neurons to an antagonist muscle group and results in relaxiation
polysynaptic reflex arc
What is the reciporacal innervation?
is the stimulation of contraction in agonistic muscles w simultaneous inhibition of anatgonistic muscles
NAME
is the stimulation of contraction in agonistic muscles w simulataneous inihibition of anatgonistic muscles
reciporacal innervation
What is the biceps reflex?
is the contraction of the biceps brachii muscle that ocurs when the biceps tendon is strecthed
NAME
is the contraction of the biceps brachii muscle that ocurs when the biceps tendon is streched
biceps reflex
T or F
during the biceps brachii, u might see the contraction or tension in the biceps brachii muscle bc the forearm is sitting on the table
true
What is the triceps reflex?
is the contraction of the triceps brachii muscle that occurs when the triceps brachii tendon is streched
NAME
is the contraction of the triceps brachii muscle that occurs when the triceps brachii tendon is streched
triceps reflex
What is the achilles reflex?
the response of this reflex is plantar flexions when the achilles tendon is tapped w the reflex hammer
NAME
is the response of this reflex is plantar flexions when the achilles tendon is tapped w the reflex hammer
achilles hammer
NAME
is also refered to as the ankle jerk
achilles reflex
NAME
is a superficial cord reflex that is imporant in neurological test
plantar flexion
What is plantar flexion?
a test that stimulates the cutaneous receptors and involves the brain in addition to the spinal cord
NAME
is a test that stimulates the cuaneous receptors and involves the brain in addition to the spinal cord
plantar flexion
In adults, how does the plantar flexion ocur?
when plantar surface of the foot is stroked
NAME
is when the plantar surface of the foot is stroked
planatar flexion
Why is a reaction of dorsiflexion w exntended flared toes seen in infants?
bc all the nerve fibers are not myelinated
T or F
the Babinski's sign is abnormal in adults
true
Is the Babinski' sign abrnormal or normal in adults?
normal
NAME
is also called the biceps jerk
biceps reflex
NAME
can also be refered to as the triceps jerk
triceps reflex
NAME
this can also be refered to as the knee jerk
patellar reflex
NAME
are solutions with a higher concentrations of solutes than in the cell
hypertonic solutions
What is a hypertonic solution?
are solutions w higher concentrations of solutes than in the cell
What is a hyptonic solution?
are solutions with fewer solutes than what is present inside the cell
NAME
are solutions with fewer solutes than what is present inside the cell
hyptonic solution
Cells immersed in a (1) solution will looe water and shrink
hypertonic
Cells immersed in a hypertonic solutions (1)
lose water and shrink or crenated
animal cells immeresed in a hypotonic solutions will (1)
burst or lyse
animal cells immersed in a (1) solutions will burst or lyse
hypotonic