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48 Cards in this Set

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Bone
Composed of bone tissue, connective tissue, and has channels through which course blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves.
Osteocyte
Mature bone cells;
are scattered in a matrix composed of collagen fibers and a great amount of crystalized tricalcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). Calcium carbonate and smaller amounts of other minerals are also present.
Osteoblast
Matrix synthesizing cell responsible for bone growth.
Compact bone
A dense outer layer that looks smooth and solid to the naked eye.
Spongy bone
A honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces called trabeculae (little beams);
In living bones the open spaces between trabeculae are filled with red or yellow bone marrow.
Osteon or
Haversian system
Structural unit of compact bone
Organization of Compact Bone
**
Lacuna(e)
A small cavity in bone; occupied by cells
Canaliculi
Small, hair-like canals that radiate from the lacuna that contain processes from the osteocyte.
Lamella(e)
Bony matrix laid down in concentric rings; they are adjacent to reinforce on e another in order to resist twisting. and torsion stress.
Central canal
(Haversian or osteonic canal)
Found in the center of the osteon running through the core;
Contain veins, arteries, nerves, lymphatics that serve the needs of the osteon's cell.
Perforating canals
(Volkmann's canals)
Lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone;
They connect the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to those in the central canal and the medullary cavity
Trabeculae
Feature of spongy bone;
it is not organized in the orderly arrangement of the osteon;
it consists of lamellae arranged in a latticework of these thin bony plates.
Perforating canals
(Volkmann's canals)
Lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone;
They connect the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to those in the central canal and the medullary cavity
Trabeculae
Feature of spongy bone;
it is not organized in the orderly arrangement of the osteon;
it consists of lamellae arranged in a latticework of these thin bony plates.
Parts of a Long Bone
**
Articular (Hyaline) cartilage
Covers bone ends at movable joints.
Compact bones
Every bone has this dense outer layer that looks smooth and solid to the naked eye.
Diaphysis
A tube or shaft that forms the long axis of the bone.
Ephiphysis
The bone ends;
Proximal and Distal
Medullary cavity
Middle of the bone or "marrow cavity";
contains the yellow bone marrow.
Spongy bone
Internal to the compact bone;
a honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces.
Red bone marrow
Located in between the trabeculae of the spongy bone.
Metaphysis
The point between the epiphysis and the diaphysis.
Periosteum
The external surface of the bone is covered by this glistening white, double layered membrane.
Long bones
Greater length than width;

Ex: femur, humerus, fibula, tibia, ulna, radius
Short bones
Have a cube-like shape

Ex: wrist bones, carpals, and tarsals
Flat bones
Have a thin, compressed shape

Ex: clavicle, rib, top of skull
Irregular bones
Have a complex shape

Ex: Vertabrae
Sesamoid bones
Have a round shape or "sesame seed" shape

Ex: Patella (knee cap)
Wormian bones
Located in the joints

Ex: sutures of the cranium
Surface Features of Bones
**
Fissure
A narrow slit-like opening;
for passage of blood vessels and nerves

Ex: Superior orbital fissure
Foramen
Usually a fairly large, round hole;
for passage of blood vessels and nerves

Ex: Foramen magnum; vertebral foramen
Fossa
A shallow, basin-like depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface;
for passage of blood vessels and nerves

Ex: Mandibular fossa
Meatus
A tube or canal-like passage;
for passage of blood vessels and nerves

Ex: External auditory (acoustic) meatus
Sinus
An air-filled cavity in a bone and lined with mucous membrane;
for passage of blood vessels and nerves

Ex: Maxillary sinus
Sulcus
A groove or furrow

Ex: Intertubercular sulcus
Process
A projection of a bone

Ex: zygomatic process, styloid process, or spinous process, mastoid process
Condyle
A large roughly rounded process;
contributes to the formation of a joint

Ex: Occipital condyle (where C1 fits)
Facet
A flat, smooth surface;
contributes to the formation of a joint

Ex: Superior articular facet or the inferior articular facet (thoracic vertebrae)
Head
A rounded process supported on a narrower part, the neck;
contributes to the formation of a joint

Ex: head of a femur
Crest
A prominent ridge;
provides a place for the attachment of ligaments, tendons and other types of connective tissue

Ex: Iliac crest
Epicondyle
A process above a condyle;
provides a place for the attachment of ligaments, tendons and other types of connective tissue
Line (linea)
Smaller ridge than a crest;
used for the attachment of ligaments, tendons and other types of connective tissue

Ex: Linea aspera
Trochanter
A large process of the femur;
used for the attachment of ligaments, tendons, and other types of connective tissue

Ex: Femur's greater trochanter
Tubercle
A small rounded process;
used for attachment of ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissue

Ex: Humerus' greater tubercle
Tuberosity
A large, rough process;
for attachment of ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissue

Ex: Ischial tuberosity