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142 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are 5 commonly used blood tests today?
1) hematocrit
2) hemoglobin
3) blood urea nitrogen
4) total white blood cell count
5) white blood cell differentiation
What does hematocrit measure?
-the percentage of red blood cells in a blood sample (35-45% is normal)
What does hemoglobin measure?
-hemoglobin concentration of whole blood
What does blood urea nitrogen measure?
-the urea nitrogen content of whole blood as an idicator of kidney and/or liver function
What is the purpose of WBC count?
-total number of white blood cells in a blood sample
What is the purpose of a WBC differential?
-to evaluate a stained blood smear
What is the formula for calculating the hematocrit in a capillary tube?
RBC length/fluid length x 100
How do you calculate the true hematocrit?
hematocrit x 0.96
What is the purpose of calculating the true hematocrit?
-it is not possible to fully compact the RBC present in the plasma becuase approcimately 3-8% of plasma is entrapped between the red blood cells.
How did we do the hematocrit test?
-fill cap tube 3/4, clay pack
-centrifuge 4 minutes
-measure total fluid length
-use formula
What did we do for the hemoglobin test?
-Tallquist method (1 drop whole blood on small test paper, wait 15s, match color in gms)
What is a decrease in Hb called?
What is Hb measured in?
How does this compare to PCV?
-1/3 of PCV
What is urea nitrogen?
-waste product of protein metabolism
Where is urea formed?
In the liver, carried by blood to the kidneys for excretion
What can cause BUN alterations?
-renal function
-protein breakdown
-hydration status
-liver failure
-excessive GI bleeding
In terms of kidney function, what does BUN do?
When damaged or diseased kidneys can't clear urea from the bloodstream, BUN increases. Hypovolemic shock or congestive heart failure result from decreased renal perfusion
What test was used to perform a BUN?
Azostix reagent strips: large drop of blood on stick, wait 60s, rinse for 1-2 sec, compare color immediately
What was used to perform a WBC count?
What causes the lysing of red blood cells in the hemacytometer?
-acetic acid
What is the equation for calculating WBC?
-(ave per square) x (100) x (10,000) = WBC/mL
What does the 100 account for in the WBC calculation?
How about the 1000?
-dilution factor
-volume of counting chamber
What are the proper sequences of staining?
-dip and blot 5 times in fixative, then eosin, then hematoxylin
-lastly, blot back of slide with PT to remove excess stain
Describe red tops.
*NO anticoagulant
-used to harvest serum after sample clots
Describe tiger tops.
*contains gel barrier
-serum seperator, no need to draw off serum after
Describe lavender (purple) tops.
Contains EDTA to bind up calcium. This prevents coagulation and used for CBC and cytology of body fluids (preserves cells well).
Describe green tops.
*contains heparin which interferes with thrombin formation
-available as sodium, potassium, or lithuim salt.
-not permanent, so clot may form
-can be spun immediately
Describe blue tops.
*contains sodium citrate which ties up calcium
-usually used for coagulation testing
Describe gray tops.
*contains potassium oxalate which ties up calcium
-useful in measuring glucose and lactate if blood sample can't be spun down and separated quickly
What are the main components of blood?
-cells (formed elements) 45%
-plasma (92% water, 8% solids) 55%
Describe RBC's.
-formed in blood marrow
-no nucleus (starts with one)
Which animals have weird RBC's?
-goats: have 4 nuclei
-amphibians/birds: have nucleus and oval in shape
What is rouleau?
-factor found in horse blood (unique!) allowing stacking of blood into chains for more compression.
What is hemolysis?
-lysis of RBS due to toxins, parasites
What is anemia?
-reduction of RBC numbers or Hb resulting in less oxygen transport
What are three things that cause anemia?
1) reduction in formation (lack of iron, nutrition
2) blood loss: parasites, lacerations
3) increased RBC destruction: malaria, immune disorder
What is hypoxia?
-decreased oxygen in tissues
*more oxygen: brighter it is!
What is hemoglobin for?
-transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide
What are thrombocytes?
-1/2 size of RBC's
-involved in blood clots
What are leukocytes?
-can be granulocytes or agranulocytes
What is diapedesis?
-independent movement
-What are neutrophils?
-many multishaped nuclei, often u-shaped
-cytoplasm doesn't stain well
*largest in number and most common
*aka: polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)
-neutrophilia vs neutropenia
What are eosinophils?
-take up red stain
-scarce except in chronic disease and allergies
-acidopenia vs acidophilia
What are basophils?
-take up blue dye
-scarce except in acute allergic reactions/inflammations
-basphilia vs basopenia
What are monocytes?
-moving WBC's
-largest WBC
-called macrophages with stationary
-called Kupffer cells when stationary in liver
What are lymphocytes?
-lacolized in lymph nosed causing inflammed nodes during illness
-largest nucleus
-T cells and B cells
What do B cells do?
Form antibodies
What do T cells do?
Kill foreign bodies
What are the protein parts of plasma?
What are the other materials in plasma?
-amino acids
-waste products
What are the waste products found in plasma?
-uric acid
-ammonia salts
Describe albumin
-most abundent protein in plasma used for transport and maintaining osmotic pressure
Describe globulins
-alpha, beta, gamma
-transport and clotting factors
Describe fibrinogen
-mesh for platelets
What is serum?
-liquid left after clotting factores have been removed
What are the mechanisms for anticoagulation?
-tie up calcium
-interfere with thrombin formation
-interfere with vit K
What components make up the urinary system?
-two ureters
-two kidneys
What do kidneys look like?
-bean shaped
-dark brown color
-located behind peritoneum
-right kidney slightly lower than left one (dispacement from liver)
What supplies each kidney with blood and from where?
-renal artery from a branch of the abdominal aorta
Where does blood exit the kidney and what does this connect to?
-renal vein connects to the inferior vena cava
What is the funnel end of each ureter called?
-the pelvis
What is the exiting of urine from the bladder called?
What controls micturition?
-sphincter vesicae
-sphincter urethrae
Describe the sphincter vesicae.
-smooth muscle sphincter near exit of bladder
-when about 300ml of urine accumulates, bladder parasympathetically causes walls to contract moving urine to next sphincter in the urethra.
Describe the sphincter urethrae.
-sphincter between urethra and outside environment
-skeletal muscle fibers, volunatarilary controlled
-micturation occurs only when desired
What is the thin covering of the kidney called?
-renal capsule
What covers the kidney providing suppor and protection?
-fatty capsule
What lays under the renal capsule and what does it look like?
-reddish brown (due to great blood supply)
What is the next part of the kidney after the cortex?
-the medulla
What is the renal medulla divided into?
-cone shaped renal pyramids
What is the tissue that extends down between each renal pyramid?
-cortical tissue in the form of renal columns
What is the end of each renal pyramid called and where do these project to?
-renal papilla, which project into a calyx.
What are calyces and where do these lead?
-short tubes that receive urine from the renal papillae
-they empty into the renal pelvis
What is the basic functioning unit of the kidney?
How many nephrons are estimated to be in each kidney?
-about 1 million nephrons!
-80% in cortex, the rest partially in the cortex and medulla
What are nephrons in the cortex called? How about the remainder nephrons?
-cortical nephrons
-juxtamedullary nephrons
What three physiological activities result in urine formation?
1) filtration
2) reabsorption
3) secretion
Where does urine formation occur in the nephron?
-different regions which is why urine formed in beginning of nephron is quite unlike the urine that enters the calyces of the kidney
What is the enlarged end of the nephron called?
-renal corpuscle
What are the two parts of a renal corpuscle?
1) glomerulus
2) glomerular capsule
What is the glomerulus?
-an inner tuft of capillaries in the renal capsule
What is the glomerular capsule?
-outer double walled cap-like structure in the renal corpuscle
Where does blood go from the renal artery to get to the nephron?
-interlobular artery
From the interlobular artery, how does blood get to the glomerulus?
-afferent arteriole
What does blood exit the glomerulus through?
-efferent arteriole (much smaller than afferent)
How does glomerular filtrate move?
High intraglomerular blood pressure forces it to pass into the glomerular capsule.
What is the fluid made up of that called glomerular filtrate?
-amino acids
-lots of water
Once in the glomerular capsule, where does the filtrate pass to get into the large collecting duct?
-proximal convoluted tubule
-descending limb of Henle's loop
-ascending limb of Henle's loop
-distal convoluted tubule
-collecting duct
What are peritubular capillaries?
-capillaries that enmesh the entire route glomerular filtrate passes while reabsorbing water, glucose, amino acids, and other substances.
What absorbs up to 80% of the water as filtrate moves through nephron?
-Walls of the proximal convoluted tubules
What facilitates water reabsorption and from where?
-antidiuretic hormone of teh posterior pituitary
-aldosterone of the adrenal cortex
How is urine altered in the collecting duct?
-cells lining collecting duct secrete ammonia, uric acid, and other substances.
Does the brain or the kidney recieve more blood?
What are the three major functions of the urinary sytem and where do they occur?
-all occur in the kidney
1) remove products of cellular metabolism from the body
2) homeostasis of body fluid volume and solute composition
3) control the plasma pH
What is the primary product of urinary system production?
What are the four primary components of the kidney?
1) renal capsule
2) renal cortex
3) renal medulla
4) renal pelvis
What is the renal capsule made of?
-fibrous connective tissue
-fat deposits
What is the hilus?
-an indentation of the medial surface of the kidney where the pelvis exits
What tests are usually part of a urinalysis?
-leukocyte presence
-specific gravity
What else is done to analyze urine?
-sediment examination
What can make urine cloudy?
-bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus
What can make urine smell different?
-E.Coli causes foul odor
-diabetes or starvation causes sweet, fruity odor
What does a high specific gravity mean?
There are lots of solutes dissolved in the urine. This is from dehydration and vice-versa.
What is consistantly acidic urine a sign of?
-metabolic or respiratory acidosis
-methanol poisoning
-metabolic disorders
What is consistent alkaline urine indicative of?
-metabolic and respiratory alkalosis
-urinary tract infections
What would high levels of protein indicate in urine?
-glomerular damge
-excessive exervise
-cold exposure
-acute abdominal diseases
What would glucose in the urine mean?
-spilling over from exceptionally high blood glucose
-damaged/diseased kidney's
What would high levels of ketones be indicative of?
-diabetic ketoacidosis
-diet low in sugars and starches
-prolonged vomiting
What would Hb indicate in urine?
-destruction of RBC's faster than liver can remove
-lesion along genitourinary tract
What would leukocyte presence indicate?
-infection is present
What are some things found in a sediment test?
-red or white blood cells
What is meant by "critters" in urine?
-yeast cells
What are the different types of casts?
What are the different types of crystals?
-oxalate (squares with x)
-triple phosphate (coffins)
-cystine (hexagonal)
What lines both the kidney and the ureter?
-transitional epithelium
What are the layers of the ureter?
-connective tissue
-three layers of smooth muscle
*innermost is longitudinal
*middle is circularly around tube
*outermost is longitudinal again
What is the bladder made of?
-transitional epithelium
-underlying connective tissue (lamina propria)
-interwoven smooth muscle wall (no distinct layers)
When empty, transitional epithelium can be seen as what two distinct cells?
-cuboidal and columnar cells
After bladder distension, what do the cells look like?
-squamous epithelial cells
What double walled epithelium where glomeruli embed?
-Bowmans capsule
What is the part of Bowmans capsule that covers the capillaries of glomeruli? How about the outer capsule part?
What are proximal tubules?
-distinguished by an uneven apical border (it is a brush border)
What are distal tubules?
-no brush border so they are distinguished from proximal tubules by the fact that they have a smoother apical surface
What did we use to perform a specific gravity test?
What fluid lines each alveolus?
What is it for?
-reduce suface tension of the fluid to prevent alveoli from collapsing as air moves in and out during breathing
What are the parts of the lung?
-convex lateral surface
What is the area between the lungs called?
What does the mediastinum contain?
-heart, large blood vessels, nerves, trachea, esophagus, and lymphatic vessels and nodes.
What distinguishes the lobes of the lungs?
-the major branches of the bronchi
What are the lobes of each lung?
-left lung has two lobes (cranial and caudal)
-right lung has four lobes (cranial, middle, cuadal, and a small accessory lobe)
*horse doesn't have lobes except for accessory lobe on right lung
What is the hilus of the lung?
-the only stationary part of lung
-well defined area on medial side where air, blood, lymph, and nerves enter and leave the lung
What lines a typical bronchiole?
-smooth muscle
-outer ciliated pseudostratified epithelium
What makes up most of the lung?
-air spaces
What is TLC? What composes this?
-total lung capacity
-vital capacity and residual volume
What is vital capacity?
-maximal amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation (4800mL)
What is residual volume?
How can this be calculated?
-volume of air that remains in lungs after amaximal exhalation (1200mL)
-25% of VC in females, 33% in males
What are the subdivisions of vital capacity?
-tidal volume
-inspiratory reserve volume
-expiratory reserve volume
What is tidal volume?
Normal amount of air inhaled or exhaled
What is IRV?
-maximum amount of air inhaled after a normal inhalation (3100mL)
How do female volumes differ from male inhalation/exhalation?
-20-25% less
What is spirometry useful in?
-evaluating pulmonary function
-diagnosing pulmonary disorders
What are the two lung classifications for disorders?