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36 Cards in this Set

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What are the four (4) distinct cell types found in the epidermis?
1) keratinocytes
2) melanocytes
3) Langerhan's cells
4) Merkel cells
What are keratinocyte cells?
Produce keratin
What is keratin?
Tough, fibrous, waterproof protein that gives skin its resiliency and strength.
What are melanocytes?
Spidery black cells that produce the brown-black pigment called melanin.
What are Langerhan's cells?
The skin's macrophagic cells and help to stimulate the immune system.
What are Merkel cells?
Located at the epidermal-dermal junction and are associated with sensory nerve endings aiding in the sensation of touch.
What are the 5 distinct layers of the epidermis?
1) stratum germinativum
2) stratum spinosum
3) stratum granulosum
4) stratum lucidum
5) stratum corneum
What is the stratum germinativum?
The stratum basale: the deepest layer. Single row of keratocytes attached to basement membrane. Merkels cells and melanocytes also found in this layer.
What is the stratum spinosum?
Resemble sea urchins in histological exam. Contains sveral layers of cells along with langerhans cells in most abundance here (their slender projections form a weblike frame around the keratocytes).
What is the stratum granulosum?
The middle layer of epidermis. Composed of two-four layers of flattened diamond-shaped kertocytes.
What is the stratum lucindum?
A layer found only in VERY thick skin (most lack this layer). Microscopically appears translucent with a few rows of flattened dead cells.
What is the stratum corneum?
The outermost layer that dominates the epidermis. (3/4 of epidermis thickness). Appear hexagonal from above and paper thin from side view. Often known as dandruff! (AKA: cornified or horny cells).
What are the four major tissue types in animals?
1) nervous
2) muscular
3) epithelial
4) connective
What is the function of epithelial tissue?
Protect, secrete, absorb.
How is epithlial tissue connected to underlying tissue?
basement membrane (basal lamina)
What is the basal lamina?
The basement membrane which is a glue-like substance secreted by the base layer of epithelial cells.
How are epithelial cells classified?
1) shape of outermost cell layer
2) thickness in layers
3) ciliated or secrete mucus
Where would you find simple squamous epithelia?
capillary walls, alveolar walls in lungs, the peritoneum, the pleurae, and blood vessel lingings.
Where would you find simple cuboidal epithelia?
Glands such as kidney, thyroid, salivary, and pancreas. Also in ovary and lens of eye.
Where would you find simple columnar epithelia?
Lining of stomach, intestines, and kidney tubules are nonciliated. Ciliated can be found in respiratory tract, uterine tubes, and portions of uterus. (Goblet cells in this type of tissue)
Where would you find pesudostratified?
Ciliated in trachea, bronchi, auditory tube, and part of middle ear (goblet cells also).
Nonciliated in male urethra and parotid gland.
Where can you find a brush border?
Columnar cells that line the small intestine are covered in microvilli that look like a brush border under microscopy.
Where would you find stratified squamous?
Skin, oral cavity, esophagus, vagina, and cornea.
Where would you find stratifed columnar epithelia?
Some glands, conjunctiva, the pharynx, a portion of the urethra, and the anus.
Where would you find transitional epithelium?
Urinary bladder, ureters, and kidneys.
What are the two layers that make up the dermis?
1) papillary layer
2) reticular layer
What are dermal papillae?
nipplelike projections in the papillary layer of dermis that rise up to epidermis helping to cement layers together.
What layer lays below the two dermis layers?
Subcutaneous layer (hypodermis): thick layer rich with adipose, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves. *Allows skin to move freely over underlying bone and muscle without tension on skin!
What are the three layers of epidermis in animals with fur?
stratum basale, stratum spinosum, and stratum corneum.
What are sebacueous glands?
Found in all parts of skin except soles and palms. Ducts usually empty into hair follicle and produce sebum (preventing hair from drying and keeps skin soft and pliable).
What does hyptonic to the cell mean?
lower concentration than inside the cell
What does hypertonic to the cell mean?
higher concentratation than inside of cell.
What is the bursting from hypotonic solution called?
hemolysis
What is the shrinking of a cell in a hypertonic solution called?
crenation
What are the two major body cavities and what separates them?
The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
Describe how to look at a slide.
-Put stage at lowest setting and objective lens at 4x or 10x
-Put slide in holder on stage. Center over condenser lens.
-Use coarse focus
-Use fine focus
-eye width
-right eye fine focus
-left eye diopter ring
-switch to proper magnification and only adjust fine focus
-clean up, put back to 4x, shut down microscope.