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106 Cards in this Set

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What is the uretha?
is a thin walled muscular tube that drain urine from the bladder and convey it out of the body
NAME
this is a thin walled muscular tube that drain urine from the bladder and converys it out of the body
uretha
What kind of tissue does the uretha have?
mostly pseudostratifed columnar eptihelia (2)near the bladder it it becomes transtitional peithelia (3)near the external opening it changes to a protective strafied squamous eptihliea
NAME
this has mostly pseuodostratifed columnar epithelia, near the bladder it changes to transitional epithelia and near the external opening to protective strafied squamous epithelia
urethra
What is hthe internal urethral sphincter?
is a involuntary sphinceter that keeps the urethra closed and prevents leaking btwn voidings
NAME
this is a involuntary sphinceter that keeps the urethra closed and prevents leaking btwn voidings
internal urethral sphincter
What is the external urethral sphincter
is a voluntary constrictor of the urethra
NAME
this is a voluntary constrictor of the urethra
external urethral sphincter
the external urethral sphinceter can also be called the (1)
sphincter urethrae
(1)can also be called the sphinceter urethrae
the external urethral sphinceter
How do the internal and external urethral sphinctors differ strucurally?
(1)internal is composed of smooth muscle (2)the external is composed of skeletal muscle
How do the internal and external urethral sphinctors differ functionally?
(1)internal- is involuntary (2)external- is controled voluntarily
NAME
this sphincter is involuntary
internal urethra sphincter
NAME
this urethral sphinceter is voluntariy
external
NAME
this urethral sphinceter is composed of smooth muscle
internal
What is the internal urtheral sphinceter composed of?
smooth muscle
NAME
this urtheral sphincter is composed of smooth muscle
internal
What is the external urtheral sphincter composed of?
skeletal muscle
NAME
this urtehral sphincter is composed of skeletal mucles
external
What is the external urethral orfice?
is the external opening of the urthrea
NAME
this is the external opening of the urethra
external urethral orfice
The external urethra orfice is also called the (1)
meatus
(1)is aslo called the meatus
the external urethra orfice
How does the urethra differ in both sexes? (2)
(1)females-it is much shorter and it tightly bound to the vaginal wall by fibrous connective tissue (2)males- it is longer, has three regions: prostatic urethra, the membranous urethra, and the spongy urethra, and has a double function of carrying urine and semen out of the body
How is the male urethra differ comapared to the females? (3)
(1)the males is longer, (2)has a double function of carrying urine and semen out the body (3)has three regions: the prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, and the spongy urethra
How does the female urethra differ compared to the male urethra?
it is much shorter and it tigtly bound to the vaginal wall by fibrous connective tissue
NAME
this is much shorter and is tightly bound to the vaginal wall by fibrous connective tissue
the female urethra
NAME
this has three regions: the prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, and the spongy urethra,
the male urethra
NAME
this has three regions: the prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, and the spongy urethra, two functions (the carrying out of semen and urine out of the body), and it is much longer
the male urethra
What are the 2 functions of the male urethra?
to carry urine and semen out of the body
NAME
its two functions include; to carry urine and semen out of the body
the male urethra
What are the (3)regions of the male urethra?
(1)the prostatic urethra (2)the membranous urethra (3) the spongy urethra
What is the prostatic urethra>
the part of the male urethra that contains the prostate gland
NAME
this is the part of the male urethra that contains the prostate gland
the prostatic urethra
What is the spongy urethra?
passes through the penis and opens at the extrenal urethral orfice
NAME
this passes through the penis and opens at the external urethral orfice
spongy urethra
The spongy urethra can also be called the (1)
penile urethra
(1) can also be called the penile urethra
spongy urethra
Why can improper habbits cause females to get infections?
bc the female' urethra is shorter and its external orfice is so close to the anal opening
NAME
females are more suspectable for this than males bc the female's urethra is shorter and its external orfice is so close to the anal opening
infections due to improper habbits such as wiping the wrong way
Why can intercourse cause females to get bladder infections ?
bc the females urethra is so short and it external orfice is so close to the anal openings-- sex can drive bacteria from the vagina and extrenal genital region twoard the bladder
NAME
bc the females urethra is so short and it external orfice is so close to the anal openings--this can drive bacteria from the vagina and extrenal genital region twoard the bladder
bladder infections caused by sex
Why can the use of spermicides increase a female's chance of getting a bladder infection?
bc the spermicde kills helpful bacteria-- thus allowing the infectious bacterai to conoloze the vaginia
NAME
this can kill helpful bacteria--thus allowing the infectious bacteria to conolize the vaginal wall
spermicides
What is urethrisits?
is inflammation of the urethra
NAME
this is a inflammation of the urethra
urethritis
What is cytistis?
refers to bladder inflammation
NAME
this refers to bladder inflammation
cytisitis
What is pyelonephritis?
refers to renal inflammation
NAME
this refers renal inflammations
pyelonephristis
What is dysuria?
refers painful urinartion
NAME
this refesr to painful urination
dysuria
What are the symptoms of a urinary tract infection? (5)
(1)dysuria (2)urgency (3)urinary frequency (4)fever (5)sometimes cloudy or bloody urine
NAME
some symptoms of this include dysuria, urgency, urinary frequency, fever, and sometimes cloudy or bloody urine
a urinary tract infection
What is micturition?
refers the act of emptying the bladder
NAME
this refers to the act of emptying the bladder
micturition
What are some other names for micturition? (2)
(1)voiding (2)urination
What are some other names for voiding? (2)
(1)micturition (2)urination
What are some other names for urination? (2)
(1)voiding (2)micturation
When about (1)of urine has accumulated afferent impulese are transmited to the briain creating a urge to void
200 ml
What is the micturtion center?
the dorsolateral pons
NAME
this refers to the dorsolateral pons
the micturtition center
T or F
bc the external sphincer is voluntary controlled we can chose to keep it closed
true
After tolder yrs, what can incontinence be caused by? (4)
(1)emotional problems (2)physical pressure (3)pregrancy (4)nervous system
NAME
after tolder years, this can be caused by emotional problems, physcial pressure, pregrancy and the nervous system (such as laughing to hard)
incontinence
What is urinary rentation?
refers to when the bladder is unable to expel its contained urine
NAME
this refers to when the bladder is unable to expel its contained urine
urinary rentation
NAME
this can be inserted through the uretrha to drain the urine and prevent the bladder trauma from excessive streching
a catheter
NAME
sometimes this can be caused by general anesthesia, and hypertrophy of the prostate gland
urinary rentation
What can urinary retentaion be caused by? (2)
(1)general anesthesia (2)hypertrophy of the prosate gland
What are the three most abnoramlitles of the urinary system? (3)
(1)horse shoe kidneys (2)kidney hypospadis (3)polycystic kidney
NAME
these include horse shoe kidneys, kidney hypospadis, and polycystic kidney
the three most common kidney abonromalites
What is hypospadisa?
is found in male infants only and refers to when the urethral orfice if located on the ventral surface of the penis
NAME
this is found in male infants only and refers to when the urethra orfice is located n the ventral surface of the penis
hypospadisa
NAME
this is the most common congential abnormaility of the the urethra
hypospadias
What is congenital polycystic kidneys?
is an inherited conditions in which the baby's kidneys have many urine filled cysts
NAME
this is an inherited condition in which the baby's kidneys have many urine filled cysts
congential polycystic kidneys
What is adult polycystic kidney disease?
is an inherited condition in which cysts develop so gradually that they produce no symptoms until about 40 yrs of age
NAME
this is a inherited condition in which the cysts develop so gradually that they produce no symptoms until about 40 yrs of age
polycystic kidneys
Why is incontinence normally in infants?
bc they have not yet learned how to control the external urethral sphincter
NAME
this is common in children bc they have not yet learned how to control their external urehtral sphinceter
incontinence
What bacteria causes most urinary problems?
E coli
NAME
e coli causes most of these
urinary tract problems/infections
NAME
this accounts for 80% of all urinary tract infections
normal residents of the urinary tract
E coli accounts for (1)of all urinary tract infections
normal bacertia flora of the urinary tract
T or F
the bladder of an aged person is shrunken,w less than half the capcity of a young adult
true
What is nocturia?
is the need to get up urinate during hte night to
NAME
this refers tot he need to get up urinated during the night
nocturia
NAME
this plagues most of the population
nocturia
What is one differ btwn the ascending and descending loop of Henle? (2)
(1)descending limb is relavitely impearble to solutes and freely permeable to water (2)the ascending limb is permeable to solutes but not to water
NAME
this is relativly impearable to solutes and freely permeable to water
the descending loop of Henle
The decending loop of Henle is impearble to (1)and freely permeable to (2)
(1)solutes (2)water
The ascending loop of Henle is permeable to (1)but not to (2)
(1)solutes (2)water
NAME
this is permeable to solutes but no to water
the ascending loop of Henle
NAME
these are permeable to urea
the deep medullary regions of the collecting ducts
The deep medullary regions of the collecting duct are permeable to (1)
urea
The (1) of the collecting duct are permeable to urea
deep medullary regions
Where are the kidneys located? (not refering to the lumbar region)
behind the lower abdominal cavity
NAME
these are located behind the abdominal cavity
abdominal cavity
Describe the filtrate flow from the PCT (5)
(1)PCT (2)Descending of the loop of Henle(3)ascending limb of the loop of Henle (4)DCT (5)collecting duct
Describe the flow of urine from the collecting duct? (7)
(1)minor calyx (2)major calyx (3)renal pelvis (4)ureter (5) urinary bladder (6)urethra (7)external urethra orfice
Blood pressure drives (1)
filtration
(1)drives filtration
blood pressure
What is responisble for cleaning up proteins and the big stuff?
the lympathic and immune system
NAME
these (2)systems are responsible for cleaning upt the big stuff like protiens
the lmypathic and the immune system
NAME
this sytem cleans up the little stuff
the urinary sytstem