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63 Cards in this Set

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labia majora
hair-covered fatty skin fold(larger lips); counterpart of the male scrotum
scrotum
externalsac enclosing the testes
ovulation
ejection of an immature egg(oocyte) from the ovary
uterus
hollow, thick walled organ that receives, retains, and nourishes fertilized egg; site where embryo/fetus developes
corpora cavernosa
the paired dorsal erectile bodies of the penis that make up most of the penis and are bound by fibrous tunica albuginea
chlamydia
most common STD; responsible for 25-50% of all pelvic inflammatory disease
syphilis
corkscrew shaped bacteria, Treponema Pallidum
genital warts
caused by human papillomavirus; 2nd most common STD
gonorrhea
Neisseria gonorrhorea bacteria; in males urethritis, painful urination, discharge of pus from the penis
genital herpes
Epstein-Barr virus type 2, characterized by latent periods of flare ups
steps of spermatogenesis
mitosis of spermatogonia(forming spermatocytes)--> meiosis(spermatocytes to spermatids)--> spermiogenesis(spermatids to sperm)
muscles that regulates temp of testes
dartos muscle and cremaster muscle
movement of sperm is due to
smooth muscle in the epididymis contract and expel the sperm into the ductus deferens
males have the ability to ejaculate due to water action
during ejaculation thick layers of smooth muscle in the ejaculatory duct create strong peristaltic waves that rapidly squeeze the sperm forward along the tract and into the urethra
risks for testicular cancer
history of mumps or orchitis(inflammation of testes), maternal exposure to environmental toxins, cryptorchidism(nondescent of testes)
responsible for 60% of sperm
seminal vesicles/seminal glands
controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins
hypothalamus release GnRH and it controls the relesae of the anterior pituitary gondadotropins
functions of the uterus
receive, retain, and nourish fertilized ovum
development of male structures depends on
the presence of testosterone
function of the corpus luteum
a glandular structure that arises from the ruptured follicle released during ovulation that degenerates
fallopian tubes
receive that ovulated oocyte and are site where fertilization occurs; the ampulla ends in the funnel-shaped ciliated infundibulum containing fingerlike projections called fimbriae
female counterpart of the male scrotum
labia majora
egg and sperm are similar due to...
they only have the haploid chromosomal number and gamete formation involves meiosis
what maintains the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next
meiosis
where does fertilization occur
fallopian tubes
spermiogenesis involves stripping away..
excess cytoplasmic baggage and forms a tail
male secondary sex characteristics
enlargement of testes and scrotum, appearance of facial hair, growth of penis, increase in skeletal and muscle mass
what occurs when cells separate at the two cell state following fertilization
identical twins
characteristics of mature sperm
head, midpiece, tail
function of testosterone
targets accessory reproductive organs causing them to grow and assume adult size and function; prompts spermatogenesis and is the basis of the sex drive
effects of estrogen
promotes oogenesis and follicle growth in the ovary and exert ababolic effects on the female reproductive tract; induce secondary sex characteristics: breasts, increased deposit of subcutaneous fat, widening and lightening of the pelvis
secretion of progesterone stimulates...
inhibits uterine motility during preganacy and prepares the breasts for lactating
characteristics of sperm
acromsome: a helmet-like "tip peice" that contains hydrolytic enzymes that enable the sperm to penetrate and enter an egg; the cytoplams sheds to form the tail; the pH is alkaline
what are interstitial cells
they lie in the soft connective tissue surrounding the seminiferous tubules and produce androgens(mainly testosterone)
what are sustentacular cells
supporting cells of the spermatogonium during spermatogenesis that divide the seminiferous tubule into 2 compartments; their tight juctions form a blood-testis barrier that prevents sperm from escaping through the basal lamina into the blood
erection of the penis results from
a parasympathetic reflex triggered during sexual excitement that promotes release of nitric oxide, the erectile tissue fills with blood causing the penis to enlarge and become rigid
tunics that surround the testes
tunica vaginalis(derived from peritoneum) tunica albuginea(fibrous capsule of the testis)
erection is a result of vascular spaces filling with...
nitric oxide relaxes vascular smooth muscle and allow arterioles to fill with blood
what surrounds the ovaries
tunica albuginea that is covered by a layer of germinal epithelium
during what phase are progesterone levels the highest
secretory(postovulatory)phase days 15-28
describe breasts of nonpregnant females
the glandular structure of the breast is undeveloped and the duct system is rudimentary; breast size is largely due to the amount of fat deposits
what are male/female mammary glands composed of
modified sweat glands consisting of 15-25 lobes that radiate around and open at the nipple
when does menstration occur
the menstrual phase(days 1-5); the uterus sheds all but the deepest part of its endometrium
differences b/w spermatogenesis and oogenesis
spermatogenesis begins at puberty and continues throughout life and 4 sperm result; oogenesis takes years to complete resulting in 1 egg and 2 polar bodies
what occurs after ovulation
secretory (postovulatory) phase days 15-28 and the endometrium prepares for implantation of an embryo
what do seminal vesicles produce
60% of sperm
what is the gubernaculum and what is its function
"the governor" a fibrous cord that extends from the testes to the scrotum, it guides the testes mechanically during development
in the brain, the testicalur-axis involves the release of what
hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis and testcular androgen production
what controls testosterone release
luteinizing hormone binds to the interstitial cells, prodding them to secrete testosterone
what is the infundibulum
the ampulla ends in the infundibulum, an open funnel-shaped structure bearing ciliated, fingerlike projections
after the surge of LH what are at the highest levels(in females)
progesterone and estrogen
an aovulating oocyte is activated by hormones about how many days before ovulation
about 7
what does the duct system of the male reproductive system include
epididymus, ducturs deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra
what would a low secretion of LH in a male cause
interstitial cells would not be triggered to release testosterone resulting in under developed sex organs
during the secretory phase secretion of progesterone prepares the breasets for
lactation
what is the most important androgen produced by interstitial cells
testosterone
impotence
inability to attain erection
meiosis done by...
reduction
spermiogenesis
spermatids form sperm
what 2 tasks does meiosis accomplish
reduces the chromosome number by half and introduces gentic variability
in the uterine tubes peristalsis is contolled by what muscle
smooth (involuntary) muscle
mesometrium
portion of the braod ligament that supports the uterus laterally
myometrium
middle layer; interlacing layers of smooth muscle