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MALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT ANATOMY
PRIMARY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
A. PRIMARY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS: TESTES (2)
(produce gametes via spermatogenesis and produces sex hormones)

1. develop in abdominal cavity near kidneys, descend thru inguinal canal into
SCROTUM in utero or soon after birth

2. SCROTAL SAC
a. holds testes away from/near to body to regulate testis temp. Sperm not viable
at body temp.

b. DARTOS MUSCLE: in loose layer of skin of scrotum.
* Contracts to wrinkle scrotum, dec. size when cold.
* Relaxes to inc. size and surface area when too warm.
MALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT ANATOMY
PRIMARY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS II
3. INNER DUCT STRUCTURE OF TESTES
a. LOBULES: segments of testis made up of 1 - 4 highly coiled SEMINIFEROUS
TUBULES

b. SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES (ST)
1) location of GERM CELLS (divide to produce sperm)
2) sperm formation occurs here

c. TUBULUS RECTUS (straight tubules): formed by fusion of several ST, travel
towards posterior of testes

d. RETE TESTIS: interconnected tubules formed by fusion of the tubulus rectus

e. EFFERENT DUCTULES: lead out of testis into EPIDIDYMIS
* LAST PART OF TESTIS tubular network
* sperm are immature as leave testis

4. CELLS IN TESTES
a. SPERMATOGONIA: germ cells divide to produce gametes (sperm)

b. INTERSTITIAL CELLS (OF LEYDIG): between seminiferous tubules,
produce TESTOSTERONE/androgens

c. SUSTENTACULAR CELLS (OF SERTOLI): nourish developing sperm,
produce INHIBIN to inhibit sperm production
SECONDARY (ACCESSORY) REPRODUCTIVE DUCTS AND GLANDS
1. EPIDIDYMIS: comma-shaped, highly coiled mass of tubes on superior-posterior
aspect of testes
a. where final maturation of sperm occurs (spermiogenesis)
b. may store viable sperm for 20 days - 3months
c. leads to DUCTUS DEFERENS

2. DUCTUS (VAS) DEFERENS (DD)
a. carries sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct (ED)
b. SPERMATIC CORD: contains, DD, BV's, nerves, lymph, and CREMASTER
M. (elevates testes when cold)
c. VASECTOMY: cutting of DD in scrotal sac to prevent conception

3. SEMINAL VESICLES: posterior to urinary bladder
a. duct joins with DD to form ED
b. secretes
* FRUCTOSE for nourishment of sperm,
* PROSTAGLANDINS: dec. visc. of female cervical mucus, along with female
reproductive tract cause CAPACITATION: render mobility to sperm
* PROTEINS for coagulation of semen once ejaculated
SECONDARY (ACCESSORY) REPRODUCTIVE DUCTS AND GLANDS II
4. URETHRA: ED leads into prostatic urethra. Urethra carries semen and urine.

5. PROSTATE GLAND: inferior surface of bladder around urethra secretes slightly
acidic milky material containing enzymes (to enhance sperm viability) into urethra.
Forms 1/3 volume of semen.

6. BULBOURETHRAL (COWPER'S) GLANDS: in urogenital diaphragm secrete
alkaline mucus into penile urethra to neutralize urethra prior to ejaculation

7. PENIS: transports sperm to female vagina
a. BODY (SHAFT) made of two types of erectile tissue
1) CORPORA CAVERNOSA (2)
2) CORPUS SPONGIOSUM (1) around penile urethra
b. ROOT: expanded area near body.
c. GLANS PENIS: tip made of expanded corpus spongiosum
d. PREPUCE (FORESKIN): surrounds glans, removed during circumcision
SEMEN
1. composed of: sperm, nutrients, prostaglandins, enzymes, and proteins
* 60% from seminal vesicles
* 39% from prostate
* 1% sperm and bulbourethral secretions

2. pH 7.2 - 7.6, will neutralize acid env. of female reproductive tract (3.5-4)

3. 2-5 ml released/ejaculation containing 50-100 million sperm/ml semen (so 100-500
million sperm/ejaculation) Need many sperm to fertilize an egg!
MALE SEXUAL RESPONSE
A. if no stimulation is present, vessels in erectile tissue maintain a low blood vol., penis is flaccid

B. SEXUAL EXCITEMENT leads to ERECTION: parasympathetic response
1. dilate vessels into penis, constrict vessels leaving penis
2. penis erectile tissue engorged with blood, enlarges => erection
*necessary for entrance into vagina

C. EMISSION AND EJACULATION: SYNS response to increased sexual stimulation
1. EMISSION: forceful discharge of semen into urethra due to accessory duct contraction
& accessory gland secretion

2. EJACULATION: forceful expulsion of semen out of body

3. internal urethral sphincter contracts to prevent semen into bladder, urine into urethra

4. CLIMAX/ORGASM: feelings of pleasure, inc. HR, RR, BP

5. AFTER EJACULATION: blood leaves erectile tissue, penis -> flaccid. LATENT
PERIOD: min -> hrs before new orgasm can occur
. MALE SEXUAL HORMONES
: released starting at puberty (10 - 18 yr) – continued release through
adulthood with gradually diminishing levels after age 60.

A. GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates release of LH and FSH

B. LH: stimulates growth of INTERSTITIAL CELLS that produce TESTOSTERONE

C. FSH: stimulates SPERMATOGENESIS in presence of testosterone

D. TESTOSTERONE: high levels at puberty
1. stimulate maturation of reproductive organs
2. involved in development of adult characteristics

E. INHIBIN: produced by sustentacular cells of the testis
1. released when sperm count is hi, inhibits FSH and GnRH
2. decreases when sperm count is lo, so more sperm can be produced
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT ANATOMY

A. PRIMARY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS:
OVARIES gametes & sex hormone production
1. Produce immature OVA (gametes) = OOCYTES

2. Solid, almond-sized organs near uterus

a. OVARIAN LIGAMENT: ovary to uterus

b. SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT: ovary to pelvic wall

c. BROAD LIGAMENT: consists of mesovarium & suspensory ligament, encloses
uterus, ovary, uterine tubes, vagina

3. PARTS OF OVARY

a. MEDULLA: contains blood vessels, nerves

b. CORTEX: contains developing ova in cell clusters called OVARIAN FOLLICLES.
STAGES OF FOLLICLES IN THE OVARY
a. PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLES: contain PRIMARY OOCYTES
one layer of flat cells, develops into PRIMARY FOLLICLE

b. PRIMARY FOLLICLE: one layer of cuboidal cells around
primary oocyte. Develops into SECONDARY FOLLICLE

c. SECONDARY FOLLICLE (several develop with each menstrual cycle): many
layers of follicle cells now called: GRANULOSA CELLS which help form
estrogen and inhibin as well as produce glycoprotein covering for oocyte:
ZONA PELLUCIDA

1)THECA FOLLICULI: cnt around follicle will work with granulosa
cells to produce estrogen

2)ANTRUM: fluid-filled cavity between granulosa cells
STAGES OF FOLLICLES IN THE OVARY II
d. VESICULAR FOLLICLE (GRAAFIAN) develops from secondary follicle
(usually just one per cycle), antrum expands separating oocyte from wall of
follicle by a stalk

1) CORONA RADIATA: granulosa cells remaining around primary
oocyte

2) follicle grows to 1" wide & blisters on the side of ovary ready for
ovulation

3) in this stage the primary oocyte divides into the SECONDARY
OOCYTE and FIRST POLAR BODY

e. OVULATION: ovary wall ruptures and secondary oocyte with ZONA
PELLUCIDA AND CORONA RADIATA is expelled into peritoneal cavity
(MITTELSCHMERZ = pain associated with this)

1) CORPUS LUTEUM: remains of follicle in ovary. Acts as endocrine
gland formed by enlargement of granulosa and thecal cells to produce
progesterone and estrogen

2) no pregnancy,degenerates into scar CORPUS ALBICANS

3) pregnancy, persists until placenta is fully formed (3mo)
SECONDARY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT
1. UTERINE (FALLOPIAN, OVARIAN) TUBES (OVIDUCTS): 4" carry
oocyte (developing ovum) towards uterus

a. INFUNDIBULUM: funnel opening of oviduct near ovary

b. FIMBRIAE: finger-like projections, help draw oocyte into oviduct

c. ISTHMUS: opening of oviduct into uterus

d. ciliated epithelium/smooth m. lining helps move oocyte toward uterus – (takes 7 dd)

e. secondary oocyte fertile for 24-48h, fertilization usually takes place in tubules

f. ECTOPIC PREGNANCY: implantation outside uterus
1) in peritoneal cavity
2) in fallopian tube (tubal pregnancy)

g. TUBAL LIGATION: tie tubes and prevent transport of oocyte, pregnancy
UTERUS
"womb"
a. superior/posterior to bladder: UPSIDE DOWN PEAR
b. BODY: main part
c. FUNDUS: above/anterior to oviduct attachments
d. CERVIX: narrow neck leads into vagina by EXTERNAL OS
e. held in place by ligaments
1) BROAD LIGAMENT: uterus to lateral wall
2) ROUND LIGAMENT: uterus to anterior wall

f. UTERINE WALL: very distensible
1) PERIMETRIUM = VISCERAL PERITONEUM
2) MYOMETRIUM = middle layer, smooth m
3) ENDOMETRIUM = inner layer, mucus membrane containing lots of
uterine glands

a) STRATUM FUNCTIONALIS: next to lumen, sloughed off
during menstruation
b) STRATUM BASALIS: deeper layer, rebuilds SF
VAGINA = BIRTH CANAL
a. fibrous muscular tube between bladder and rectum
b. 8 - 10 cm (2-2.5”) from uterus to outside
c. allows passage of menses, fetus, penis
d. capable of stretching
e. acidic pH
f. HYMEN: membrane may completely cover vaginal opening
EXTERNAL GENITALIA = VULVA = PUDENDUM
a. MONS PUBIS: anterior fat pad
b. LABIA MAJORA: fatty lateral extensions of mons
c. LABIA MINORA: medial to l. majora
d. BULB OF THE VESTIBULE: erectile tissue located "inside" labia minora
e. PREPUCE OF CLITORIS = anterior fusion of l. minora covering CLITORIS =
erectile tissue in female
f. VESTIBULE: area between l. minora
1) EXTERNAL URETHRAL OPENING: anterior-most
2) VAGINAL OPENING: more posterior
MAMMARY GLANDS
in males/females, females: functional
a. modified sweat glands, produce milk
b. AREOLA: pigmented, circular region
c. NIPPLE: protruding portion
d. gland: 15-20 lobes -> lobules -> alveoli are smallest division, where milk is
actually produced
e. ALVEOLI produce milk -> LACTIFEROUS DUCTS ->
LACTIFEROUS SINUSES (storage) -> out NIPPLE
FEMALE SEXUAL RESPONSE
A. SEXUAL STIMULATION

1. inc. blood to clitoris, bulb of vestibule, vaginal mucosa, breasts and nipples, causes
increased mucus secretions

2. ERECTION: clitoris and nipples, rigid and erect breasts and vaginal mucosa enlarge

B. CONTINUED STIMULATION

1. rhythmic contractions of uterine myometrium and pelvic floor muscles

2. CLIMAX/ORGASM: feelings of pleasure, inc. HR, RR, BP
FEMALE SEXUAL HORMONES
A. Two overlapping cyclical patterns of hormone release occur monthly from puberty
(MENARCHE = onset of puberty marked by menstrual bleeding) until MENOPAUSE
(cessation of menses around age 50): OVARIAN CYCLE and UTERINE CYCLE
(MENSTRUAL CYCLE)

B. PUBERTY
1. ovaries & uterus mature & respond to hormonal stimuli

2. Hypothalamus releases GnRH which stimulates ant. pituitary to release LH & FSH.

3. LH & FSH stimulate ovaries & uterus to begin their cycles
OVARIAN CYCLE
changes occurring within the ovaries due to
*follicular development *ovulation
*development of corpus luteum
FOLLICULAR PHASE
a. GnRH stimulates release of FSH and some LH from anterior pituitary

b.FSH & LH stimulate follicle/oocyte development in ovary
**during menopause, follicles stop responding to LH & FSH, cycles stop!!

c. several primary follicles begin to enlarge

d. estrogen release from granulosa and thecal cells

e. INHIBIN from granulosa cells inhibits GnRH, FSH and LH release

f. estrogen in low levels inhibits GnRH, FSH & LH release (not production!!!),
while increasing effectiveness of FSH on follicles already growing

g. follicle continues to grow and mature
OVULATION PHASE
a. mature follicles secrete lots of estrogen

b. hi [estrogen] stimulates GnRH, FSH and LH release

c. hi [LH] = LH SURGE,

d. oocyte in most advanced follicle completes meiosis I

e. OVULATION: follicle ruptures, estrogen release drops
LUTEAL PHASE
a. LH converts ruptured follicle => CORPUS LUTEUM (CL)

b. CL begins producing estrogen and progesterone

c. hi [estrogen & progesterone] inhibit FSH & LH release no more follicles
develop at this time remaining follicles that resumed development are
reabsorbed.

d. [LH] drops and can no longer maintain CL, so CL -> corpus albicans (scar)

e. Once CL is gone, there is no progesterone or estrogen produced, LH & FSH no
longer inhibited, cycle begins
UTERINE (MENSTRUAL) CYCLE
changes in the STRATUM FUNCTIONALIS (SF) of
endometrium due to changes in [progesterone, estrogen] during ovarian cycle. Three phases:
MENSTRUAL PHASE (1-5th day of cycle)
a. thickened SF detaches from uterine wall

b. MENSTRUAL FLOW: detached tissue and blood from broken blood vessels
pass through the vagina

c. * follicles are growing in ovary *
PROLIFERATIVE PHASE (day 6 - day 14)
a. hi estrogen levels due to developing follicles stimulates repair of endometrium

b. endometrium thickens, glands and new tissue develops

c. * ovulation occurs at the end of this phase *
SECRETORY PHASE (day 15 - day 28)
a. progesterone from CL stimulates continued growth & thickening of
endometrium

b. increase in glands, blood vessels, and nutritious secretions (for embryo)

c. if fertilization and implantation do not occur, CL -> corpus albicans.

d. No CL, no more progesterone, blood vessels stop functioning, SF dies and
menstruation will follow

e. * occurs during luteal phase of ovarian cycle *
MEIOSIS
. DIPLOID: human cells have 23 pair of chromosomes: 46 chromosomes

a. AUTOSOMES: 22 pr. determine general body traits chrom. that are the same
shape, size and carry the same types of information are called: HOMOLOGUES
(chrom 1a and chrom 1b carry similar information)

b. SEX CHROMOSOMES: 1 pr. determine gender/other traits

1) HOMOLOGUES if both are "X" chrom => female

2) not HOMOLOGUES if one is "X" & the other "Y" => male because Y
chrom is smaller, not the same shape as the X chrom, & carries less info
FERTILIZATION
a. male sperm + female ovum -> one cell = ZYGOTE
b. if egg and sperm were diploid, zygote would have 4 copies of each
chromosome = TETRAPLOID (92 chrom.)
c. to prevent this, egg and sperm are produced as HAPLOID cells: one set of 23
chromosomes
d. thus fertilization yields a diploid zygote
MEIOSIS
nuclear division process creates haploid gametes:
a. MEIOSIS I: start with DIPLOID cell that has undergone duplication of
chromosomes during S of interphase. Chromosomes consist of two SISTER
CHROMATIDS (each independently would be a chromosome) attached at
the CENTROMERE.
PROPHASE I:
*nucleolus, nuclear envelope disappears
*chromatin shortens into chromosomes
*spindle forms, attaches to centromeres
*SYNAPSIS: homologous chromosomes (ie 1a and
1b) line up together forming TETRAD
METAPHASE I
TETRADS line up at equator
ANAPHASE I
homologous chromosomes (DYADS) separate and go
to opposite poles (1a to one side, 1b to the other)
TELOPHASE I
*nucleolus, nuclear envelope reform
*chromosomes -> chromatin
*spindle disappears
*CYTOKINESIS -> forming two cells each with one set of
chromosomes = HAPLOID
MEIOSIS II
each cell from end of meiosis I undergoes this process
PROPHASE II
*nucleolus, nuclear envelope disappears
*chromatin shortens into chromosomes
*spindle forms, attaches to centromeres
METAPHASE II
dyads line up at equator
ANAPHASE II
: centromeres split, one SISTER CHROMOSOME is
pulled to each side of cell
TELOPHASE II
*nucleolus, nuclear envelope reform
*chromosomes -> chromatin
*spindle disappears
*cytokinesis completes yielding 4 haploid cells
. SPERMATOGENESIS: MEIOTIC PRODUCTION OF SPERM
1. GENERAL INFORMATION
a. begins at puberty, continues throughout life

b. takes 74d to produce one sperm (start - finish)

c. occurs in seminiferous tubules of testicles
1) lined with gametes in different stages of maturation
2) most immature are toward periphery, most mature near lumen
STAGES OF SPERM DEVELOPMENT
a. SPERMATOGONIA: diploid "stem" cells at periphery

1) divide by mitosis to produce more spermatogonia

2) some move toward lumen of seminiferous tubule and begin meiosis ->
PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES

b. PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES: diploid, divide by meiosis I into two
secondary spermatocytes

c. SECONDARY SPERMATOCYTES: haploid, divide by meiosis II to form two
spermatids each
STAGES OF SPERM DEVELOPMENT II
d. SPERMATIDS: haploid, immature, close seminiferous tubule lumen, tail

e. SPERMIOGENESIS: final step in sperm development completes in epididymis
1) Spermatids => SPERMATOZOA

2) sperm stored in ductus deferens & epididymis, viable for several mo.

3) in female reproductive tract, remain viable for approximately 48h - 72h
SPERMATOZOA (SPERM) ANATOMY
a. HEAD: contains nucleus covered with ACROSOME - enzyme packet to help
with fertilization

b. MIDPIECE: mitochondria to make ATP for movement thru female tract

c. TAIL = FLAGELLUM: locomotor region
OOGENESIS: MEIOTIC DIVISION TO PRODUCE OVA
1. GENERAL INFORMATION

a. ova develop in ovaries beginning in utero, process halted until puberty then
each month, a few partially mature ova try to continue their development

b. all partially mature ova are present at birth

c. all partially mature ova are surrounded by supportive cells in the ovary =
FOLLICLE

d. as immature ovum matures, follicle cells supporting it change as well
PROCESS OF OVA DEVELOPMENT IN UTERO (before birth)
a. OOGONIA: diploid "stem" cells divide by mitosis to produce thousands of
diploid oogonia which enlarge and grow to become PRIMARY OOCYTES

B. PRIMARY OOCYTE: diploid cell divides by meiosis I BUT is halted in
PROPHASE I until puberty (approximately 700,000 of these at birth)
PROCESS OF OOCYTE DEVELOPMENT AT PUBERTY PRE OVULATION
a. FSH stimulates several PRIMARY OOCYTES to grow and resume meiosis I

b. only one PRIMARY OOCYTE will complete meiosis I per month to form one
SECONDARY OOCYTE and one POLAR BODY
1) POLAR BODY is a haploid structure with no cytoplasm, may divide by
meiosis II to produce two smaller polar bodies: will degenerate

2) all other primary oocytes that have resumed meiosis will also
degenerate, only one completes meiosis/cycle

c. SECONDARY OOCYTE: haploid undergoes meiosis II
1) has all the cytoplasm from primary oocyte

2) will be arrested in METAPHASE II until fertilization occurs, therefore,
this is the stage of development that is ovulated!

3) if fertilization does not occur, oocyte never becomes an ovum

d. if secondary oocyte meets a sperm and is fertilized, it completes meiosis II =>
HAPLOID OVUM (with all cytoplasm) + a SECOND POLAR BODY
BASIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HORMONES
GnRH - stimulates release of LH and FSH

I - inhibits release of GnRH and thus of LH and FSH

lo [E] - inhibits GnRH and thus LH and FSH release

hi [E] - stimulates GnRH and thus LH and FSH release

hi [E] + hi [P] - inhibits GnRH and thus LH and FSH release
LH
stimulates ovulation, development and maintanance of the corpus luteum
FSH
main stumulator of follicle growth and oocyte development
E
stimulates regeneration of the stratum functionalis of the endometrium and helps to maintain the stratum functionalis. Stimulates development of female genetalia and breasts at puberty. Low levels stimulate skeltal changes associated with puberty. Involved in helping FSH stimulate follicle and oocyte development. Helps prepare the mammary glands for lactation.
P
stimulates growth of blood vessels and glands in endometrium and enhances nutritive secretions from the endometrium. If absent, stratum functionalis is sloughed off. Helps to prepare the mammary glands for lactation.