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5 Cards in this Set

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION
ADP + P + kinetic energy <-----> ATP

NADH, FADH: temporary electron storage units. Energy stored in these molecules can be released to make 3 or 2 ATP molecules each, respectively.
GLYCOLYSIS
-in cytoplasm of cells if O2 is present/not present

GLUCOSE ----> 2 PYRUVIC ACID + 2 ATP + 2 NADH

-ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION: no O2 present

2 PYRUVIC ACID --> 2 LACTIC ACID --> to liver for
excretion/conversion

-AEROBIC RESPIRATION: O2 is present

2 PYRUVIC ACID --> 2 ACoA + 2 CO2+ 2 NADH

KREB’S CYCLE in the mitochondrion, O2 present

2 ACoA --> 4 CO2 + 6 NADH + 2 FADH + 2 ATP


ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN: in mito., O2 present

10 NADH + 2 FADH + O2 ---> H2O + 32-34 ATP



THEREFORE, ONE WHOLE GLUCOSE MOLECULE CREATES:

36-38 ATP + CO2 + H2O

ATP can be generated by breaking bonds in proteins and in lipids as long as the products can be “run through” the above equations.
PROTEINS
made of many amino acids bound together = polypeptides, and 2 or more polypeptides bound together

1. Break hydrogen bonds between polypeptides (denature protein)

2. Break bonds between amino acids to get individual amino acids (hydrolysis).

3. DEAMINATION: removing amino group from amino acid

amino acid --> ketoacid + amine group

4. AMINE GROUP --> AMMONIA --> to liver to convert to UREA

5. KETOACID --> PYRUVIC ACID

-AEROBIC RESPIRATION: O2 is present

PYRUVIC ACID --> ACoA + CO2 + NADH

KREB’S CYCLE in the mitochondrion, O2 present

ACoA --> 2 CO2 + 3 NADH + FADH + ATP


ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN: in mito., O2 present

4 NADH + FADH + O2 ---> H2O + 14 ATP

6. So 1 amino acid ---> CO2 + H2O + 15 ATP

(There are hundreds of AA’s in one protein)
LIPIDS
-> TRIGLYCERIDE = 3 fatty acids + glycerol

*emulsify large fats with bile salts

1. Break bonds between fatty acids and glycerol (hydrolysis)

2. GLYCEROL + GLYCEROL --> GLUCOSE --> run through all reactions

GLYCOLYSIS (remember only ½ products of a glucose for each glycerol!)
-in cytoplasm of cells if O2 is present/not present

½ GLUCOSE ----> PYRUVIC ACID + ATP + NADH

-AEROBIC RESPIRATION: O2 is present

PYRUVIC ACID --> ACoA + CO2 + NADH

KREB’S CYCLE in the mitochondrion, O2 present

ACoA --> 2 CO2 + 3 NADH + FADH + ATP

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN: in mitochondria, O2 present

3 NADH + FADH + O2 ---> H2O + 10-11 ATP

so 1 fatty acid yields approximately 11-12 ATP and there are 3 Fatty acids per Triglyceride so 3 fatty acids yield 33 - 36 ATP

4. 1 triglyceride will approximately yield 18 ATP + 33 ATP= 51 ATP
LIPIDS 2
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN: in mitochondria, O2 present

3 NADH + FADH + O2 ---> H2O + 10-11 ATP

so 1 fatty acid yields approximately 11-12 ATP and there are 3 Fatty acids per Triglyceride so 3 fatty acids yield 33 - 36 ATP

4. 1 triglyceride will approximately yield 18 ATP + 33 ATP= 51 ATP