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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What cranial nerve(s) are responsible for smell, taste, sight, hearing and balance?
smell - olfactory 1
taste - facial/glossopharyngeal 7,9
sight - optic 2
hearing and balance - vestibular/cochlear nerve 8
Another name for scala media, what does it contain?
cochlear duct, endolymph
Where and what is the canal of schlemm? what problems occur if it malfunctions?
scleral venous sinus
What can be defined as the anterior chamber of the eye? What does it contain?
in front of iris (lens)
contains aqueous humor
What can be defined as the posterior chamber of the eye? What does it contain?
between lens & retina
vitreous humor
What is outer tunic, what is it composed of?
fibrous -> dense fibrous connective tissue
Where and what do the lacrimal glands do, what are there secretions?
in lacrimal apparatus
cleans, lubricates
releases saline (tears)
Where is endolymph/perilymph?
endolympth - membranious labyrinth
perilymph - bony labyrinth
Where are the rods found on the retina, what is their function?
dim light vision
neural -> photoreceptor
Where are the cones found on the retina, what is their function?
bright light vision and color
neural -> photoreceptor
What structures are responsible for static equilibrium?
utrical & saccral
Where and what is the organ of corti, how does it function?
w/in the basilar membrane
What will cause the lens to thicken?
ciliary muscles contract, light bends more
What will cause the lens to get thinner?
light doesn't bend as much, ciliary muscles relax
What colors of wavelengths of light is the retina sensitive to?
blue, green and red
How does one get nightblindness?
vitamin A deficiency
What is sensory adaption?
change in responsiveness of sensory system
What is derivative of vitamin A that has a role in vision? What is its role?
carotene, pigment
What molecules make rhodopsin?
retinol-vitamin A
What causes the excitation of the rods to send an impulse?
GMP (guanosine monophospate)
What happens to rhodopsin during dark adaption?
opsin has to link to retinal to form rhodopsin (takes longer)
What happens to rhodopsin during light adaption?
What are the types of papillae on the tongue?
filiform - front area NO taste buds
Vallate - V shaped, back of tongue
Fungiform - scattered
Which papillae have gustatory cells, where are they located on the tongue?
vallate- back of tongue
fungiform- scattered
How many primary taste sensations are there, where on the tongue are they found?
sweet- anterior tip
salty- tip
bitter- back
sour- mid sides
What hormones and glands would be affected if removal of the anterior pituitary?
releasing and inhibiting
What hormones and glands would be affected if removal of the posterior pituitary?
oxytocin and ADH
What hormone is responsible for edema?
What area of the gland is responsible for the fight or flight response?
direct sympathetic control -> medulla
What is the "second messenger" that is involved in hormonal action?
cyclic AMP
How are the hormones of the thyroid made active, how are they transported, what controls their secretion?
Thyroid hormones are synthesized by attaching iodine atoms to amino acid tyrosine
transported by protein
What structures of the eye are avascular?
Where do high frequencies stimulate the basilar membrane, low frequencies?
higher- quick, not as far
low- further away
What is the function of the choroid coat?
lines the internal surface of schlera and provides nutrients
What produces the oil in tears?
tarsal gland (meibomia)
What is the oval window attached to?
What are the three layer of neurons in the retina, which form the optic nerve?
photoreceptor, bipolar, ganglion
ganglion takes action potential to optic nerve
Where is photopsin found?
photopigment in cones