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140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Brainstem
Control Center for automatic
Phantom Pain
Pain you have when a limb isnt there anymore
Reffered Pain
Pain that is in one body part but then is felt somewhere else
Chronic Pain
Pain that is felt over a long period of time
Pain
Concious awareness that a condition exists that you need to concinously move
ACH-ase
Breaks down ACH
Ganglion
Collection of somas outside CNS
Rods
Low light and black and white images
Cones
High like and color images
Retine
Neural tunic
Contains rods and cones
Choroid
Vascular Tunic
Vascular layer cappilary bed
Sclera
Fibrous tunic
Ropelike collegan (white)
Capsule that surrounds everything else
Optic Disc
Blind spot, no vision
Cornea
Single collagon fibers
Macula Lueta
Yellow Spot, highest concentration of cones
Fovea Centralis
In the middle of Macula luta, helps you focus
Conjunctiva
One cell layer thick and mucus membrane
Pupil
hole in the middle of iris
Iris
Separates anterior and postier chamber, a circular muscle and is a smooth muscle
Lens
separates anterior and postier cavity
Viterous humor
thick jellylike liquid that holds the retina in place
Aquneous humor
water
Laght passes through
6 places
1. Conjunctiva
2. Cornea
3. Aquneous humor
4. Lens
5. Vitreous humor
6. Retina
Astigmastisim
double vision cornea is mishaped
cardiac
protein build up within the lens
eyebrows
divert sweat and water from eye
eyelashes
keeps things from eye
canthi
lateral and medial helps eye to close
caruncle
fleshy blob medial to canthis
lacrimal glands
tear solution from the lateral upper eyelid
tears
contain lysozymes that kills bacteria
rectus
superior, lateral and medial muscle to roll eye
oblique
moves eye up and down
Cocchlea
means snale, inside is the organ of corti with hair cells
Pinna-aricule
outer ear captures sound waves into the external ear canal
Vibresse
hairs
tympanum
separates the external ear from the middle ear, amplfy sound waves to be transported into liquid
Eustachian tube
connects middle ear with nasal cavity-equalizes air pressure
auditory ossicles
amplfy sound waves to become a liquid (water)
malleus
attached to incus
incus
attached to stapes
stapes
attached to the oval window membrane that leads into the cocchlea
round window
helps take out excess sound so there is no echo
low sound waves
long waves
high sound waves
have short sound waves
Vestible
opening that leads to a larger area
semi-circular canal
able to move fluid
equibluriun
sense of balance
2 types of equilibrium
static-still
dynamic-changing
vestibule contains hair cells that trigger the
otoliths
otoliths
above the hair cells is a gell that contains otoliths
head gravity
tells you where your head is with respect to gravity
ampula
where hair cell is tell you how fast and what direction you are moving your head
proprioception
knowing where your body parts are in space
cerebellum
tells you reprtitive things
vertigo
eyes arent sending the same information as your ears example is on a boat
2 control systems of the Endocrine system
nervous and endocrine
nervous system
fast, electrical, short lived
endocrine system
slow, long lasting, chemical, long lived
hormones
cause growth and development, maintance of homeostasis
2 glands of the endocrine system
endocrine and exocrine
endocrine
secretes a hormone into extracellular fluid
exocrine
secretes product onto epithelial surface, sebacous, lacrimal, salivary
Functional unit of endocrine system?
Hormones
hormone
a chemical messenger that is produced into one tissue, secreted and then transported by blood to another body tissue
3 hormone groups
Amino-Acid, peptide, lipid
Amino Acids
polar molecules, have a positive and negative charge, small and have 1st and 2nd messengers
Peptide
longer chain of amino-acids also a polar molecule, it is bigger and it is a protein, it also has 1st and 2nd messengers
Lipids
nonpolar molecule and creates Cholestrol and Arachidonic Acid
Arachidonic Acid
20carbon chain produces prostaglandin
prostaglandin
local hormone produced in a tissue and has an effect on neighboring cells
How do polar hormones cause response?
hormone attaches to a receptor site which causes a reaction with G proteins then it kicks off a 2nd messenger cAMP which causes the response
How do nonpolar hormones cause response?
Lipids diffuse straight through the cell membrane and attaches itseld to its receptor site inside of the cell
Hypothalamus
connects nervous to the endocrine system. produces neurohormones that travel through a vascular tube to the pitutary gland
number one master control gland
pitutary
Hypothalamo-Hypophysial portal system
carries neurohormones from hypothalamus to pituitary
what will a releasing hormone look like
GHRH
what will an inhibiting hormone look like
GHIH
pituitary gland
lives in the sella trrcia and found on the sphenoid bone
the posterior lobe of the pitutary gland contains what
oxytocin and ADH
oxytocin
stimulates smooth muscles of uterus
ADH
Anti Diuretic hormone, causes kidneys to retain water, maintains blood volumn
How many hormones does the anterior lobe produce?
9
GH
Growth hormone
Giantism
too much GH as a kid "huge kids"
Acromegaly
Too much GH as an adult (large knucles, jaw and pain in joints)
Dwarfism
Too little GH as a kid
TSH
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-goes to thyroid and produces thyroxine which has to have iodine to be functional- it also produces thyrocalcitonin
Goiter
Not enough iodine
Thyrocalcitonin
negative feedback mechanism-takes calcium out of blood and puts it in bone
Parathyroid Gland
Posterior surface of throid and produces Parathyroid hormone
PTH
negative feedback mechanism-takes calcium from bone and puts it in blood
calcium
helps blood clotting, bone structure, nerve signal transmission, stimulates adrenak cortex
ACTH
Adreno-Corticotropic Hormone-steriod hormones, stimulates adrenal cortex
MSH
Melanin stimulating hormone-causes an increase in melanin
LH
Lutenizing Hormone-brings about ovulation-release of egg from ovary
FSH
Follicle stimulating hormone- causes immature eggs in ovary to start maturing
Prolactin
stimulates breast to produce milk
Lipotrophin
break down of fats
Beta endorphins
hormones that are pain killers like analgesia
Where are the adrenal glands
the superior surface of the kidney
Adrenal cortex contains which anti-inflammatory hormones
Glucolcorticoids
Mineralcorticoids
Androgens
What is a Glucolcorticoid
a steriod that has a carbohydrate attached to it, supresses the immune system, example is cortisone
what is a mineralcorticoid
Aldosterone-causes the kidneys to concentrate on urine
what is an Androgen
a sex hormone
example testrone, estrogen
What does the adrenal medulla contain
adrenaline and noradrenaline
what is in adrenaline
epinefrine
what is in noradrenaline
norepinefrine
Which hormones do the kidneys have
Calcitriel
Erythropoeitin
Renin
what does calcitriel do
stimulates the uptake of calcium from your food
Erythropoeitin
stimulates production of red blood cells
Renin
stimulates Angiotensin which causes a vaso constriction which wis when blood vessels constrict, and it stimulates Aldosterone which causes the body to maintain water
what hormone does the heart produce
ANP
what is ANP and what does it do
Atrial Natri Uretic Peptide- a diruetoc, shuts down renin ADH and aldosterone to help you get rid of water
Panceras produces..
digestive hormones
what is the group of cells called in the pancreas
Islets of Langerhaus
What does the alpha cell do
priduces glucagon which is the brakdown of glycogen
what does the beta cell do
produces insulin which causes cells to take glycose out of innerstial fluid
what does the delta cell do
produces somatostatin which regulates glucagon and insulin
what is hyperglycemia
too much blood sugar not enough glucagon is being produced
what is hypoglycenia
low blood sugar ot enough insulin is being produced
what does Exercise do for you
able to take sugar out of body
Testes
gnoids for the male reprodictive system, which produce interstitial cells and sustentacular cells
interstitial cells
produce testosterone which is a type of androgen important for sperm production and secondary sex characteristics
What inhibits the production of testosterone
inhibin
ovaries
female gnoids once follice cells are develped they produce estrogen and inhibin
estrogen
egg maturity and secondary sex characteristics
what inhibits the production of estrogen
inhibins
corpus luteum
the reminance from leftover follicle cells and then produces progesterone
progestrone
helps the woman to not release another egg
Placenta
structure that supports the embryo and it also uses synergistic endocrine activity corrdinated with ovaries and pitutary gland helps with normal fetal development and delivery
pineal gland
in the epithalamus also called 3rd eye it regulates circadian rythyms and synthesizes melatonin which helps people sleep
thymus
produces thymosins
thymosins
causes white blood cells to mature into T-cells
Positive feedback mechanism
pushes away from homeostasis
negative feedback mechanism
pulls back to homeostasis
antagonistic
working against eachother
synergistic
two or more hormones work together
permissive
have to have one hormone present for the other hormone to achieve its goal
example.. epinefrine and thyroid
intergrative
number of hormones that work different functions but achieve the same goal
ex. all hormones working to maintain homeostasis