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204 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the CNS?
the brain and the spinal cord
NAME
consists of the brain, and spinal cord
CNS
NAME
is the size of about two good fistfuls of quivering pinkish gray tissue
brain
What are the parts of the brain? (4)
(1)Ceberal hempispheres (2)diencephalon (3)brain stem (4)cerebellum
What are the parts of the brain stem?
(1)midbrain (2)pons (3)medulla
NAME
the parts include the midbrain, pons, and the medulla
brain stem
NAME
consists of a central cavity surrounded by a gray matter core, external to which is white matter
CNS
the hollow ventricular chambers are filled w cerebrospinal fluid and lined by (1)
ependymal cells
NAME
are larged C shaped chambers that reflect the pattern of cerebral growth
lateral venticles
NAME
form the superior part of the brain
cerebral hemispheres
NAME
are elevated ridges of tissues
gyri
What are gyri?
are elevated ridges of tissues
What are sulci?
are shallow grooves
NAME
are shallow grooves
sulci
NAME
are deeper grooves that separeate large regions of the brain
fissures
What are fissures?
are deeper grooves that separate larger regions of the brian
What is the longitudinal fissure?
seperate the cerebral hemispheres
NAME
seperate the cerebral ehmispheres
longitduinal fissure
What is the tranverse cerebral fissure?
separtes the cebebral hemispheres from the cerebellum below
NAME
separtes the cebebral hemispheres from the cerebellum below
tranverse cerebral fissure
NAME
is the "executive suite" of the nervous system where our conscious mind is found
cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex is the "executive suite" of the nervous system where our (1)is found
conscious mind
NAME
enables us to be aware of oursevles and our sensations to communicate, remember and understand and to intiate voluntary movements
Cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex enables us to be aware of (1), and our (2), and (3)
(1)ourselves (2)sensations to communicate, remember, and understand (3)to intiate voluntary movements
What does the cerebral cortex consist of? (3)
(1)cell bodies (2)dendrites (3)unmyleniated axons
NAME
consists of cell bodies, dendrites, unmylenated axons
cerebral cortex
Does the cerebral cortex have fiber tracts?
no
T or F
the cerebral cortex has fiber tracts
false
What are the (3) functional areas of the cerebral cortex?
(1)motor areas (2)sensory areas (3)assocation areas
NAME
contains three functional areas: motor areas, sensory areas, and assocation areas
cerebral cortex
What are the parts of the motor areas?
(1)primary motor cortex (2)premotor cortex (3)Broca's area (4)frontal eye field
NAME
consists of the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, and the frontal eye field
motor area
What is the motor area?
controls volunatry movement
NAME
controls volunatry movements
motor area
What are pyramidal cells?
allow us to consciuously control the precise or skilled volunatry movements of our skeletal muscles
NAME
allows us to consciously control the precise or skilled voluntary movements of our skeletal muscles
pyramidal cells
What is the sensory area?
are areas concerned w conscious control awareness of sensation
NAME
area areas concerned w conscious control awareness of sensation
sensory area
What are the parts of the sensory area? (7)
(1)primary somatosensory cortex (2)somatosensory association cortex (3)visual areas (4)auditory cortex (5)olfactory cortex (6)Gustatory cortex (7)vestibiular cortex
NAME
consists of primary somatosensory cortex, somatosensory association cortex, visual areas, auditory cortex, olfactory cortex, gustatory cortex, and vestibular cortex
sensory area
What are the different types of assocation areas?
(1)prefrontal cortex (2)langauage areas (3)general interpretation area (4)viscreal assocation area
NAME
the differ types are prefrontal cortex, langauage areas, general interpretation area, and viscreal assocation area
assocation areas
What are assocation fibers?
connect different parts of the same hemisphere
NAME
connect different parts of the same hemisphere
assocation fibers
What are projection fibers?
are those that enter the cerebral hemispheres from lower brain or cord centers
NAME
are those that enter the cerebral hemispheres from lower brain or cord centers
projection fibers
What are (3) structures that make up the diencephalon?
(1)thalamus (2)Hypothalamus (3)epithalamus
NAME
are made up of three structures the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalmus
diencephalon
NAME
is egg shaped and makes up 80% of the diencephalon
thalamus
What is the thalamus?
is egg shaped and makes up 80% of the diencephalon
NAME
are pealike nuclei that buldge anteriorly from the hypothalamus and are rely stattions in the olfactory pathways
mammillary bodies
What are mammillary bodies?
are pealike nuclei that buldge anterioaly from the hypothalamus and are rely stations in the olfactory pathways
NAME
contains the pituitray gland
hypothalamus
What are the function chief homeostatic roles of the hyptohalamus? (7)
(1)autonmoic control center (2)center for emotional response (3)body temperature regulation (4)regulation of food intake (5)regulation of water balance and thrist (6)regulation of water-sleep cycle (7)control of the endocrine system functioning
NAME
its functions include autonomic control center, center for emotional response, body temperature regulation, regulation of food intake, regulation of water balance and thrist, regulation of sleep-wake cycle, and control of endocrine system functioning
hyptohalamus
NAME
secrete and is the hormone melatonin
pineal gland
What is the pineal gland?
secreates the hormone melatonin
NAME
extending from its posterior body visible externallny from the epihtalamus
pineal gland
The pineal gland extends from its posterior body visible externally from the (1)
epithalamus
What are the meninges?
are three connective tissue membranes that lie external to CNS organs
NAME
are three connective tissue membranes that lie external to CNS organs
meninges
What are the functions of the meninges?(4)
(1)cover and protect the CNS (2)protect blood vessels and enclose the venous sinuses (3)contain cerebrospinal fluid (4)form partitions in the skull
NAME
thier functions include to cover and protect the CNS, protect the blood vessels and enclose the venous sinuses, contian cerebrospinal fluid, and form partitions in the skull
meninges
What is the dura mater?
is the strongest meninix that is two layered sheet of fibrous connective tissue
NAME
is the strongest meninix that is two layered sheet of fibrous connective tissue
dura mater
What are the two fibrous connective tissue?
(1)periosteal layer (2)meningeal layer
NAME
its two layers are the periosteal layer and the meningeal layer
dura mater
What are the dural sinuses?
collect venous blood from the brain and direct it into the internal jurglar viens of the neck
NAME
collect venous blood from the brain and direct it into the internal jurglar veins of the neck
dural sinuses
What is the dural septa?
limit excessive movement of the brain w/in the cranium
NAME
limit excessive movement of the brian w/in the cranium
dural septa
What are the (3)parts of the dural septa?
(1)falx cerebri (2)falx cerebelli (3)tentorium cerebelli
NAME
its three parts include the falx cerebri, falx cerebelli, and the tentorium cerebelli
dural septa
What is the arachnoid matter?
is the middle meninx that forms a loose brian covering never dipping into the sulci at the cerebral surface
is the middle meninx that forms a loose brian covering never dipping into the sulci at the cerebral surface
arachnoid mater
Arachnoid mater is also called the (1)
Arachnoid
(1) is also called hte arachnoid
arachnoid mater
What is the subdural space?
is a narrow serous cavity contianing a film of fluid that seperates the dura mater from the arachnoid mater
NAME
is a narrow serous cavity containg a film of fluid that seperates the dura mater from the arachnoid mater
subdural space
What is the pia mater?
is composed of delicate connective tissue and is richly invested w tiny blood vessels
NAME
is composed of delicate connective tissue and is richly invested w tiny blood vessels
pia mater
What is meningitis?
is the inflammation of the meninges
NAME
is the inflammation of the meninges
meinigitis
What is encephalitis?
is the inflammation of the brain
NAME
is the inflammation of the brain
encephalitis
What are some of the functions of the CSF? (6)
(1)cushions CNS organs (2)reduces brain wieght by 97% (3)prevents the brain from crushing under its own weight (4)protects the brain and spinal cord from tramuas (5)helps nourish the brain (6)and some evidence suggests that it carries chemical singals
NAME
its functions include cushioning the CNS organs, reducing brain wieght by 97%, preventing the brain from crushing under its own weight, protects the brain and spinal cord from tramuas, helps to nourish the brain, and some evidence suggests that it carries chemical singals
CSF
What does CSF stand for?
cerebrospinal fluid
How is the CSF similar to blood plasma?
the CSF contains less protien than plasma and its ion centration is different
What is the total CSF volume of adults?
150 ml
What is the function of the chorid plexuses?
help cleanse the CSF by the removing of waste products and unneccessary solutes
NAME
helps cleanse the CSF by removing of waste products and unnneccessary solutes
CSF vol
What helps keep the CSF fluid moving?
ependymal cells
What is hydrocephalus?
is a condtion in which something obstructs the CSF's circulation or drainage resulting in the CSF accumalting and exerating pressure on the brain
NAME
is a conidtion in which something obstructs the CSF's circulation or drainage and the CSF accumaltes and exerates pressure on the brain
hydrocephalus
NAME
is a protective mechanism that helps to maintain a stable environment for the brain
blood-brian barrier
What separetes the bloodborne substances in the brain's capillaries? (3)
(1)the continous endothelium of the capillary wall (2)a relatively thick basal lamina surrounding the thick external face of each capillary (3)the bulbous "feet" of the astrocytes clinging to the capillaries
Why does bloodborne alcholol, nicotine, and anesthitics affect the brain?
bc the blood brain barrier is ineffective against fats, fatty acids, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other fat soluble molecules
What is a concussion?
occurs when a brain injury is slight and the symptoms are mild and short lived
NAME
occurs when the brian injury is slight and the sypmptoms are mild and short lived
concussion
What is contusion?
is caused by marked brain tissue destruction
NAME
is caused by marked brian tissue destuction
contusion
Following a head blow, death may result from (1) or (2)
(1)subdural (2)subarrachnoic hemorrhage
What is subarchnoid hemorrhage?
bleeding from ruptured vessels into those spaces
NAME
are bleeding from ruptured vessels into those spaces
subarachnoid hemorrhage
What is cerebral edema?
is the swelling of the brain bc of a traumatic head injury
NAME
is the swelling of the brain bc of traumatic head injury
cerebral edema
What does CVA stand for?
cerebrovasucular accidents
What causes a CVA?
occurs when blood circulation to a brain area is blocked and brain tissue dies
NAME
are also called brain attacks
CVA
NAME
occurs when blood circulation to a brain area is blocked and brain tissue dies
CVA
What is ischemia?
is any deprivation of blood supply to any tissue
NAME
is any deprivation of blood supply to any tissue
ischemia
What does TIAs stand for?
transeint ischemic attacks
What is a TIAs?
are temporary episodes of reverisble cerebral ischemia
NAME
are temporary episodes of reverisble cerebral ischemia
TIAs
What does AD stand for?
Alzhemier disease
NAME
is a progressive degenerative disease of the brian that ultimately results in demintia
AD
What is AD?
is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain that ultimately results in deminita
What is Parkinsons's disease?
results from a degeneration of the dopamine releasing neurons of the substantia nigra
NAME
a disease that results from a degeneration of the dopamine releasing neurons of the substantia nigra
Parkisnson's disease
What is the spinal cord?
provides a two way conduction pathway to and from the brain and it a major relfex center
NAME
provides a two way pathway conduction pathway to and from the brain and is a major reflex center
spinal cord
What protects the spinal cord?
(1)bone (2)meninges (3)CSF
What is the spinal dura sheath?
is a single layed dura mater of the spinal cord that is NOT attached to the vetrbral column
NAME
is a single layered dura mater of the spinal cord that is not attached to the vetrebral column
spinal dura sheath
What is the epidural space?
is a space btwn the bony vertebrae and the dural sheath that is filled w soft padding of fat and a network of veins
NAME
is a space btwn the bony vertebrae and the dural sheath that is filled w soft padding of fat and a network of veins
epidural space
Where does the spinal cord typically end?
L1
What is the lumbar puncture?
is the removal of the CSF fluid from the subarchnoid space
NAME
is the removal of the CSF fluid from the subarchoid space for testing
lumbar puncture
What is the consus medullaris?
is a cone shaped structure by which the spinal cord terminates
NAME
is a cone shaped structure by which the spinal cord terminates
consus medullaris
What is the filum terminale?
is a fibrous extension of the pia mater
NAME
is a fibrous extension of the pia mater
filum terminale
The spinal column is the width of a (1)
thumb
Describe the growth of vertebral column and the spinal cord?
the vertebral coloumn grows faster than the spinal cord forcing the lower spinal cord nerve roots to "chase" thier exit points inferiorly through the vertebral canal
the cross section of the gray matter of the cord looks like the letter (1) or a (2)
H or butterfly
What are the two posterior projections of the gray matter?
posterior and anterior roots
All nuerons whose cells are present in the spinal cord gray matter are (1)
multipolar
T or F
All the neurons whose cells are present in the spinal cord gray matter are multipolar
true
What are the lateral horns?
are present in the throacic and superior lumbar segments of the cord
NAME
are present in the throacic and superior lumbar segments of the cord
lateral horns
What are the spinal nerves?
are the dorsal and ventral roots that are very short and are fused together
NAME
are the dorsal and ventral roots that are very short and are fused together to form this
spinal nerves
What are the four zones of the gray matter?
(1)SS (2)VS (3)VM (4)SM
What does SS stand for?
somatic sensory
What does VS stand for?
viscreal sensory
What does SM stand for?
somatic motor
What does VM stand for?
visceral motor
What is white matter composed of?
myelinated and unmylinated nerve fibers
What are the directions that the myelinated and unmyelinated fiber run in the white matter? (3)
(1)ascending (2)descending (3)transverly
NAME
the myelinated and unmyleinated fibers of this can run ascending, descending, and transversely
white matter
NAME
this means that the fibers run from up to higher centers (sensory inputs)
ascending
NAME
this means that the nerve fibers run down to the cord from the brain or w/in the cord to lower levels (motor outputs)
descending
NAME
this means that the nerve fibers run across from one side of the cord to the other (commissural fibers)
transversely
The white matter on each side of the cord is divided into three (1)
white columns
The white columns can also be refered to as the (1)
fubiculi
the (1) can also be refered to as he fubiculi
white column
What are the three white columns?
anterior, posterior, lateral funiculi
T or F
all major spinal tracts are part of the multineuron pathways that connect the brain to the body peripheral
True
What are four generalizations that can be made about nerve tracts?
(1)most pathways cross from one side of the CNS to the other at some point along thier journay (2)most consist of a chain of two or three neurons that contribute to successive tracts of the pathway (3)most exhibit somatotphy (4)all pathways and tracts are paired w a memember of the pair present on each side of the spinal cord or brain
What is somatotpy?
is a precise spatial relationship among the tract fibers that reflects the orderly mapping of the body
NAME
is a presice spatial relationship among the tract fibers that reflects the orderly mapping of the body
somatotopy
the ascending pathways conduct sensory impulses upward typically through the (1)
chains of three succive neurons (first, second, and third)
NAME
their cell bodies reside in a gangalion conduct the impulses from the cutaneous receptors of the skin and from proprioceptors to the spinal cord or the brain stem
first-order neurons
What are first order neurons?
their cell bodies reside in a gangalion conduct the impulses from the cutaneous receptors of the skin and from the cutaneous receptors of the skin and from proprioceptors to the spinal cord or the brain stem
What are second-order neurons?
thier cell bodies reside in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord or in medullary nuclei, and transmit impulses to the thalamus or to the cerebellum where they synapse
NAME
thier cell bodies reside in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord or in medullary nuclei and transmit impulses to the thalamus or the cerebellum where they synapse
second-order neurons
What are third-order neurons?
are located in the thalamus and conduct impulses to the somatosensory cortex of the cerebrum
NAME
are located in the thalamus and conduct impulses to the somatosensory cortex of the cerebrum
third order neurons
What are nonspecfic ascending pathways?
receive inputs from many different types of sensory receptors and makem multiple synapses in the brain stem
NAME
receive inputs from many different types of sensory receptors and make multiple synapses in the brain stem
nonspecfic ascending pathways
Nonspecfic ascending pathways are also called (1)
anterolateral pathways
(1)are also called anterolateral pathways
nonspecfic ascending pathways
What is paralysis?
the loss of motor functions
NAME
is the loss of motor functions
paralysis
Any localized damage to the spinal cord or its roots leads to some functional loss or either (1)
paralysis
What is paraesthesias?
sensory loss
NAME
refers to sensory loss
parasthesias
Severe damage to the ventral root or anterior horn cells results in (1)
flaccid paralysis
Severe damage to the (1) cell may result in flaccid paralysis
ventral root or anterior horn cells
When does spastic paralysis ocur?
when only the upper motor neurons of the primary motor cortex are damaged
NAME
ocurs when only the upper motor neurons of the primary motor cortex are damaged
spastic paralysis
What is paraplegia?
if the lower transection occurs btwn T1 and L1 and both the lower limbs are affected
NAME
is if the lower transection occurs btwn T1 and L1 and both the lower limbs are affected
paraplegia
What is quadriplegia?
is if the injury occurs in the cervical region and all four limbs are affected
NAME
is if the injury occurs in the cervical region and all four limbs are affected
quadriplegia
What is hermiplegia?
is the paralysis of one side of the body
NAME
is the paralysis of one side of the body
hermiplegia
Anyone w traumatic spinal cord injury must be watched for (1)
spinal shock
What is spinal shock?
a transient period of functional loss that follows a spinal injury
NAME
is a transient period of functional loss that follows a spinal injury
spinal shock
What is poliomyeltis?
results from the destruction of anterior horn motor neurons by the poliovirus
NAME
results from the destruction of the anterior horn motor neurons by the poliovirus
poliomyeltis
What can lead to cerebral palsy?
in diffuclt delvieries when they may be a lack of oxygen
What is cebebral palsy?
is a neuromuscular disiability in which the voluntary muscles are poorly controlled or paralyzed as a result of brain damage
NAME
is a neuromuscular disiability in which the voluntary muscles are poorly controlled or paralyzed as a result of brain damage
cerebral palsy
What is anencephaly?
is when the cerebrum and part of the brain stem never develop persumably bc the neural fold fail to fuse rostrally
NAME
is when the cerebrum and part of the brain stem never develop persumably bc the neural fold fails to fuse rostrally
anencepahly
NAME
children with this disorder are totally vegetatbles, unable to see, hear, or process sensory input and death usally ocurs after birth
anencephaly
What is spinal bifida?
results from the incomplete formation of the vertebral arches and typically involves the lumbosacral region
NAME
results from the incomplete formation of the vertebral arches and typically involves the lumboscaral region
spinal bifida
What are ones of the last areas of the CNS to mature?
hypothalamus