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264 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Allah
one true God of Islam
Islam
religion founded by Muhammad; word means "submission"
Dar al-Islam
"house of Islam"; Islamic empire
Mecca
holy city of Islam; birthplace of Muhammad
Quran
holy book of Islam; compilations of works spoken by the Angel Gabriel to Muhammad
Hadith
sayings of Muhammad
Medina
originally Yathrib; changed to Medina meaning "city of the prophet"; beginnings of Islam
Hijra
Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina in 622
Umma
Islamic term for "community of the faithful"
Seal of the Prophets
name for Muhammad being the final prophet
Ka'ba
main shrine of Mecca
Five Pillars of Islam
foundations of Islam
1. profession of faith
2. prayer
3. fast during Ramadan
4. alms giving
5. hajj
Caliph
Islamic leader after the death of Muhammad
Umayyad
first dynasty of Islam; ruled from 661-750
Shia
believers in the leadership of Ali's line; minority
Abbasid
powerful Islamic dynasty; ruled from 750-1258
Ulama
scholars who shaped public policy in accordance with the Quran and the Sharia
Qadis
Islamic judges
Sultan
Saljuq ruler
caravanserai
inns offering lodging for caravan merchants
Al-Andalus
prosperity of Islamic Spain
Cordoba
capital city of Al-Andalus
Sufis
Islamic mystic missionaries
Hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca
Jizya
tax in Islamic imposed on non-Muslims
Madrasas
Islamic institutions of higher education
Muhammad
founder of Islam; final prophet of Allah; was given the words of the Quran by Angel Gabriel
Abu Bakr
first caliph after the death of Muhammad
Ali
supported by Shias to be caliph; served and was assassinated
Abu Al-Abbas
first ruler of the Abbasids; defeated Ummayads with the help of Shias and non-Muslims
Harun al-Rashid
ruler at the high point of Abbasid empire; distributed money and supported the arts
Al-Gahzali
sufi; believed that human reason was too frail and confusing
Omar Khayyam
writer influenced by Persian literature; wrote quatrains
Ibn Rushd
caliph of Cordoba; turned to Aristotle
Grand Canal
connected North and South China; built by Sui Yangdi
equal-field system
a system of giving out land equally and fairly according to need
fast-ripening rice
rice that could be grown twice a year
foot binding
women's feet were bound to keep them small and under male control
chinaware
porcelain products only made in China
movable type
allowed people to draw money from banks
"flying cash"
checks
Chan Buddhists
Buddhism related to Chinese culture
Neo-Confucianism
mixture of Buddhism and Confucianism
Silla dynasty
Korean dynasty
Kumsong
capital of Silla empire
Nara Japan
period when Japanese govenment was modeled on Tang Dynasty
Heian Japan
period when Japanese rulers were figureheads and not rulers
Tale of Genji
book that reflected meditation
samurai
warriors who served the emperor
bushido
way of the warrior
seppuku
ritual suicide by disembowlment; also called hara-kiri
shogun
military rulers that ruled in place of an emperor
Xuanzang
helped establish Chan Buddhism
Yang Jian
Duke of Sui Dynasty
Sui Yangdi
founded Sui dynasty; built Grand Canal
Tang Taizong
ruler of Tang; rought stability to China
An Lushan
led a revolt; captured both capitals; killed by army
Huang Cho
led series of revolts
Du Fu
final Tang emperor; abdicated throne
Song Taizu
fist Song emperor; fired generals for easier rise to power
Zhu Xi
philosopher; taught li and qi; wrote Family Rituals
Murasaki Shikibu
wrote Tale of Genji
Sind
Indus river valley of Northwest India
Ghaznavids
groups of Turks who plundered and eventually ruled Nothern India
Sultanate of Delhi
Muhammad's sucessor; regained power; capital at Delhi
Chola Kingdom
South Indian kingdo that allowed regional rule
Vijayanagar
dominated South after Chola
monsoons
seasonal winds and rains
dhows
ships that carried up to 400 tons
junks
Arab boats
Kingdom of Axum
replaced Kush as Indian trade partner
Vishnu
Hindu god of fertility and protection
Shiva
Hindu god of death and fertility
Bhakti
religious movement that combined Hinduism and Islam
Funan
kingdom of Southeast Asia
Srivijaya
succeeded Funan kingdom but lost to Chola Kingdom
Angkor
large city; elaborate capital
Melaka
Islamic pirate lair
Buzurg ibn Shahriyar
Indian storyteller
Harsha
Buddhist; ruled over Lower Ganges Kingdom; allowed great freedom; temporary centralized government
Mahmud of Gahzni
led Turks into Afghanistan and India
Harihara and Bukka
Islamic misionaries sent to South India; foudned Vijayanagar Kingdom
Shankara
combined Hindu texts into one book; philosopher who taught about salvation
Raminjua
philosopher who challenged logic and taught salvation (diff view thatn Shankara)
Guru Kabir
wise man who taught values that helped to bridge religions
Clovis
leader of best Germanic tribe- the Franks
Charles Martel
founded Carolingians; most powerful in West
Charlemange
Martel's grandson; crowned Holy Roman Emperor; centralized rule
Pope Leo III
crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor
Gregory of Tours
wrote History of the Franks; Gallic bishop
Louis the Pious
Charlemange's son
Alfred
king of England; fought Vikings
Otto I
king; defeated Magyars at Lechfield
Pope Gregory I
protected Church; made papacy great
St. Benedict of Nursia
strengthened monastcisim
St. Scholastica
spread monastic rules and adapted them for nuns
Franks
Germanic tribe
Aachen
capital of modern Germany
missi dominici
envoys of the local ruler
Magyars
invaded Carolingians from east
Vikings
Norse plunderers
Holy Roman Empire
empire created by the Pope
lords
ruled over manors; had absolute power
retainers
protected lords and manors
benefice
usually land grant from lord to vassal signifying relationship
manor
estate that became popular; self-sufficient towns
serf
peasant in a manor
fief
a land grant from a lord to a vassal
heavy plow
plows used to work tougher land
papacy
pope's position and office
monasticism
order of monks
Benedict's rule
set of regulations for monasteries
Tughril Beg
second Saljuq sultan; reconquered Baghdad; took command of Abbasids
Genghis Khan (Temujin)
Mongol ruler; Mongolian conquest of Asia; laid foundation for empire; built capital at Karakorum
Marco Polo
European explorer; lived at Kublai Khan's court; recorded Mongol culture
Kublai Khan
consolidated Mongol rule in China; created Mongol culture; proclaimed Yuan dynasty; last prominent emperor
Hulegu
Mongol ruler; conquered SE Asia; first Ilkhanate of Persia
Tamerland (Timur the Lame)
spread Turkish Empire
Osman
Turkish sultan; founder of Ottoman Turks (independant)
Sultan Mehmed II
conquered Constantinople (1453)
Turks
migrants from Caspian Sea steppe
yurts
Mongol tent homes
kumiss
Mongol fermented milk drink
shamans
Mongol religious leaders; possessed divine power and invoked aid
khan
Mongol term for king
Saljuq Turks
Turkish group; beat Byzantines at Manzikert
sultan
Turkish qord for chieftain
Manzikert
Byzantine vs. Saljuq; Saljuqs won
Karakorum
Mongol capital
Khanbaliq
staging point fot campaings in China
Changtai
inherited Central Asia
Golden Horde
conquered and ruled Russia
Yuan Dynasty
Mongol dynasty in China
Ilkhanate of Persia
Mongol dynasty in Persia
Laimist Buddhism
Tibetian Buddhism; teaching of spiritual leaders
Uighur Turks
Turkish group that migrated into Asia
bubonic plague
from SW China; devastated populations in Europe and Asia
Ottoman Turks
group led by Osman
Istanbul
new name for Islamic-ruled Constantinople
Sundiata
founder of Mali Kingdom; the Lion Prince; established a cavalry army
Mansa Musa
Sundiata's grandnephew; ruled from 1312-1337; high point of Mali Kingdom
Ibn Battuta
Islamic explorer; documented travels through Islamic world
Ali ibn Muhammad
leader of largest Zanj revolt; captured Basra
griots
professional singers and storytellers
bananas
a tropical fruit
kin-based society
system of organization in Africa before Islam
chiefdom
African ruling system centered around a chief
Kingdom of Kongo
central African state that began trading with Portuguese
camels
caravan beast of burden; quickened pace of trans-Saharan trade and communication
Gao
storyteller in W. Africa; talked about kin-based society
Kingdom of Ghana
kingdom in W. Africa during the 5th-13th century which eventually took over Axum
Koumbi-Saleh
capital of Kingdom of Ghana
Mali Empire
built by Sundiata; ruled almost all W. Africa; capital at Niani
Swahili
syncretism of Arabic and Bantu languages
Kilwa
busiest ports on African coast
Zimbabwe
"dwelling of a chief"; built large city of Great Zimbabwe
age grades
African society made age grades for all members born at the same time
Zanj revolts
blakc Swahili slaves staged several unsuccessful revolts
diviners
African class of spiritual individuals; essential priestly role
Axum
Christian kingdom on the Red Sea
Otto I
Otto of Saxony; started the Holy Roman Empire
Pope John XII
pope from 937-964
Pope Gregory VII
outlawed lay investiture
Henry IV
opposed pope's ruling on lay investiture
Frederick Barbosa
conquered Lombards
Hugh Capet
made Capetian France
Duke William of Normandy (William the Conqueror)
Norman conqueror of England (1066)
King Louis IX
St. Louis; fought Cathans; led a Crusade
Eleanor of Aquitaine
supported Troublous in Pontienus
St. Thomas Aquinas
most famous theologian; taught in Paris
St. Dominic
founded the Dominicans; combated materialism
St. Francis
founded Franciscans
Pope Innocent III
height of the papacy; still respected king's authority
Eric the Red
expaded Viking influence to Greenland
Leif Ericsson
first European to reach America; landed in Newfoundland
Robert and Roger Guiscard
conquered Italy and Sicily from the Muslims
Pope Urban II
started the Crusades
Peter the Hermit
led first attempt at reclaiming the Holy Land
Saladin
Arabian leader; reclaimed Jerusalem in 3rd Crusade
Holy Roman Empire
neither Holy, nor Roman, nor an empire
investiture contest
controversy over emperors appointing Church officals
Capetian dynasty
rulers of France after Hugh Capet
Normans
French rulers of Normandy; conquered England
champaigne fairs
investiture contests
Hanseatic league
trade group centered around Harnsa
three estates
social classes; "those who pray," "those who fight," "those who work"
chivalry
code of honor for knights and nobles
troubadors
performing singers and poets
guilds
groups of workers
cathedral schools
church-organized educational program; focused on liberal arts
universities
schools of higher learning
scholasticism
syntthesized beliefs of Catholicism
sacraments
Catholic relgious rites
saints
holy individuals canonized by the Church
relics
artifacts that belonged to the saints
pilgrimages
religious journeys to holy sites
Waldensians
French heretics; "clergy was immoral"
Cathars (Albigensians)
viewed the world as a place of constant struggle
Vinland
Newfoundland
Teutonic Knights
Germanic knight group
reconquista
reconquering of Spain from the Muslims
Crusades
Catholic campaings of conquest to the Holy Land
Toltecs
first large-scale central rule in Mesoamerica
Mexica
the Aztecs; cental American empire of 12 million; 489 conquered provinces paid tribute to capital of Tenochtitlan
Huitzilopochtli
Mexica warrior patron deity; most of human sacrifice went to this god
Quetzalcoatl
Aztec "feathered serpent" god; patron of arts
Pueblo
S.W. American society; irrigated rivers, raised maize, over 135 known sites
Iroquois
confederation of 5 tribes in N.E. America
Inca
empire in Andes Mountains; capital at Cuzco
Tenochtitlan
Aztec capital city; an administrative center for the region
chinampas
floating farms around Tenochtitlan; made from fertile muck from bottom of lake
quipu
Incan form of record keeping using knots and small cords
Cahokia Mounds
largest surviving mound structure
Marae
Pacific Island temple
Nan Madol
massive administrative center; Sandelean dynasty in the South Pacific
Ali'I nui
traditional chieftains in Hawaii
kapu
Hawaiian term meaning taboo
Ibn Battuta
Muslim qadi and explorer
Rabban Sauma
emmissary of Ilkhan
John of Montecorvino
Italian missionary who founded Roman Catholic missions in India and China; first archbishop of Beijing
Hongwu
Chinese commoner who overthrew the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and founded the Ming Dynasty
Zheng He
famous Chinese emplorer responsible for many ventures; purpose was to show off Chinese might to foreigners
Prince Henry
Portuguese explorer who started European expansion
Bartholomeu Dias
explorer that went to the Cape of Good Hope
Vasco da Gama
went to India around Africa
Fernando and Isabel
rulers of Spain during the reconquista
Christopher Columbus
Italian explorer who discovered the Americas for Spain
Little Ice Age
a global cooling of the earth around 1300 CE
Black Death
term for bubonic plague
Ming Dynasty
post-Mongol rule dynasty in China built like traditional dynasties
Renaissance
period of European learning after the Dark Ages
humanism
refers to scholars interested in humanities, literature, history, and philosophy
bezant
currency of Byanztium; gold coin
Greek fire
incindiery weapon made of sulfur, lime, and petroleum
Greens and Blues
chariot racing teams; big rivalry; caused riots
theme
province of Byzantium
corpus iuris civilis
Body of Civil Law; recodification of law by Justinian
caesaropapism
emperors were absolute rulers an were involved in the Church
iconoclasm
destruction of icons ordered by Leo III
ascetisim
intense celibacy, prayer, and fasting taken on by monks
Cyrillic
alphabet made by Cyril and Methodius to teach Slavs
Constantine
first emperor of Byzantium; created new capital of Constantinople; converted to Christianity and made it legal
Procopius
Byzantine historian
Justinian
emperor of Byzantium; recodified law; started campaign to recapture Europe and Rome
Belasarius
Justinian's general who led army to capture Europe
Theodora
Justinian's wife; very influential in government
Liuprand of Cremona
ambassador sent by European tribe to Constantinople; had bad reports on city
Leo III
ordered iconoclasm
St. Simeon Stylite
famous "pillar saint"
St. Basil of Caesarea
created laws for monks
Basil II
"Bulgar Slayer"; defeated Bulgars and blinded them
Cyril and Methodius
missionaries sent to the Slavs; invented Slavic alphabet based on Byzantine and Russian
Prince Vladimir of Kiev
converted to Eastern Orthodox and ordered his subjects to also
Ferdinand Magellan
circumnavigated the world; didn't actually make it around; died in a struggle with Phillipine natives
James Cook
led three expeditions to Pacific, the Arctic, and Australia; died in Hawaii
Alfonso d' Alboquerque
Portuguese commander in the Indian Ocean; weakened Portuguese hegemony
cross staff
instrument similar to astrolabe, using the altitude of the sun to locate positioning on the Earth
volta da mar
Portuguese concept of return through the Sea, helped them sail against trade winds on the return trip home
Columbian Exchange
trade in the new world sparked by Columbus’ voyage which introduced new goods in Europe and the new world
Seven Year's War
War between Imperial powers throughout the world at home and abroad over control over Hegemony
galleons
Huge armed Spanish trade ships designed to transport large cargoes from the Philippines
joint-stock company
companies like the VOC and English east India trading company
English East India Company
British trade company, privately owned and non government regulated. Helped gain wealth for England
VOC
Dutch United East India Trading Company, made Holland very wealthy by controlling trade in India