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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Patronage
One of the key inducements used by machines.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
Civil Service
A system of hiring and promotion based on the merit principle and the desire to create a nonpartisan government service.
Merit Principle
The idea that hiring should be based on entrance exams and promotion ratings to produce administration by people with talent and skill.
Hatch Act
A federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics.
Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
The office in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government, using elaborate rules in the process.
GS (General Schedule) Rating
A schedule for federal employees, ranging from GS 1 to GS 18, by which salaries can be keyed to rating and experience.
Senior Executive Service
An elite cadre of about 11,000 federal government managers, established by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, who are mostly career officials but include some political appointees who do not require Senate confirmation.
Bureaucracy
According to Max Weber, a hierarchical authority structure that uses task specialization, operates on the merit principle, and behaves with impersonality.
Independent Regulatory Agency
A government agency responsible for some sector of the economy, making and enforcing rules supposedly to protect the public interest. It also judges disputes over these rules. The Interstate Commerce Commission is an example.
Governmental Corporations
A government organization that, like business corporations, provides a service that could be provided by the private sector and typically charges for its services. The U.S. Postal Service is an example.
Independent Executive Agencies
The government not accounted for by cabinet departments, independent regulatory agencies, and government corporations. Its administrators are typically appointed by the president and serve at the president’s pleasure.
Policy Implementation
The stage of policymaking between the establishment of a policy and the consequences of the policy for the people whom it affects.
Standard Operating Procedures
Better known as SOPs, these procedures are used by bureaucrats to bring uniformity to complex organizations. Uniformity improves fairness and makes personnel interchangeable.
Administrative Discretion
The authority of administrative actors to select among various responses to a given problem.
Street-Level Bureaucrats
A phrase coined by Michael Lipsky, referring to those bureaucrats who are in constant contact with the public and have considerable administrative discretion.
Regulation
The use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector.
Deregulation
The lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and other professional activities for which government rules had been established and that bureaucracies had been created to administer.
Command-and-Control Policy
According to Charles Schultze, the existing system of regulation whereby government tells business how to reach certain goals, checks that these commands are followed, and punishes offenders.
Incentive System
According to Charles Shultze, a more effective and efficient policy than command-and-control;
Executive Orderes
Regulations originating from the executive branch.
Iron Triangle
Are composed of bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees. They have dominated some areas of domestic policymaking. Characterized by mutual dependency, in which each element provides key services, information, or policy for the others.