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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
13th amendment
abolished slavery
15th amendment
allowed voting to not be discriminated upon based on race
19th amendment
gave suffrage to women
24th amendment
outlawed poll taxes in federal elections
Standards of judicial review for race
it will be strictly scrutinized and viewed inherently suspect (presume it's unconstitutional) and will only be allowed if there is compelling governmental interest
standards of judicial review for gender
reviewed with intermediate scrutiny and will be allowed if it bears substantial relationship to important governmental goal
standards of judicial review for other
reviewed with reasonableness and will be allowed if it bears rational relationship to a legitimate government goal
Scott v. Sandford
happened in the era of slavery

Scott was a slave that his owner (Sandford) had brought to the north and Scott sued for freedom.

S.C. decided that Scott was still property of his owner whether he was in the north or not.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Homer Plessy was a man of mixed race that was in a white railroad car and he was asked to move to the black railroad car. He sued under the equal protection cause, but the S.C. said that it was okay as long as the facilities were "separate but equal"
poll taxes
charging to vote (but used discriminatingly)
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
chosen by the NAACP to be a case to challenge the decision in Plessy v. Ferguson. Linda Brown was a little girl that grew up in a predominantly white neighborhood but had to go a black school. Showed that it caused the black children to feel inferiority. S.C. outlawed the separate but equal as it was inherently unequal.
short term effects of Brown v. Board
there was an increase in white enrollment in private schools and there was a threat to close private schools. and nothing was really done to promote desegregation
long term effects of brown v. board
it took decades to really get desegregation to happen and even in 1955 the court order lower courts to do something. nothing was done until the 1964 civil rights act that said it would take away $
defacto segretation
segreation by circumstance
dejure segretation
by law segregation (illegal)
1964 Civil Rights Act
punished schools that hadn't outlawed segregation
outlawed discrimination in public places and in the workplace based on race, color, gender or origin.
1963 Equal Pay Act
Illegal to base pay on race religion, gender or origin
Voting Rights Act of 1965
forced states to get rid of discriminatory practices that prevented blacks from voting. made a federal voting registrar and would take away $ money if states did not comply
Civil Rights Act of 1968
outlawed segregation in housing
Civil Rights Act of 1991
made it easier to sue based on racial discrimination
Swann v Charlotte Mecklenbery County Schools 1971
The counties in the area were broken up by defacto segregation and so a judge decided to use busing as a form of integration.
S.C. upheld because it was to overcome past segregation problems
consequences of Voting Rights Act
immediate increase in black voter turnout
Hispanic portion of US population
13 percent

current largest minority
fastest growing minority
Native Americans
were the last group of people to be recognized as citizens in 1924
Indian Claims Act
dealt with property claims on indian territory
Koramatzu v. US
allowed internment of japanese citizens
Waves of women's rights
Battle for the Vote pre-1920
Doldrums 1920-1960
2nd Feminist Movement 1960-now
Reed v. Reed
husband v. wife
child dies and leaves a will
a minnesota law claimed that men had preference in divorce and estate
woman stated it violated equal protection
S.C. struck it down stating that there cannot be arbitrary gender classifications
Craig v. Boren
law allowing women to drink at 18 and men at 21. S.C. said it was not okay because it did not meet to persuade under intermediate scrutiny
Title Nine
forbid gender discrimination in federally funded programs

*made schools have equal money given to athletics for both genders
introduced before 1960 and was struck down, and it later reemerged but was did not receive enough ratification35 or the 38 votes needed
Comparable worth issues and decisions
-having to equalize pay for jobs that had the same amount of effort and training. S.C. said no because they didn't want to have to set $ and things like that

-S.C. banned discrimination in private businesses and service clubs

-S.C. banned mandatory height and weight requirements
Quid pro quo
manager or supervisor demands sexual favors in turn for employment or promotion
hostile work environment
includes unwelcome behavior by anyone and if supervisor knew and did nothing you can sue the supervisor
Harris v. Forklift Systems 1993
Was an executive at the company but her boss would say derogatory statements towards her and eventually she quit her job and filed suit. S.C. went with Harris and said that you do not have to prove psychological harm, you only have to prove that it happened.
Faragher vs. City of Boca Raton
Stated that employers (relates to school) are responsible for preventing and eliminating sexual harrassment.
Age discrimination decisions
no compulsory retirement

employees cannot discriminate over age 40
Rehabilitation Act of 1973
cannot discrim on disaility
ADA 1990
requires employers to provide accommodations and prohibits disrim in the workplace
Laurens v. Texas
said that homosexuals can have sexual privacy
Regents of UC v. Bakke 1978
1st affirmative action case
Bakke was white and applying for medical school at UC davis.
Davis reserved 18 of its 100 seats for minorities.
Bakke did not get in but did have higher scores than minority students.
sued on 14th amendment equal protection

S.C. struck it down because it did not have compelling government intrest
Johnson v. Santa Clara County
there was a position for a road dispatcher
came down to a man and woman
woman got the job
man sued under equal protection
s.c. said okay because it was overcoming past discrimination
Adarand Construction v. Pena
DOT created an affirmative action program to help minority contractors by giving $ to general contractors that hired minority sub contractors.

Mt. Gravel hired Gonzales a minority contractor over Adarand despire low bid.

S.C. struck down because federal aff action also needs to be viewed with strict scrutiny
14th amendment
"no state shall made or enforce any law which shall abridge the prilegees or immunites of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberyt or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its juridiction the equal protection of the laws.
Gratz v. Bollinger and Grutter v. Bollinger
Gratz- the Unv. of Michigan gave an extra 20 points to minority students. Caucasian males filed under equal protection clause
S.C. agreed
Grutter upheld because it wasn't as rigerous of a point system as in Gratz
Shaw v. Reno
established strict scrutiny level for racial gerrymanding
Romer v. Evans
Colorado law banning gays rights
S.C. didn't allow for blanket discrimination against gays and lesbians