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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of political parties
1) connecting citizens to their government
2) Running candidates for political office (candidates rely on partys to coordinate and fun campaigns)
3)Informing the public (convey an image of party)
4) Organizing the government (help coordinate policy making)
3 reasons why American is a two party system
1) Consensus of values (range of beliefs are small)
2) historical influence (federalists and anti-federalists)
3) the winnder-take-all system/puralist electoral system (not proportional representation)
Grass roots
state or local control over important important decisions that parties have
Organization of parties
1) national comitte composed of representatives from each state and territory
2) a fultime, paid national chairman that manages the day-to-day work of the party
3) a national convention that meets formally every four years during the summer before a presidential election in November
4) a ongressional campaign committe that assists both incumbents and challengers
5) a broad, not always consistent, idealogical base since they must appeal to a large number of voters
realighments
shiting in the voting population because issues change
Era of good feeling
Monroe.. two parties points of vew seemed to merge most notably
Whigs
represented many interests of the old federalist party
Jackson
new democratic party
universal manhood suffrage-all men could
national convention was created to nominate a presidental candidate.
First republican into office
abe lincoln
Republican party
laizzez-faire
Roosevelt Coalition
combination of many different groups that wished to see herbert Hoover defeated (first dem.. besides wilson and cleveland) since before Lincoln
Roosevelt as president
social welfare
dem in both branches
Gridlock
(ex. Nixon's presidency)
the tendency to paralyze decision making, with one branch advocation one policy and the other another.
Republicans change campaging methods 1969-1993
took advangaed of electronic media.
public opinion polls to determine party strategy.
computerized mailings
Democrats 1969-1993
became more concerned with grassroots (the commoan man).
McGovern-Fraiser Commission
-democrats
-review party structure and delegate selction procedures.
-they determined that minorities, women, youth and the poor were not adequately represented at the party convention.
-superdelegates (governors- members of congress) were reduced
Dem after 1993
adopt some Republican strategies (mailing lists, opinion polls, paid consultants.
Minor parties
*those dominated by an individual personality
*those organized around a long last goal or idealogy `
Populist party
most influential third party
William Jennings Bryan
Perot
tried to defy the two party sustem by running for president as an independent (got 19$ of the vote but no electoral vote)
Straight Ticket
support candidates for one party for all positions
ticket splitting
voting for candidates from both parties for different positions
Party Machines
orgainizations that recruted memebers by the use of material incentives (money jobs places to live)
Running for presidency
requires the candidate to take initiative by announcing to run, raising money, collecing signatures to get his name on the ballot and personally appealing to voters in primary elections
single memeber districts
in any district the election determins one representative or offical
Closed primaries
a voter must declare in advance his or her party membership and on election day votes in that parties election. Most states have these
open primaries
a voter can decide when he or she enters the voting booth which oparties primary to participate in. one a few states have these
blanket (or free love) primaries
a voter makes a ballot that lists candidates for all parties, and can select the Republican for one office and the Democrat for another. only thress states have this (luisiana, wahington, and alsaka).
caucus
local party members meet and agree on the candidate they will support.
how congressional and presidental election vary
-congressional are region/ presidential is national
-elections for house are less competitive
-congressional elections occur every two year with all seats in house open and one thir of the seats of seate open. fewed ppl vote in congresional.
-presidental populatrity affects congrtional elections
-memeber of congress can communicate more directly with constituents. President must rely on mass media to communicate with voters
-congression candidate can deny repsonibitiy for problems in government. they can also blame the president.
coatail effect
president's populatity affects congressional elections
The road to presidency
1) deciding to announce: usually campaign awhile before announcing
2) presidential primaries (some states split vote some have winner get all).
3) the conventions (first one andrew jackson0: grass roots replacement of old party caucus (ultimate decision is made here)
4) campaiging for the general election (this include presidential debates)
frontloading
early primaries to be more imprtant than later ones
Reform Act of 1974
-six-person federal election comission is formed
-all contrivutions over 100 must be disclosed (no cash over that amount)
-no foreign contibutions
-individual limited to 1000 per candidate/ 20,000 to national party comittee and 5000 to poltical action committee (PAC)
-PAC contributers are limited to 5000 per candidate and 15.000 to national party
-federal matching are provited if they so choose
1976 amendment
corportations, lbaor unions, and speical interest groups to set up PACS to raise money
Buckley v Valeo
limiting the amount that a candidate could spend on his or her own campaign is unconstituional.
Soft money
funds not specified for candidates' campgain but given to poltical parties for party building activites.
The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002
banned soft money to national parties and placed curbs on use of campaign ad by outisde interest groups. 2000/c 25/all fed candidates(two year election cycle)
527's
tax exempt organizations created primarly to influenc nomination, electon appointment or defeat of candidates.
critical elections
when there is a realignment. -shift of poltical allgiance from one party to another.
dialighment
people seem less inclied to affiliate with a poltical party at all.. independents
interest group
an organization of people who enter the poltical process to try to achieve their shared goals.
PAC
poltical arms of interst groups, legally entitied to raise funs to contrivute to favored candidates or poltical parties
Elitist Theory
argues that just a few interst groups hav emost of the power. corporate interest control a great many gov decisions
Pluralist theory
claims that inerest groups benefit american democracy by bringing representation
hyperpluralist theory
too many groups are trying to influence the poltical process .. poltical choas and contradiciton . politcal sys is out of control
Memebership
-instituional: buisness or corporation
-individual
types of interest groupss
economic: concerned with profits, prices and wagers (labor unions/ union shop: requires new employees to join the union representing them0
-agriculture groups
-business gorups: ex GM (large corporations
-professional groups: occupations
how interest groups work
lobbying (contacting, etc)
electioneering (getting them in and keeping them there)
litigation: suing when they dont get something
-appealing to the public: cultivate public imiage
Amicus curiae
written arguments submitted to the courts in support of one side or another (regents of the university of califonoia v bakke... called affirmative aciton programs as reverse discrimitation
class action lawsuits
Brown V the board of education of toeka ex.... enables a grouple of similar plaintifs to combine grievances into a single suit
Where do they get their money
foundation grants: funds established usually by prminent families or corporation for philanthorpy
-Federal grands and contracts: can be given to support a project but not directly to organizations for lobbying purposes
-direct solicitation: direct mail
effectif interst groups
size, intensity, financial resources
revolving door
gov officials quit their jobs to take positions a as lobbyiests or consultans.
the fourth branch of gov
mass media.
Functions of the media
entertainment, new rports, agenda setting (what it focuses on and what it doesnt), creation of poltical forums (encourage citizens to focus on issues)
Structure of mass media
print media, electronic media, the internet
Sound bites
comments compressed into several-second segments
media and poltical compagins
advertising (television), news coverage, presidential debates