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120 Cards in this Set

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acquisitive bureaucracies
organizations that are self-perpetuating and demand funding that will result in the continued existence of the agency
activist court
court that makes decisions that forge new ground (Roe v. Wade)
advise and consent
power of the Senate regarding presidential appointments
affirmative action
programs for minorities supported by govt as a means of providing equality under the law
agenda setting
policy goals typically set by political parties
americans with disabilities act (1991)
requires employers, schools, and public buildings to reasonably accommodate handicapped individuals
amicus curiae
"friend of the court"; briefs that may be sent to support the position of one side or the other
antiballistic missile treaty (1972)
treaty wherein america and the soviet union agreed to limit antiballistic missle sites and interceptor missiles
appropriation bill
congressional legislation that has spending as a basic characteristic. there are 13 appropriation bills that make up the federal budget
Baker v Carr
"one man one vote"
balanced budget
public policy that advocates that the federal budget spend as much money as it receives. attempt made to pass a constitutional amendment madating this policy failed
bipartisan
refers to two political parties working together to reach a common policy goal
brandeis brief
friend of the court opinion offered in Muller v Oregon which spoke about inherent differences between men and women in the workplace
bully pulpit
the ability to use the office of the presidency to promote a particular program and/or to influence Congress to accept legislative proposals.
campaign finance reform
legislation aimed at placing limits on political candidates accepting money and gifts from individuals and special interest groups
cases of equity
those cases that cannot be resolved under common law precedent
civil rights vs. civil liberties
rights = application of epotl
liberties = rights protected by bill of rights
Clear and Present Danger Doctrine
est. in Schenck v US
gave govt right to censor speech due to national security
cloture
process in which it takes 60 senators to cut off a filibuster and that is aimed at protecting minority interests
collective security
agreement to form through treaties mutual defense arrangements, such as NATO, which guarantee that if one nation is attacked, other nations will come to its defense
commerce clause
constitution giving congree that authority to regulate interstate commerce and commerce with foreign countries
common law
based on legal concept of stare decisis, or judicial precedent
competitive federalism
Nixon - known as the new federalism, this approach stressed the downsizing of the federal govt and more reliance on revenue sharing and grants
concurrent power
power shared by the state and federal govt, such as the power to tax
concurring opinion
additional opinion in a court decision written by a member of the majority
conference committee
a committee consisting of senators and representatives that meets to resolve differences in legislation
CBO - congressional budget office
set up by Congress, evaluates the cost of legislative proposals
congressional oversight
power used by congress to gather info useful for the formation of legislation, review the operations and budgets of executive depts and independent regulatory agencies, conduct investigations through committee hearings, and bring to the public's attention the need for public policy
consumer price index (CPI)
a primary measure of inflation determined by the increase in the cost of products compared to abse year
continuing resolution
emergency spending legislation that preents the shutdown of any dept simply because its budget has not been enacted
convention bump
an increase reflected in presidential preference polls immediately following a party's nomination convention
cooperative federalism
developed during the New Deal, characterized by the federal govts becoming more intrusive in what were traditionally state powers
council of economic advisors
white house staff agency created to give the pres advice regarding economic and fiscal policy
creative federalism
developed during LBJ's administration, characterized by Great Society programs, which placed a major responsibility on federally funded programs
8th Amendments
cruel and unusual punishment
culture of poverty
est of an income level by govt that references the point at which an individual is considered to be living in poverty
dark horse
candidate running for office who is not well known and considered to be the underdog in the race
de facto segregation
segregation of schools and other public facilities through circumstance with no law supporting it
de jure segregation
segregation by law, made illegal by Brown v Board
deficit spending
govts meeting budgetary expenses by borrowing more money than it can pay back
demographics
characteristics of a population, including age sex and race. used to determine changes in the make-up of a population
devolution
political theory of returning power to the states
direct primary
voters (including corss-over voters) can express a preference for candidates
discount rates
interest levels est b the federal reserve that effect the ability of the consumer to borrow money. raising and lowering rates is used as a tool to combat inflation
dissenting opinion
judicial opinion written that is contrary to the ruling of the full court
distributive policy
results in the govt giving benefits directly to people, groups, farmers, and businesses. typical policies include subsidies, research and development funds and direct govt aid
divided govt
characterized by political gridlock as the result of different political parties having control of different branches of the govt
division of labor
skilled workers each have a specialized function, resulting in increased productivity
double jeopardy
legal concept wherein once a verdict is handed down, you cannot be tried again for the same crime
dual federalism
the earliest type of relationship est between the federal govt and the states where the federal govts powers were defined as delegated and states powers were reserved
dual primary
where presidential candidtes are selected and a separate slate of delegates is also voted on. new hampshire uses this type of primary
eisenhower doctrine
doctrine that stated readiness to use armed forces to aid middle eastern countries threatened by communist aggression
elastic clause
gives congress the power to make "all laws necessary and proper" to carry out the other defined laws of Congress
elite and class theory
a group theory that revolves around an economic stratum of society controlling the policy agenda
entitlements
those benefits guaranteed by law paid to individuals by the federal govt such as social security
enumerated powers
delegated powers of congress, including the power to collect taxes, pay debts, provide for the common defense and general welfare, regulate commerce, coin money and declare war
environmental protection agency (EPA)
regulates pollution, pesticides, radiation, wastea nd toxic substances. main environmental regulatory agency
establishmenbt clause
defines the right of the citizens to practice their religions without govtal interference. also places a restriction on govt creating a "wall of separation" between church and state
ex post facto laws
laws that take effect after the act takes place. congress is prohibited from enacting this type of legislation
exclusionary rule
resulted from Mapp v Ohio, determines that police may obtain only the evidence that can be had through a legitimate search warrant. other evidence found at the scene of the crime is not admissible or is excluded int eh trial
executive agreement
agreement made betweent he president and a leader of a foreign country that does not have to be ratified by the senate
executive office of the pres
national security council
council of economic advisors
office of management and budget
office of national drug control policy
executive order
order signed by pres that has the effect of law, even though it is not passed by congress. ex: Clinton's legalizing abortion pill
executive privilege
ability of the pres to protect personal material
expressed power
specific power of the pres as listed in article 1 of the constitution
faction
splinter group of a policial party
fairness doctrine
scrapped in 1987, provided that the media air oppoising opinions of the same issue
family medical leave act (1993)
gave unpaid emergency medical leave for employees with a guarantee that thier job would not be taken away in the interim
favorable balance of trade
referes to a country exporting more than they import (US since WWII)
favorite son
presidential candidate backed by the home state at the party's nominating convention
federal election campaign acts (FECA)
restrictions on amount of advertising used by candidate, created disclosure of contributions of $100, limited amount of personal contributions a candidate could make on his or her own behalf. set up federal election commission and est a system of federal matching funds for presidential candidates
federal reserve system
regulates money supply by controlling open-market operations, buying and selling of govt securities, est reserve requirements, legal limitations on money reserves banks must keep...
10th amendment
federalism (reserved and delegated powers)
Federalist papers
3 branches of govt
separation of power
deal with "tyranny of majority"
fighting words doctrine
est by Chaplinsky v New Hampshire (1942) incorporated into state law the concept that the govt can limit free speech if it can be proved that the result of speech will cause physical violence
filibuster
tactic used int eh senate whereby a vote on legislation can be delayed through debate.
fiscal federalism
concept where funding is appropriated by fed fovt to the states with specific conditions attached. legislation can be in the form of mandates
Fletcher v Peck
decision that established the precedent that the Supreme Court could rule a STATE law unconstitutional
focus group
technique used by pollsters to determine how a cross section of voters feels about a particular topic
freedom of information act (1974)
act that incorporates sunshine laws - opened up the govts meetings of record to the public and the media
front loading
refers to the scheduling of the early presidential primaries and its impact on the selection of the majority of presidential delegates
front runner
designation given to the candidate who leads in the polls
full faith and credit
phrase used to describe the mutual respect and legality of laws, public records, and judicial decisions made by states
funded mandates
regulations passed by congress or issued by regulatory ageneciess to the states with federal funds to support them
general agreement on tariffs and trade (gatt)
agreement wherein new trade barriers would be avoided by member nations, existing tariffs would be eliminated and protective tariffs would be used only for emergency situations
gerrymandering
state legislatures, based on political affiliation, create congressional districts, many of which are oddly shaped and favor the political party in power in the state making the changes
Gibbon v Ogden
case est the principle that congress has sole authority over interstate commerce
Gitlow v NY
incorporated the first amendment to a state case for the first time
gridlock
describes peoples pereception that congress and the pres are in a state of disagreement that results in little legislation passing
gross domestic product (GDP)
currently the key economic measure that analyzes an upward or downward economic trend of the monetary value of all the goods and services produced within the nation on a quarterly basis
gross national product (GNP)
total of alll goods and services produced in a year
habeas corpus
right that safeguards a person from illegal imprisonment. it refers to the writ requiring that a person be brought before a court to determine whether he is being detained legally
hard money
federally regulated campain contributions made to politicial candidates and political parties. under current law, hard money contributions cannot exceed $1000 per individual per election cycle
hatch act (1939)
law that places restrictions on the kind of political activity a federal employee may participate in
high-tech campaign
paid political ads, 30 and 60 sec spots, paid infomercials incorporating charts and graphs, and sophisticated polling techniques
hyperpluralism
a group theory characterized by many IGs vying for control resulting in a govt that is tied up in gridlock
immigration act of 1991
act that shifted the quota of immigrants to europe and aimed to attract immigrants who were trained workers
impeachment
lisiting of accusations against a federal officla of "high crimes and misdemeanors" for the purpose of removing that official from office for such misonduct.
clinton was the only elected pres to be inpeached but not removed
imperial congress
describes a congress that succeeds in est itself as dominant in legislative and foreign policy
imperial presidency
refers to pres who dominates the political and legislative agenda
income distribution
the portion of national income that individuals and groups earn
incorporation of the 14th amendment
doctrine that made the bill of rights apply to the states a result of supreme court decisions. even though the 14th amendment was ratified in 1868, incorporation started to take place in the 1920s. it reched a peak during the Warren court in the late 1950s and 60s
independent executive agency
such as the general services administration, which handles govt purchasing and has a specific responsiblity that facilitates the day-to-day operation of the govt
independent expenditures
non-federally regulated campaign contributions made by specials IGs, labor unions, and corporations to PACs and political parties, also called soft money
independent regulatory agencies
agencies that are quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial in nature and operation. ex: food and drug administration and EPA
indictment
formal list of charges made by a grand jury and guaranteed in the 5th amendment
inherent power
assumed powers of the president not specifically listed in the constitution. inherent powers are derived fromt he presidents role as chief executive
initiative
ballot proposal put forth by the public and voted on as a result of the petition process
IG
a public or private organization, affiliation, or committee that has as its goal the dissemination of its memberships viewpoint
International monetary fund (IMF)
a clearinghouse for member nations to discuss monetary issues and develop international plans and policies to deal with monetary issues. regulating monetary exchange is its primary task
iron triangle network
the interrelationship among bureaucracies, the govt, IGs, and the public, which also establishes a pattern of relationships among anagency in the executive branch, congress, and one or more outside clients of that agency
joint committee
congressional committee made up of members of both political parties from senate and house
judicial activism
a philohophy of judicial review that resultsin decisions that overturn precendent
judicial federalism
the extension of the bill of rights to citizens of the states, creating a concept of dual citizenship, wherin a citizen was under the jurisdiction of the national govt as well as state govts
judicial restraint
a court that maintains the status quo or mirrors what the other branches of ovt have est as current policy
judiciary committee
key senate committee that is responsible for recommending pres judicial appointments to the full senate for approval
keynote address
key speech aat the national nominating convention that outlines the themes of the campaign
layer cake federalism
federalism characterized by a national govt exericising its power independently from state govts
legislative veto
provision granting congress the right to veto regulations made by federal agencies, ruled unconstitutional by supreme court
limited govt
derived from the doctrine of natural rights, was adopted by jeffersonand restricts the power of govt especially in the area of protecting the rights on the people