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51 Cards in this Set

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Cell
-Basic structured units of plants and animals
-smallest functioning units of life
-produced by the division of preexisting cells
-each cell MUST maintain homeostasis
Cell Membrane
a thin membrane (a double layer of lipids) enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell; proteins in the membrane control passage of ions (like sodium or potassium or calcium) in and out of the cell; "all cells have a cell membrane"
Cytoplasm
the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.
Cytosol
-intracellular fulid
-contains nutrients, ions, and proteins for metabolism.
-Small amounts of carbohydrates (sugars) and large amounts of amino acids and lipids used for energy production.
Organelles
-intracellular structures needed for metabolism and maintenance
-such as mitochondria, nucleus, and golgi apparatus
Extracellular Fluid
liquid containing proteins and electrolytes including the liquid in blood plasma and interstitial fluid; All fluid outside of cells
Functions of Cell Membrane
(physical isolation)
separates the inside of the cell from the extracellular fluid.
Functions of Cell Membrane
(Regulation of Exchange)
Controls the entry of ions and nutrients and eliminates waste
Functions of Cell Membrane
(Sensitivity)
Contains receptors that are sensitive to specific molecules or ions.
Functions of Cell Membrane
(Structural Support)
has structures for support
Cell Membrane Structure
(lipids)
-Phospholipid Bilayer = phosphate group (PO4 + diglyceride(1 glycerol +2 fatty acid molecules)
-Ions and water cannot cross this barrier.
Cell Membrane Structure
(Proteins)
Embedded in the phospholipid bilayer and function as receptors, channels, carriers, enzymes, anchors or identifiers
Cell Membrane Structure
(Carbohydrate Chains / Sugars)
-Important as Cell lubricant or adhesion points.
-Acts as receptors for extracellular compounds
-Part of the immune systems recognition system.
Cell Membrane Structure
Phosphates create energy. Ions do not because of charges.
-Carbs = sugar = energy.
Inclusions
insoluble materials that may take the form of solid granules or lipid drops.
Cytoskeleton
-internal protein framework
-gives cytoplasm strength and flexibility.
-microfillaments and microtubules
Microvilli
-small finger like projections of the cell membrane
-increase surface area to facilitate absorption of extracellular materials
Cilia and Flagella
-Composed of microtubules
-move fluids or materials
-cilia in respiratory tract move mucus and dust
-Provides movement of the cell
-sperm have flagella to provide movement.
Ribosomes
-found in all cells
-manufacture protein for energy production
-can be free (float freely in cytoplasm) or fixed (to endoplasmic reticulum)
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
-netwrok of membranes connected to the molecules.
-provides
-synthesis of proteins, carbs and lipids.
-storage of materials absorbed from cytosol
-transport of materials within the cell
-Can be smooth or rough. Rough have ribosomes.
Golgi Apparatus
-provide synthesis and packaging of enzymes
-renewal or modification of the cell membrane
-packaging of special enzymes for use in the cytosol
-transports material through use of vesicles.
Lysosomes
-digestive vesicles
-perform cleanup and recycling functions
-also can destroy the cell itself- autolysis
Mitochondria
-regulate the processes that create energy
-have double membrane
-outer surronding membrane
-Inner membrane containing folds (cristae) produce energy
-use aerobic metabolism
Nucleus
-Control center for all cell functions
-Where genetic information is stored.
-Most cells have single nucleus. Some have many (muscles) some have none (red blood cells)
-nuclear structure--nuclear envelope-double membrane surrounding nucleus. Nucleoplasm, and RNA & DNA.
Chromosome Structure
-23 pairs of chromosomes per nucleus.
one chromosome of each pair from each parent
Genetic Code
-Information stored in sequence of nitrogenous bases
-triplet code--Adenine-Guanine-Cytosine
Impermeable
nothing passes
Freely permeable
anything passes
Selectively / semi-permeable
some material passes based on size, electrical charge, shape or lipid solubility.
-smaller molecules pass easy like water
-electrolytes do pass easily because of their charges (+/-)
Homeostasis
the cell tries to maintain a balance on both sides of the cellular membrane.
Passive transport
diffusion- based on concentration gradient
osmosis- movement of water across a membrane
Facilitated diffusion- requires a carrier molecule
Active trsnport
Requires energy- ATP
-sodium -potassium pump
-vesicular transport
Water
Most Abundant substance in the body.
-universal solvent
-accounts of 60% of total body weight
Intracellular Compartment
-Largest compartment
-contains 75% of total body water
Extracellular Compartment
-remaining 25% body water found here
-intravascular fluid- fluid found outside cells and within the circulatory system (plasma)
-interstitial fluid- all the fluid found outside the cell yet not within the circulatory sytem.
Passive transport
diffusion- based on concentration gradient
osmosis- movement of water across a membrane
Facilitated diffusion- requires a carrier molecule
Active trsnport
Requires energy- ATP
-sodium -potassium pump
-vesicular transport
Water
Most Abundant substance in the body.
-universal solvent
-accounts of 60% of total body weight
Intracellular Compartment
-Largest compartment
-contains 75% of total body water
Extracellular Compartment
-remaining 25% body water found here
-intravascular fluid- fluid found outside cells and within the circulatory system (plasma)
-interstitial fluid- all the fluid found outside the cell yet not within the circulatory system.
Solvent
a substance in which another substance (solute) will dissolve creating a solution.
-Solute is what dissolves
Electrolytes
-chemical substance that dissociates into electrically charges ions when placed in water.
Diffusion
movement of solutes (molecules) from an area of higher solute concentration to an area of lesser solute concentration. Does not require energy.
-osmosis and diffusion work together.
Osmosis
-Form of diffusion. Movement of a solvent (water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lesser (solute)concentration to an area of greater (solute) concentration. Water tries to dilute the area of greater solute concentration.
-Water moves from area of high concentration to area of lower concentration.
Facilitated diffusion
Requires "helper" proteins on the cell membrane to bind with molecule (usually glucose) in order to enter cell. Protein helper changes configuration and transports the molecule across the membrane. May or may not require energy.
Vesicular transport
material moves in or out of the cell in containers or (vesicles)
Endocytosis
packages extracellular material and moves it into the cell
Exocytosis
phagocytosis: packages intra cellular material and moves it out of the cell.
Hypertonic IV solutons
-water is drawn out of the cell (osmosis) into the vascular space.
Examples: mannitol (head injury)
D50 dextrose
Hypotonic IV solutions
-water moves from the outside solution into the cell
Examples : D5W & D1/2NS
Isotonic IV soultions
-fluid neither draws water out or into the cell
Examples: Normal saline & lactated rings.