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121 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The hypothalamus uses the sympathetic nervous system to directly stimulate the adrenal gland to promote the secretion of...
Hormones involved in mineral and glucose homeostasis are controlled via...
Complex chemical reactions
Hormones may be secreted by endocrine glands that are not controlled at a higher level. This is called...
Local control
When ACH opens sodium ion channels, it is
What does the ANS regulate?
The activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and certain glands
When ACH opens chlorine ion channels, it is...
What is the external auditory canal?
A tube leading into the skull.
What does the ANS consist of?
The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
Which neurons are adenergic?
Sympathetic postganglionic
What must happen before a taste can be detected?
The food must be dissolved in saliva or some other liquid.
What type of glands are located in the external auditory canal?
Ceruminous glands (produce cerumen)
Where is smooth muscle found?
In the walls of internal organs and walls of blood vessels
What 2 neurotransmitters do adenergic neurons release?
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine.
What are the 4 main flavors?
Salt, sweet, bitter, sour
What is the function of the tympanic membrane?
it vibrates when sound hits it.
What is the ANS regulated by?
The hypothalamus and the medula.
When are epinephrine and norepinephrine inhibitory?
When they shut down the digestive and urinary systems during stress.
Where are sour taste buds located?
On the sides of the tongue.
What is dual innervation?
Receiving info from sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
Name 2 things about the sympathetic division.
It uses energy
It speeds up body systems
Where are sweet taste buds located?
On the tip of the tongue
What are the 3 parts to the middle ear?
Eustachian tube - connects middle ear to pharynx
Ear Ossicles (stapes, incus, malleus)- conduct sound waves from the tympanic membrane to inner ear.
Motor pathways consist of...
sets of 2 neurons in a series
Name 2 things about the parasympathetic division.
It restores energy
It slows down body systems.
Where are salt taste buds located?
On the tip and sides of the tongue
What are the 6 parts to the inner ear?
oval window
round window
semicircular canals
vestibulocochlear nerve
what is the preganglionic neuron?
The first neuron in a series.
Where are bitter taste buds located?
On the back of the tongue
What is the function of the cochlea?
contains receptors for hearing
What is the second neuron in a series?
Postganglionic neuron
4 Major differences between parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions
Para - long to short, cell bodies in brain stem, slows down body functions, restores energy.
Symp - short to long, cell bodies in chain ganglia, speeds up body functions, uses energy.
The sympathetic preganglionic is very
Name the five special senses
Taste, smell, touch, sight, hearing
What is the function of the oval window?
It is the entrance to the cochlea
What is the sympathetic chain ganglia?
Where the cell bodies of the second neuron are found. They lie in vertical rows on either side of the spinal cord.
What type of neurons are in the special senses?
What type of receptors detect hot?
Pain receptors
Where are the parasympathetic cell bodies located?
In the brain stem.
What nerve is associated with smell?
Olfactory nerve
What flavor requires the least amount of molecules?
What is the function of the round window?
It is the exit from the cochlea
Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons are very...
Where are the special bipolar neurons for smell located?
In the epithelial cells in the lining of the nose.
Where do parasympathetic preganglionic neurons synapse?
In the walls of organs.
What happens to odor molecules when they enter the nose?
The molecules are dissolved in the mucous and absorbed into the epithelial cells via hairlike extensions and then they make contact with the special bipolar neurons.
Sympathetic neurons are ...
short to long
How many smells can humans detect?
Where do taste sensations go?
To the medulla and then to other areas of the brain.
What is the function of the semicircular canals?
They contain receptors for dynamic equilibrium and detect the direction and speed of head motion.
Parasympathetic neurons are ...
long to short.
Sensitivity to odors _________ with exposure.
Taste buds on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue are carried by what cranial nerve?
The facial nerve
What is the terminal ganglia?
The collection of cell bodies at the organ.
How many molecules are needed to stimulate neurons?
A small number
Taste buds on the posterior 1/3 of the tongue are carried by what cranial nerve?
The glosspharyngeal nerve.
The ANS neurotransmitters are what type of neuron?
Where do the smell impulses go after being recepted?
They are transmitted via the olfactory nerve to a special area in the temporal lobe called Broddmans area where they are integrated and distinguished.
Taste buds on the throat are carried by what cranial nerve?
The vagus nerve
Based on the type of neurotransmitter they release, neurons are classified as either ...
Cholinergic or Adinergic
Taste is also called
Gustatory Sensation
What neurotransmitter do cholinergic neurons release?
What other sense is needed in order to taste?
What types of neurons are cholinergic?
All sympathetic and parasympathetic preganlionic and all parasympathetic postganglionic neurons.
Where are the taste receptors located?
In the taste buds.
What are the 3 parts to the external ear?
The pinna, the external auditory canal, and the tympanic membrane.
What are 2 functions of the vestibule?
It connects the cochlea and semicircular canals.
It contains the uticle and saccule - receptors for static equilibrium.
ACH can be either...
excitatory or inhibitory
Where are taste buds located?
In the tongue, soft palate and throat.
What is the function of the pinna?
To funnel sound into the Ext. Aud. Canal.
What is the name of the nerve in the ear?
Name the 5 external eye structures.
Eyelashes- protect
Eyelids- prevent injury, redist. tears
Lacrimal glands-produce tears,moisturize
Bony orbit-consists of lacrimal, frontal, zygomatic, ethnoid, sphenoid
What do the lacrimal glands do?
Product tears, wash out debris, prevent desiciation.
What are the 4 parts of the eyeball?
Retina-innermost layer
Choroid-behind retina, highly vascular, provices nutrients, has pigments
Sclera-white fibrous outer layer
Cornea-transparent, puncture resistant
What is the choroid?
Has pigments which absorb light rays that have already been seen by the eye receptors
What is the iris?
Colored part of the eye. Regulates the size of the pupil, very muscular.
Circular eye muscles.
Radial eye muscles.
Contract and constrict hole.
Contract and open hole.
What is the ciliary body.
Muscle surrounding lens, has fibers attached to lens. Pulls lens in different shapes. Allows focusing.
What are the 3 innermost parts of the eye?
Retina - contains photo receptors
Rods - crude images
Cones - Detailed images
What is the macula lutea?
Where best visual acuity is.
What is the optic disk?
The blind spot. No sight here.
What is the optic nerve?
Transmits incoming sensory information to the brain.
Where is the visual center?
In the occipital lobe.
What do optic fluids do for the eye?
Give the eyeball shape.
Where is the aqueous humor located?
Between the lens and cornea.
Where is the vitreous humor located?
In the posterior cavity, behind the lens, in the vitreous body.
What disease is caused by an increase in fluid in the eye?
What is vision?
Refraction bending of light rays as they pass through the eye.
The endocrine and nervous system together control...
What does the nervous system use to transmit impulses?
What does the endocrine system use to send messages?
Chemical messengers called hormones.
Hormones only affect (bind) to specific cells called...
Target cells.
There are 3 ways that hormones act. What are they called?
Endocrines - enter the blood.
Paracrines - hormones that act locally
Autocrines - hormones act on the cell that secreted it.
What are the 4 types of hormones?
Steroids - lipids
Biogenic Amines - Smallest, simplest, Tyrozine (amino acid)
Proteins - Amino acids in a string
Eicosanoids - Fatty acids
Hormones that enter the blood are picked up by special proteins called...
Chaperone Proteins
What are 3 things that chaperone proteins do?
Keep ready reserve of hormones
Make lipid hormones soluble
Prevent small hormones from being filtered by the kidneys.
What organ is the major integrating link between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
What connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?
The pituitary is separted into parts which are the ...
Anterior and posterior
What hormones does the hypothalamus make?
ADH and Oxytocin
How does the hypothalamus control the release of oxytocin and ADH.
Through special neurons.
The hormones travel to the pituitary gland through the ...
Portal vein
2 Hormones of the Hypothalamus
What are the Anterior Pituitary Hormones?
TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, Growth Hormone, Prolactin
How is the secretion of the Anterior Pituitary Hormones controlled?
By the hypothalamus releasing and inhibiting factors.
How are the hormones of the hypothalamus controlled?
By nerve stimulation
What disease is caused by an imbalance in ADH?
Diabetes Insipidus
What disease is caused by not enough growth hormone?
Pituitary Dwarfism
What disease is caused by too much growth hormone?
Pituitary Giantism
What hormone stimulates milk production?
What hormone stimulates the growth of cells, protein synthesis, breakdown of lipids and retards the use of glucose for ATP synthesis?
Growth hormone
What hormone stimulates the production of progesterone and testosterone?
Leutinizing Hormone
What hormone stimulates the secretion of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which control maturation of egg and sperm?
What hormone stimulates secretion of hormones from the adrenal glands?
What hormone stimulates T3 and T4 secretion from the thyroid gland?
What are the hormones of the Thyroid gland?
T4 and T3 and Calcitonin
What hormone decreases blood calcium?
What hormone increases blood calcium?
Parathyroid hormone
What hormones are secreted from the adrenal glands
Epinephrine, Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids
What hormones are secreted from the pancreas?
Glucagon and Insulin
What are the reproductive hormones?
Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone
Describe the Renin-Angiotensin Pathway
Low blood volume detected by juxtaglomerular cells in kidneys. J. cells secrete rennin into blood. Rennin converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I. In lungs, ACE converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II.