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748 Cards in this Set

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The dominant trend of government in Renaissance city-states in Italy was from?:
republicanism to despotism
Which of the following locations had the greatest influence on shaping the values of the Italian Renaissance?:
the townhouse of an Italian merchant.
Renaissance education was characterized by?:
emphasis on developing the "complete individual".
The favorite classical author of Renaissance scholars was?:
The literary masterpiece that satirized the ideals of knighthood and chivalry was written by?:
Renaissance courtiers were?:
people who served a prince in multiple political and administrative ways.
Civic humanists?:
advocated active service to the city-state.
Northern humanists differed from their Italian predecessors
in their focus on the textual reexamination of the Bible and the writings of the early Church Fathers.(Italian Renassiance consisted of an interest in Greek manuscripts, more classical based.)
Art and sciences are not cast in a mold, but are perfected by degrees, by often handling and polishing, as bears leisurely lick their cubs into form. (Michel de Montaigne, Works II. xii, 1533-1592)
skepticism concerning known or revealed truth.
Mannerist art was characterized by?:
distorted human figures and unnatural lighting effects.
According to Jacob Burckhardt, the Renaissance represented?:
a distinct break from the Middle Ages.
Pico della Mirandola's Oration on the Dignity of Man stated that?:
God gave humans free will so that they could choose to be earthly or spiritual creatures.
Thomas More's Utopia?:
presented a revolutionary social order based on communal living and property.
Italian Renaissance art can be most appropriately described as?:
NeoClassicism in which the traditional characteristics of harmony and symmetry were valued.
Lorenzo Valla gained fame for?:
proving the Donation of Constantine a fraud.
David Ricardo (1772-1823)
English economist who formulated to "iron law of wages," according to which wages would always remain at the subsistece level for workers because of population growth
A religious committee of six Roman cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and excecution
Mary Wollstonecraft
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Carlsbad Decrees (1819)
Repressive laws in the German states limiting freedom of speech and deissemination of liberal ideas in the universities
Night of August 4, 1789
date of declaration by liberal noblemen of the National Assembly at a secret meeting to abolish to feudal regime in France
Law court staffed by nobles that could register of refuse to register a king's edict.
political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Parisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versaille
when was slavery abolished in the british empire?
Abolished slavery in the British Empire, 1833
"Red Shirt"
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army
Fees that peasants were obligated to pay landlords for the use of the village mill, bakeshop and winepress
Repeal of Test Act (1828)
Allowed Prtestants who were not members of the Church of England to hold public office
Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872)
Idealistis patriot devoted for the principle of united and republican Italy in a world of free states
Elizabeth I
Protestant ruler-England- helped stablize religious tensions by subordinating theological issues to political considerations.
Law of the Maximum
the fixing of prices on bread and other essentials under Robespierre's rule
Henry IV
Formerly Henry of Navarre, ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholiscism
the last aristoctic revolt against a French monarch
Indemnity Bill (1867)
bill passed by German Reichstag that legitimated Bismark's unconstitutional collection of taxes to modernize army in 1863
Poor Law of 1834
Legislation that restricted the number of poverty-stricken eligible for aid
The population losses caused by the black death & 100 Years’ War resulted in
the virtual dissapearance of serfdom in france
Duke of Alva
Military leader sent by Philip to pacify the Low Countries(Netherlands)
Pugechev (1726-1775)
Head of bloody peasant revolt in 1773 that convince Cathering the Great to throw her suppore to the nobles and cease internal reforms
Itailian derived and desire for unity
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Polish astronomer who posited a heliocentric universe in place of a geocentric universe
academic pursuits of the clergy were criticized in the 16th century, true or false?
New Religious order for women that emerged in the 16th century
Ursuline Order
Spirit of Laws; Persian Letters; wanted a balance in government
Francis Deak (1803-1876)
Magyar, forced Franz Joseph to agree to Compromise of 1867 which created Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Roger Fenton
Battlefield photographer of the Crimean War
Home of Savoy
The Italian dynasty ruling independent state of Piedmont-Sardinia. Its head was King Victor Emmanuel II.
The dominant group in the National Convention in 1793 who replaced he Girondist. It was headed by Robespierre.
According to Laura Cereta, inferiority of woman was a consequence of their
own failure to live up to their potential
French Classicalism
the style in 17th-cent. art and literature resembling the arts in the ancient world and in the Renaissance-e.g., the works of Poussin, Moliere, and Racine
Aristotelian-Ptolemic cosmology
the geocentric view of theuniverse that prevailed from the fourth cent. BC, to the 16th &17th cent. and accored with church teachings and Scriptures
Cahier de dolances
List of grievances that each Estate drew up in preparation for the summoning of the Estates-General in 1789
the selling of church offices
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1861)
Nephew of Napoleon I; he came into power as president of the Second French Republic in 1848
Social critics of the 18th cent. who subjected social institutions and practices to the test of reason
Luther & Zwingli disagreed on what?
the Eucharist
This medieval school of thought began losing its popularity during the Renaissance. For example, the clergy used to have intellectual discussions on subjects like how many saints could occupy the head of a pin.
I am considered the first great painter of the Renaissance period.
Giotto Di Bondonne
________ wrote this amusing but serious book about a knight who does not realize that times have changed and goes about saving "damsels in distress" and the like. It was actually about the inability of the nobility to let go of the medieval past.
Cervantes; Don Quixote
In this book, _______ ____ described a perfect society in which people lived in harmony. He wrote it because of the unjust punishments for crimes and the religious persecutions of the time. He therefore realized his dream of a better society in this book.
Thomas More; Utopia
Machiavelli based The Prince on this figure in history.
Caesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander II.
These Renaissance writers and/or humanists were concerned with wisdom, virtue and morality.
civic humanists
The most influential classical Roman scholar of the Renaissance. His works were praised by Renaissance fathers such as Petrarch.
This is the belief that there is an ideal form of every object but it exists in another plane. It was introduced by Plato (hence the name) and people who believed in it reflected this philosophy by trying to reproduce the beauty of the soul through art.
He is known as the "father of modern skepticism." He stated that God was unknowable, and that people needed to realize that perfection was unattainable. He was also disturbed by some of the scientific discoveries of the time.
Michel de Montaigne
These people believed in reviving classical teaching and text. They also abandoned scholasticism in favor of Latin, grammar, logic, rhetoric and metaphysics. Their main goal was to revive the glory of the classic age.
When the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from Purgatory springs. In the 16th century this jingle was most likely spoken by?:
Johannes Tetzel.
The Schmalkaldic War (1546-1547) was begun by?:
Charles V to restore Catholicism to the Holy Roman Empire.
Ulrich Zwingli was responsible for the Protestant conversion of?:
The Diet of Worms was?:
an Imperial Council that ordered Martin Luther to recant and condemned him when he refused.
Probably the most important reason for the popularity of Lutheranism among the Northern German princes was that it?:
attacked the idea of divinely established Papal authority.
Issac Newton (1642-1727)
English scientist who formulated the law of gravitation that posited an universe operating in accord with natural law
Crimean War (1853-1856)
War waged to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, in actuality to gain a foothold in the Black Sea on the part of Russia. Turks, Britain, and France forced Russia to sue for peace. The Treaty of Paris(1856) forfeited Russia's right to maintain a war fleet in the Black Sea. Russia also lost the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia
Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815
The upper house, or Federal Council, of the German Diet (legislature)
Bill of Rights - 1689
English document declaring that sovereignty resided with Parliment
St. Bartholemew's Day Massacre
August 24, 1572- Catholic attack on Clavinists on marriage day of Margarer of Valois to Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV)
The "politics of reality," i.e., the use of practical means to achieve ends. Bismark was a practitioner.
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
British philosopher who published On Liberty(1859), advocating indivdual rights against overnment intrusion, and The Subjection of Women (1869), on the cause of women's rights
Domestic System
the manufacture of goods in the household setting, a production system that gave way to the factory system
Catholic Emancipation Bill (1829)
Enabled Catholics to hold public office for the first time
Christopher Columbus
First European to sail to the West Indies, 1492
Galileo (1564-1642)
Italian scientist, formulated terrestrial laws and modern law of Inertia; he also provided edvidence for the Copernican hypothesis.
The practice of rewarding relatives with church positions
Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864)
Leader of the revisionist socialist, who hoped to achieve socialism through the ballot rather than the bullet. They agreed to work within the framework of the existing government
Frederick William(1640-1688)
The "Great Elector", who built a strong Prussian army and infused military values into Prussian society.
the belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own destiny
Vasco de Balboa
First European to reach the Pacific Ocean, 1513
Diggers and Levellers
Radical groups in England in the 1650's who called for the abolition of private ownership and extension of the franchise
A list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read
Emancipation Edict (1861)
The imperial law that abolished serfdom in Russia and, on paper, freed the peasants. In actuality they were collectiely responsible for redemption payments to the government for a number of years
Alexander III (1881-1894)
Politically reactionary czar who promoted economic modernization of Russia. Boyar-Russian noble
the holding of several benifices, or church offices
Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790, which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.
Alexander II (1855-1881)
Reforming czar who emancipated the serfs and introduced some measure of representative local government
Rotten boroughs
AP EURO EXAM Mmorize this list (more information - contact author) Flashcard 85 of 239 (Answer)
depopulated areas of England that nevertheless sent representatives to Parliament
Philip II
Son and sucessor of Charles V, ruling Spain and the Low Countries
Regard to divorce in 16th and 17th cent.:
Catholic didn’t accept, Prostestant did, however adultery and irreconcilable differences
Test Act (1673)
law prohibiting Catholics and dissenters to hold politcal office
Charles V
Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensice territories in Spain and the Netherlands.He also attacked the Schmalkaldic League in 1546
Economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia & including almost all German speaking states except Austria by 1844
A direct tax from which most French Nobles were exempt
John Knox
Calvinist leader in 16th-cent. Scotland
J.G. Fichte (1762-1814)
German writer who believed that the German spirit was nobler and purer than that of other peoples.
Quadruple Alliance
Organization, made up of Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia, to preserve the peace settlement of 1815; Frnace joined in 1818.
Count Cavour (1810-1861)
Italian statesman from Sardinia who used diplomacy to help achieve unification of Italy
Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584)
earned his nickname for hs great acts of cruelty directed towards all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first rler to assume the titile Czar of all Russia
Tabula rasa
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
Decembrist Revolt (1825)
plot by Liberals (upper-class intelligentsia) to set up constitutional monarchy or republic. Plot failed because it was put down by Nicholas I, but ideals remained
James I
Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings.
Organized the petition for the Bloody Sunday Incident of January 22, 1905 in Russia.
Father Gapon
Factory Act
limited children's and adolescents workweek in textile factories
Catherin de Medici
the wife of Henry II of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons
Napoleon III (1852-1870)
the former Louis Napoleon, who became president of the Second Republic of France in 1848 and engineered a coup d'etat, ultimately making himself head of the Second Empire
Bismark's anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations with Vatican. Eventuallt, after little success, Bismark halted these policies
A mercenary soldier of a political ruler
Rene Descarte (1596-1650)
deductive thinker whose famous saying cogito, ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am") challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and Scriptures
Ivan the Great (1462-1505)
The Slavic Grand Duke of Moscow, he ended nearly 200 years of Mongol domination of his dukedom. From then on he worked at extending his territories, subduing his nobles and attaing absolute power
the lower house of the German Diet, or legislature.
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number
Hegelian Dialectic
The idea, accoring to G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831), a German philosopher, that social change results from the conflict of opposite ideas. The thesis is confronted by antithesis, resulting in a synthesis, which then becomes a new thesis. The process is evolutionary. Marx turned Hegel "upside down" and made class conflict, not ideas, is the force driving history foward.
John Locke
Two Treatises of Government; Essay on Human Understanding
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
The Social Contract; Emile
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
Political theorist advocating absolute monarchy based on his concept of an anarchic state of nature; The Leviathan
J.G. Herder (1774-1803)
Forerunner of the German Romantic movement who believed that each people shared a national character, or Volksgeist.
The sensuous and dynamic style of art of the Counter Reformation
Sergei Witte (1849-1915
Finance minister under whom Russia industrialized and began a program of economic modernization, founder ot the Tran Siberian Railroad
The financial minister under the French king Louis XIV who promoted mercantilist policies
Fernando Cortez
Conqueror of the Aztects, 1519-1521
Bartholomew Diaz
First European to reach the southern tip of Africa, 1487-1488.
Subjugation of the Italian peninsula by outside invaders was result of
the Italians failure to coordinate a common defense
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittnetly from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and recouncil with the Protestants
Prince Clemens von Metternich (1773-1859)
Austrian member of the nobility and chief architect of conservative policy at the Congress of Vienna
Dialectial materialism
the idea, according Karl Marx, that change and developement in history results from the conflict between social classes. Economic forces impel human beings to behave in socially determined ways
Reform Bill of 1832
AP EURO EXAM Mmorize this list (more information - contact author) Flashcard 161 of 239 (Answer)
Gave vote to all men who paid ten pounds of rent a year; eliminated the rotten boroughs in Great Britain.
Louis Blanc (1811-1882)
Wrote the Organization of Work (1840) which proposed the use of competition to eliminate competition. It was the step toward future socialist society. Advocated the principle, "from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs."
Ems Telegram
The carefully edited dispatch by Bismark to the French ambassador Bendetti that appeared to be insulting and thus requiring retaliation by France for the seeming affront to French honor
Concordat of Bologna
Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over the catholic church in France and right to collect all income but king obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots
Peninsular War (1808-1813)
Napoleon's long drawn-out war with Spain
Defenestration of Prague
The hurling, by Protesants, of Catholic officails from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
inductice thinker who stressed experimentation in arriving at truth
Ferdinand Magellan
Circumnavigator of the globe, 1519-1522.
Casare Beccaria
On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of criminology.
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War, which ceded the territories of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany
known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola(1491-1556) as teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
European kingdom that took the lead in overseas exploration was:
Holy Alliance
an alliance envisioned by Alexander I of Russia by which those in power were asked to rule in accord with Christian principles
Gustvus Adolphus
Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Prostestants in Thirty Years' War and lost his life in one of the battles
The Star Chamber
dealt w/ noble threats to royal power in England, made by Henry VII Tudor
Philosophical Letters; Candide
Politcaly active students around 1815, in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles
Siege of Paris
the four month Prussain assult on the French capital after Napoleon III's surrender in 1870
the theory that power should be shared between rulers and their subjects and the state governed according to laws
Charles Fourier (1772-1837)
A leading utopian socialist ho envisaged small communal societies in which men and women cooperated in agriculture and industry, abolishing private property and monogamous marriage as well.
Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
Archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary, who lost the Hapsburg possession of Silesia to Frederick the Great but was able to keep her other Austria territories
In the absense of the papacy during the Babylonian Captivity, rome was in a state of
a communitty, such as Calvin's Geneva, in which the state is subordinate to the church
Lorenzo Valla
Hummanist who used historical criticism to discredit 8th-cent. document giving papacy jurisdiction over Western lands.
Classical liberalism
Middle class (bourgeois) doctrine indebted to the writings of the philosphes, the French Revolution, and the popularization of the Scientific Revolution. Its political goals were self government(concept of general will); a written constitution; natural rights (speech, religion, press, property, mobility); limited suffrage; its economic goals were laissez-faire(free trade-no government interference in the workings of the economy
the practice of lending money for interest
Frederick the Great (1740-1786)
Prussian ruler who expanded territory by invading the duchy of Silesia and defeatingMaeia Theresa of Austria.
Examples of New Monarchs from three separate nations:
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strenghthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.
Hebert Spencer (1820-1903)
English philospher who argued that in the difficult economic struggle for evistence, only the "fittest" would survive
The term came to refer to the ill-clad and ill-equipped volunteers of the Revolutionary army during the early years of the French Revolutionary Wars, but, above all, to the working class extremists of the Revolution
the intellectual revolution of the 18 century in which the philosophes stressed reason, natural law, and progress in their criticism of prevailing social injustices.
Petition of Right (1628)
Parliamentary document that restricted the king's power. Most notably, it called for recognition of the writ of habeas corpas and held that only Parliament could impose new taxes.
Royal Society of London and French Academy of Sciences did:
Organized bodies for scientific study
Directory (1795-1799)
The 5-men executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic after Robespierre's exceution and prior to Napoleon's coming to power
Church Statute of 1721
A Holy Synod that replaced the office of patriarch. All of its members(lay and religious) had to swear allegiance to czar
Eduard Bernstein(1850-1932)
Revisionist German Social Democrat who favored socialist revolution by the ballot rather than the bullet-i.e., by cooperating with the bourgeois members of Parliment and securing electoral victories for his party (the SDP)
Francisco Pizarro
Conqueror of Peru, 1532-1533
Brethren of the Common Life
Pious laypeople, 16th-cent. Holland who initiated religious revival in their model of Christian living
Robert Owen (1771-1858
Utopian socialist who improved health and safety conditions in mills, increased workers wages and reduced hours. Dreamed of establishing socialist communities the most notable was New Harmony (1826) which failed
Declaration of Pillnitz(1791)
Austria and Prussia agreed to intervene in France to end revolution w/ the unanimous agreement of the great powers
During the 100 Year War, English kings were supported by some French barons because
The wanted to stop the French Monarchy’s centralizing efforts
Thomas Malthus (1776-1834)
English parson whose Essay on Population (1798) argued population would always increase faster that food supply.
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration mainly by members of Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789)
Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847)
Irish advocate for the Penal Laws against Catholics. Tried to have repealed the Act of Union of 1800, which linked Britain and Ireland legislatively. His election to Parliament was the path for the 1829 Catholic Emancipation Act which declared Catholics were eligible for Public Office.
Flora Tristan (1803-1844)
Socialist and feminist who called for working women's social and political rights
Micheal Bakunin (1814-1876)
Radical Russian, advocated revolutionary violence. He believed that revolutionary movements should be lead by secret societies who would seize power, destroy the state and create a new social order.
Corn Laws
Repealed in 1846. They had imposed a tariff on imported grain and were a symbolic protection of aristoctatic landholdings
Francois Guizot (1787-1874)
Chief minister under Louis Philippe. Guizot's repesssion led to the revolution of 1848
Young Italy
An assciation under the leadership of Mazzini that urger the unification of the country
an independent and propertied Russian Farmer
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (August 27, 1789)
Document that embodied the liberal revolutionary ideals and general principles of the philosophes' writings in France.
Sir Thomas More
Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England, executed by Henry VII for his unwillingness to recognize publicly his king as Supreme Head of the church and clergy of England
Micheal Romanov
in 1613 an assembly of nobles chose Michael as new czar. For the next 300 years the Romanov family ruled in Russia.
the period of Cromwellian rule (1649-1659), between the Stuart dynastic rules of Charles I and Charles II
Treaty of Tilsit (1807)
Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces
Peter Stolypin (1862-1911)
Russian minister under Nicholas II who encouraged the growth of private farmers and improved edcation for enterprising peasants.
Peace of Utrecht(1713)
The pact concluding the War of the Spanish Succession, forbidding the union of France with Spain, and conferring control of Gibraltar on England
The Brethren of Common Life represent?:
an example of pre-Reformation popular piety.
John Wycliffe and John Huss both appealed to the superiority of?:
the Bible.
Many German peasants were attracted to Luther's ideas chiefly because they?:
believed he supported their freedom from serfdom.
Martin Luther believed that women should?:
rule the household.
A result of the Protestant Reformation of the 16c was the?:
establishment of state churches in England, Scotland, and northern Germany.
The official creed of Lutheranism was summed up in?:
the Augsburg Confession.
The popular lay movements that most directly assailed the late medieval Church were the?:
Lollards and Hussites.
The principal reason for the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church was the?:
desire to complete the building of the new St. Peter's in Rome.
The Protestant Reformation?:
encouraged the movement for popular education.
Which of the following northern Christian humanist writers and their works are paired INCORRECTLY?:
1 - Sir Thomas More - Utopia.
2 - Miguel de Cervantes - Don Quixote.
3 - Francois Rabaleis - The Handbook of the Courtier.
4 - Desiderius Erasmus - In Praise of Foly.
This is paired incorrectly =
3 - Francois Rabaleis - The Handbook of the Courtier.
The printing press helped the Reformation succeed for all of the following reasons EXCEPT?:
it allowed the papacy to rapidly suppress Lutheranism.
The Council of Trent was important because?:
it reaffirmed the traditional doctrines of the Catholic Church.
England's break with the Roman church became official with the passage of the?:
Act of Supremacy.
The Reformation influenced the development of the modern world primarily by?:
providing some justification for challenging the absolute authority of kings.
The "Weber Thesis" attempted to explain the connections between the rise of Calvinism and the rise of?:
The Elizabethan Settlement?:
established the Church of England
Which of the following supported Martin Luther?:
Prince Frederick III, the Elector of Saxony.
They believed that any reason or problem that occurred with the state should be put ahead any religious principles.
I issued the Edict of Nantes and tried to restore stability back in France.
Henry IV
He was one of Ferdinand II's generals who drove the Protestant forces to Hungry in 1625.
Albrecht von Wallenstein
What is iconoclasm?
Iconoclasm is the deliberate destruction within a culture of the culture's own religious icons and other symbols or monuments, usually for religious or political motives.
I believed in iconoclasm and later died in the Battle of Kapel carrying a sword and a Bible.
Ulrich Zwingli
This document required all the king's subject to take an oath of loyalty to the king as head of the Church of England.
Act of Supremacy
This is a view that the Church is a corporation of cardinals that can override papal authority.
To England he was known as the "Defender of the Faith", soon after he found the Anglican Church.
Henry VIII
I wanted to make France the strongest country in Europe and realized that to do this I needed to decrease power of the Huguenots and nobles.
Cardinal Richelieu
This council was summoned by Charles V, condemned Luther's beliefs, and forbade Luther from preaching and declared him a heretic.
The Edict of Worms 1521
The first European country to enter into direct trade with the Far East and establish colonies there was?:
The Spanish empire in America was characterized by?:
the introduction of a manorial-like system, the encomienda.
Which group generally benefited from the inflation of the sixteenth century?:
The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) granted Portugal the eastern trade route to the Indies as well as Brazil; lands to the west of Brazil were given to?:
The technological innovations in maritime technology by the 1500s were important because?:
they made it possible for Europeans to sail anywhere.
By the 16th century the center of commercial activity had shifted from the Mediterranean to the?:
Atlantic Ocean.
Encomiendas in the Spanish New World were?:
grants permitting owners to take income or labor from land and its inhabitants.
The Mediterranean carrying trade in the 14c and 15c was in the hands of?:
Portuguese exploration of the African coast was inspired and supported by?:
Prince Henry the Navigator.
The major cause of the growing weakness of Spain and Portugal after 1600 was the?:
failure to find productive investments with profits from New World colonies.
In 1571 the Spanish and Turkish fought for control of the Mediterranean at the battle of?:
Why did the initiative in early conquest and exploration pass to northern European nations in the later 16c?:
the Dutch and the British improved the design of oceanic vessels, producing faster ships than their Catholic rivals.
For England, the primary result of the 16c wars with Spain was that it?:
assured her national independence and promoted an intense national spirit.
bullionism is:
the accumulation of precious metals by the government to obtain a favorable balance of trade.
This city established the first Modern European bank in 1609.
A financial scheme in 18th-century France that an 1716 law established the Banque Générale, a bank with the authority to issue notes. A year later it established the Compagnie d'Occident ("Company of the West") and obtained for it exclusive privileges to develop the vast French territories in North America. It triggered a speculative frenzy and ended in financial collapse.
Mississipi Bubble
An inflationary period at the end of the 16c caused by the influx of gold bullion and silver during the Commercial Revolution. It resulted in a transfer of bullion from Spain to the Far East.
Price Revolution
Negotiated by the Pope and agreed upon by the Spanish and the Portuguese to clear up confusion on newly claimed land in the New World. It re-established the line 370 leagues (1,770 km) west of the Cape Verde Islands.
The Treaty of Tordesillas
In colonial Spanish America, the legal system by which the Spanish crown attempted to define the status of the Indian population in its American colonies. It was based upon the practice of exacting tribute from Muslims and Jews during the Reconquista ("Reconquest") of Muslim Spain.
Encomienda System
We were German merchants who created a banking dynasty which dominated European business during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Fugger Family
A maritime insurance association in London that formed the first modern European insurance company in 1688.
Lloyd's of London
Elizabeth I's major goal in foreign policy was to?:
avoid open warfare whenever possible and keep England strong and at peace.
After the United Provinces of the Netherlands won independence from Spain, their government could BEST be described as?:
a weak union of strong provinces.
The single greatest cause of warfare between 1550 and 1650 was?:
religious rivalries.
Phillip II's foreign policy consisted of an attempt to return the Lutheran areas of north Germany to the Catholic fold. True or False?
Ferdinand and Isabella consolidated royal power in Spain by?:
obtaining from the papacy the right to make major ecclesiastical appointments in Spain.
By breaking ties with Rome in the 1530s and establishing my own church, I greatly extended my power and possessions.
Henry VIII
An extremely unpopular tax on ports, which the crown with dubious logic extended to inland towns as well, and generated resistance during the hard times of the 1590s.
ship money
This bill, passed before Queen Elizabeth's reign, required all officials, clergy, and candidates for university degrees to take an oath acknowledging the queen as "governor" of the English Church.
Act of Supremacy
After the long War of the Roses, I became the first Tudor monarch in 1485
King Henry VII
I surprisingly joined the Protestant forces, England and the Dutch Republic, instead of the Catholic forces during the Thirty Years' War. I also defied my mother, Marie de Medici, and laid the foundations for absolute monarchical rule in France.
King Louis XIII (his chief minister was Cardinal Richelieu)
I became queen of England in 1558. I managed to successfully maintain peace among the different religious sects in my country, while increasing my country's prestige and power.
Queen Elizabeth I
In 1598, King Henry IV of France passed this which established Catholicism as the official religion but also granted the nation's 2 million Huguenots some spiritual freedom and allowed them to establish their own towns.
Edict of Nantes
I led the Catholic League and was briefly married to "Bloody Mary." I built El Escorial and annexed Portugal.
King Philip II
I was the first czar of the longest ruling family in Russia, I claimed the throne in 1613.
Michael Romanov
As Queen of the Scots, I was ousted by Protestant nobles and later held captive and finally killed by Queen Elizabeth I.
Mary Stuart
Nicknamed "the Great Elector," I waged war and acquired much territory. I also established a central administrational bureaucracy and a modern civil service in Prussia.
Frederick William
I said, "Paris is well worth a Mass" in reference to my conversion to Catholicism in order to receive the French throne.
Henry of Navarre(later Henry IV)
Nicknamed "Bloody Mary," I tried to reinstate Catholicism in England after my brother Edward's death.
Mary Tudor
I prompted Pope Paul III to convene the Council of Trent in 1545 to assess the condition of the Catholic Church and to define its doctrines.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
I was nicknamed "the Terrible" for torturing many of my people and institutionalizing feudalism in Russia.
Ivan IV
The religious climate of France prior to the French Wars of Religion was best characterized by?:
a nobility that was nearly 50% Huguenots.
The remark attributed to the French king, Henry IV, that Paris is worth a Mass, is usually interpreted to mean that he?:
put political necessities above personal beliefs.
In the late 1620s and early 1630s, King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden played a key role in European affairs by?:
leading a Protestant coalition against Catholic Europe.
The Thirty Years' War became primarily a political conflict during the?:
Swedish-French phase.
The English political philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, held that?:
the power of the ruler was absolute but derived from an implicit contract with the governed.
Peter the Great's "Europeanization" of Russia consisted primarily of?:
importing Western technocrats and technology to his country.
Between the 16c and 17c, peasants in Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, and Russia?:
were granted democratic control over village life.
The guiding force behind Cardinal Richelieu's domestic policies was?:
the subordination of all groups and institutions to the monarchy.
In what way was political life in the Netherlands unique in Europe in the 17c and 18c?:
the Netherlands was a republic with a decentralized government.
A significant feature of English society in the 16c and 17c was the?:
growing wealth of the country genrty and middle-class businessmen.
Colbert's contributions to the economy of France included the creation of a national bank. True or False?
The overall practical purpose of the court of Versailles was to?:
exclude the high nobility and royal princes from real power.
During the English Revolution, the Levellers advocated the idea that?:
all men should have the vote regardless of whether they own property.
The cabinet system in England is based upon the view that government leadership must?:
be elected to and supported by a majority of Parliament.
Jacques Bossuet was the seventeenth century's most articulate?:
advocate of the absolute, divinely ordained right of kings.
Which of the following exerted the most influence on Italy in the eighteenth century?:
The War of the Spanish Succession began when Charles II of Spain left his territories to?:
the French heir.
Ivan III was responsible for the?:
military campaigns that freed much of Russia from the Mongols.
The Siege of Vienna in 1683 was undertaken by?:
The Turks
During the 16th century the main reason for the increase in power of the English monarch was the?:
ability of the Tudor monarchs.
In the 18c, the principal economic activity of the Netherlands was?:
banking and finance.
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke disagreed over the theory that?:
the only alternative to social chaos is absolute monarchy.
The Pragmatic Sanction (1713) stated that the Hapsburg possessions?:
could never be divided.
I was called "the wisest fool in Christendom" for my inability to learn from the mistakes of my ancestors in relation to divine right monarchy.
James I
I argued that while religion was important, the state is above everything, and that religion is a mere instrument to promote the policies of the state.
Cardinal Richelieu
One of the most significant acts of Henry IV's reign, it ended a bitter civil war by guaranteeing religious freedom for the Huguenots.
Edict of Nantes
I gained vast territory for Russia to the Baltic Sea in the north, to the Black Sea in he south, and to the Far East. Probably my greatest contribution was the Westernization of Russia.
Peter the Great
A ruler who tried to advance society by fostering education, aiding the economy, and promoting social justice, but in reality was initiating these reforms to create a more efficient and manageable state.
Enlightened Despot
I made Prussia a great power in Europe and called myself the "first servant of the state."
Frederick the Great
Created in 1563, they were regulations on how the church and state worked together in England. They were vague enough to accommodate most of the religious in England except Puritanism.
Thirty-nine Articles
Referred to as "the dagger pointing at the heart of England."
Spanish Netherlands
The old nobility in France during the 17c, they were also referred to as the noblesse d'épeé.
Ancien Riche
I was a German who succeeded to the throne after the assassination of my husband, Czar Peter III, was a patron of many of the French philosophes and considered myself an enlightened despot.
Catherine the Great
This was created in 1648 when Oliver Cromwell defeated the Scots at the Battle of Preston and helped purge the Presbyterians from Parliament. They were also responsible for voting to behead Kind Charles I for treason.
Rump Parliament
What were the main ideas of and effects resulting from lay investiture?
The Investiture Controversy, also known as the lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. It began as a dispute in the 11th century between the Holy Roman Emperor and the Gregorian Papacy concerning who would control appointments of church officials.
Sola Gratia, Sola Fide, Sola Scriptura
Only Grace, Only Faight, Only Scripture
Martin Luther advocated for which two sacraments?
Baptism and communion
Calvinism rejected transubstantiation. True or False?
What were the 3 characteristics of the Act of Uniformity by Queen Elizabeth I?
Church of England under state control. Doctrines approved by parliament and monarchy. All England required to belong to the Church of England.
Who were recusants?
Those that did not comply with the Church of England.
The only reform of the Council of Trent was?
Go to seminary.
Pope Paul III, The "Reformer Pope" accomplished what two important feats for the Roman Catholic Church?
Established Holy Office and the Council of Trent.
What were the three G's of the Age of European Exploration and Colonization?
God, Gold, and Glory
What did Da Gama accomplish for European exploration?
Vasco Da Gama found a water route to Indian in 1498, this was going around Africa and teh profit from this voyage was 600 times the invesntment.
The Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 created what?
The Line of Demarcation which split the new world into possessions of the Spanish and Portugal Empires.
The Englishman, Edmund Burke, in regard to balance of power thought that:
All weak powers should be dominated to prevent an unbalance of power, such as in the case of Poland during the Partitions of Poland.
This was a reaction to the rationalism and deism of the Englightenment. It celebrated the "genius"(and produced artistic rebels). It loved mystery, the unknown, emotion, heroes and nostalgic history.
This was a reaction to liberalism and the violence of the Revolution.
This wanted to abolish the old order and at its root was a demand for universal suffrage.
This was promoted by secret societies such as the Carbonari and Young Italy. It emphasized folklore, popular heroes and volksgeist. It believed the governing authority should be the same nationality as the governed.
This saw the economic system as "aimless and unjust." Looked to Robert Owen's model factory with hope.
This advocated increased education adn political rights for women.
What were the two most important details of the Reform Bill of 1832?
Redistricting boroughs and more suffrage for males.
After 1832 Whigs were known as? Tories were known as?
Whigs were known as the Liberal Party and Tories were known as the Conservative Party in Great Britain.
The Ptolemaic conception of the universe was also known as?:
the geocentric theory.
Tycho Brahe did what?:
recorded astronomical data from the observatory he built in Denmark.
Sir Francis Bacon's contribution to philosophy, Novum Organum, was based upon?:
glorifying inductive reasoning.
Galileo's ideas on motion included?:
the principle of inertia.
What did the Scientific Revolution do for the view of women?
challenged the idea that women were inferior to men.
As a result of the scientific theories developed through the 16c and 17, Europeans developed a conception of the universe?:
as governed by natural laws.
Spinoza differed with all other philosophers of his day about the?:
divinity of the material universe.(Spinoza argued that God and Nature were two names for the same reality, namely the single substance (meaning "to stand beneath" rather than "matter") that underlies the universe and of which all lesser "entities" are actually modes or modifications, that all things are determined by Nature to exist and cause effects, and that the complex chain of cause and effect are only understood in part.)
Descartes' idea was that the world consists of two fundamental entities or substances, which we can call?:
the physical and the spiritual.
Medieval science was primarily based on?:
a blending of Christian theology and the writings of classical authors.
In De humani corporis fabrica, Andrea Vesalius?:
created a modern anatomy text.
This belief emphasizes that human reason can uncover the mysteries and laws of the universe. It was the dominant philosophy during the Scientific Revolution.
I defended Aristotle's theory of the earth being surrounded by numerous clear spheres.
I developed the theory of two types of blood, one type that is bright red and the other that is dark red.
I think therefore I am.
He rejected Galen's view on human blood in his work On the Fabric of the Human Body.
Descartes' belief that all existence was divided into the spiritual and material.
Cartesian Dualism
This famous mathematician developed the science of probability.
A philosophy developed by John Locke which states that all knowledge of matters of fact is based on, or derived from, experience.
Descartes' way of understanding the universe was summed up in this belief, which states that a conclusion can be deduced by a set of premises, and not from scientific observation.
Deductive reasoning
This astronomer theorized that the moon and sun orbited the Earth and the remaining planets orbited the sun.
Tycho Brahe
This English philosopher introduced an inductive method of discovering the truths of the universe through observation and experimentation to conclusions and generalizations.
I solved the question of how blood circulates by theorizing that the heart operates like a mechanical pump.
William Harvey
An Italian monk who concluded that the universe was infinite size and that the Earth, sun, and planets were all moving constantly within it.
Giordano Bruno
In Galileo's Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World this philosophy was introduced which states that corresponding causes produce corresponding affects throughout the universe.
Doctrine of Uniformity
From the European perspective, the principal outcome of the Seven Years' War was the?:
subsequent struggle between Prussia and Austria for hegemony in Central Europe.
How did British mercantilist policies eventually affect Dutch trade?
It caused a serious decline of Dutch shipping and commerce.
A period of proto-industrialization during the 1600s and 1700s preceded the Industrial Revolution. True or False?
India eventually came under the control of the British crown because of?:
the financial and administrative successes of the British East India Company.
Jethro Tull's discoveries were part of a general movement to?:
apply the principles of scientific experiment to agricultural practices.

(Before Tull's seed drill was introduced, seeds were sown simply by being cast upon the ground, to germinate (or fail to germinate) where they landed. The seed drill significantly improved this process, by creating a hole of specific depth, dropping in a seed, and covering it over, three rows at a time. The result was an increased rate of germination, and a much-improved crop yield.)
The agricultural improvements of the mid-18c were based on the elimination of?:
the open-field system.
Proto-Industrialization refers to?:
the employment of laborers who worked at home but in a capitalist system dependent on urban merchants.
What was the nature of trade between eastern and western Europe in the 17c ad early 18c?:
western Europe imported grain in increasing amounts from eastern Europe in return for art objects and manufactured goods.
Adam Smith's phrase "invisible hand" referred to which of the following?:
the automatic mechanism of a free economy.
Rousseau's conception of the General Will meant?:
a vague common "interest" but not necessarily majority rule.

(General will is what the body politic (community of citizens) would unanimously do if they were selecting general laws and were choosing/voting with full information, good reasoning, unclouded judgment (bias and emotion can cloud judgment), public spirit, and attempting to discern the common good.)
Voltaire's famous polemic slogan, Crush the infamous thing!, referred to?:
religious bigotry as supported by an organized clergy.
In general, the 18c philosophes were?:
popularizers of the scientific and intellectual discoveries of the 17c.
Thinkers of the Enlightenment considered humanity as?:
a link in the rationally ordered chain of beings.
Enlightenment philosophes argued that women and men...
were different and operated in separate spheres.
Maria Theresa can be labeled an "Enlightened Despot" because she?:
introduced many legal reforms in the Habsburg Empire.
David Hume argued that human beings?:
did not have any certain knowlede at birth.
For Rousseau, what was the main source of inequality and the chief cause of crime?:
private property.
The most important contribution Catherine the Great made early in her reign was the?:
establishment of a legislative commission to review the laws of Russia.
Many 18c philosophes believed that governmental reform would be accomplished by?:
benevolent absolutist monarchs.
The ideas of the Enlightenment challenged the long-term assumptions about sovereignty and instead proposed that?:
governments are bound to the will of the people
Rousseau's most important concept in The Social Contract was that?:
government must be based on voluntary participation by citizens, not simply by the accident of history or inheritance.
A British philosopher, whose ideas on natural law was adopted to create the Declaration of Independence.
John Locke
After referred to as the "informal international community of philosophes." These publications included the work of such philosophes as Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Diderot.
The Republic of Letters
This 18c philosopher said, "Dare to know! Have the courage to use your own intelligence." This became the motto of the Enlightenment.
Immanuel Kant
In "On Crime and Punishment", I stated that we are innocent until convicted, that the punishment should fit the crime.
Caesare Beccaria
His graphic works portrayed the everyday life in London. His most famous sketch "Gin Lane" portrayed the effects of alcohol on the poor in 18c England.
William Hogarth
They believed that the primary role of government was to protect the property and to permit its owners to use it freely. They particularly felt economic production depended on sound agriculture.
This new artistic style of the 18c used elements drawn from nature such as birds and flowers to replace religious objects in art.
I based my writing on the belief that human nature, which was originally good was corrupted by society.
Influenced by Montesquieu's "Spirit of Laws" this 18c ruler established the Charter of Nobility of 1785 which gave nobility security of their property, the right to hold serfs and the immunity from arrest.
Catherine the Great
18c British nobility differed from 18c French nobility in that?:
the English aristocracy accepted the social and political responsibilities of their position and participated more directly in running their government.
In the 18c, Europe's largest city was?:
Peasant life in 18c Europe was characterized by?:
vulnerability to rising taxes and rents.
The artistic movement that replaced the Baroque during the Enlightenment was?:

(The Rococo style of art emerged in France in the early 18th century as a continuation of the Baroque style. In contrast to the heavier themes and darker colors of the Baroque, the Rococo style was characterized by an opulence, grace, playfulness, and lightness. Rococo motifs focused on the carefree aristocratic life and on lighthearted romance rather than heroic battles or religious figures; they also revolve heavily around nature and exterior settings. In the mid-late 18th century, Rococo was largely supplanted by the Neoclassic style.)
What were the features of Baroque when speaking of art and music?
In the arts, Baroque is a period as well as the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music.

In music, the Baroque applies to the final period of dominance of imitative counterpoint, where different voices and instruments echo each other but at different pitches, sometimes inverting the echo, and even reversing thematic material.
In 18c England, the greatest threat to the economic security of small farmers was?:
the Enclosure Movement.
Economic and social life among the mass of people under the Ancien Regime of the 18c still primarily focused around?:
the harvest.
The European lower classes reacted to the Enlightenment by?:
seeking comfort in grass-roots religious revival movements.
Describe the attitude toward children in the first part of the 18c.:
they were ignored, often brutalized, and often unloved.
Who were the first to initiate a political campaign to abolish slavery?:
Quakers and Baptists.

(The Religious Society of Friends (commonly known as Quakers) was founded in England in the 17th century as a Christian religious denomination by people who were dissatisfied with the existing denominations and sects of Christianity. Traditionally George Fox has been credited as the founder or the most important early figure. The Society of Friends is counted among the historic peace churches.)
Describe Europe's social order durign the 18th century.:
peasants were still hindered by a variety of feudal services and fees imposed by the powerful aristocracy.
European efforts to deal with crime after 1700 consisted of what?:
employed public displays of punishment for the purpose of deterrence.
During the Ancien Regime, European Jews?:
were separated from non-Jews in districts called ghettos.
The principal French tax, the taille, was paid by?:
the peasantry almost exclusively.
Recent challenges to the traditional explanation of the origins of the French Revolution have centered on the fact that the?:
nobility and upper bourgeoisie were not necessarily pitted against each other.
An English statesman whose criticism of the French Revolution and other writings have earned him a reputation as a spokesman for conservatism was?:
Edmund Burke.
During the era of the French Revolution, the Thermidorean Reaction?:
terminated the Reign of Terror and led to the execution of Robespierre.
During the Reign of Terror, the Committee of Public Safety sought to establish a separation between state and religion. True or False?
The legislators of the French Revolution enacted a law granting the right to vote to women who owned a sufficient amount of property. True or False?
The new Republican calendar of 1793?:
was part of an effort at dechristianization.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen guaranteed security of property. True or False?:
The cahiers de doleances of 1789 generally demanded?:
government reforms.
For the French peasants, the Revolution of 1789 meant?:
greater landownership.
Abbe Sieyes's answer to the question "What is the Third Estate?" was
the most useful component of French society.
The men elected to represent the third estate in the Estates General were primarily?:
lawyers and government officials.
Written in the midst of the French Revolution, the 1793 Constitution?:
reflected the vision of Rousseau's social contract.
Louis XVI responded to the Tennis Court Oath by?:
declaring the actions of the third estate illegal.
Which of the following groups in France were most opposed to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy?:

liberal aristocrats.
Lettres de cachet were a means by which the French king could?:
imprison anyone without benefit of a trial.
The political views of the Girondists were?:
more moderate than the view of other Jacobins.
According to the rules of the French Constitution of 1791, "active citizens" were defined as?:
men who paid annual taxes equal to three days of labor wages.
The conservative government that came to power after the Thermidorean Reaction?:
restored social stability without sacrificing the ideals of 1789.
July 14, 1789.
The Fall of the Bastille
This Finance Minister who was repeatedly dismissed by King Louis XVI.
This legislative body ruled France during the First French Republic.
Legislative Assembly
This social class supported Robespierre and the Jacobins.
The conservative response to the French Revolution?
Thermidorean Reaction
The ideals established during the French Revolution?
Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite
"Liberty, equality, fraternity (brotherhood)"
The purpose of the August 4th Laws.
to abolish slavery
I responded to a warning to curb my spending in light of the poverty of the peasants of France with the phrase: "Let them eat cake!"
Marie Antoinette
This piece of legislation made those who pledged swear allegiance to the state above all other political, religious, or social obligations.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Under the Napoleonic Code, workers received?:
no specific rights or guarantees.
A lasting effect of the Napoleonic occupation of Europe was the?:
stimulation of national feeling in the subject lands.
Although the French Revolution had abolished slavery, Napoleon?:
decided to reinstate it and ordered the invasion of Haiti and capture of Toussaint-Louverture.
Why is it significant that Napoleon crowned himself as emperor of the First French Empire in 1804?:
it was a symbolic gesture to show his independence.
What was the direct cause of the rebellions in Latin America in the first part of the 19c?:
Napoleon's invasion of Spain.
Napoleon joined the Jacobins shortly after the French Revolution. True or False?
Napoleon's conquest of Spain doomed its American empire by?:
allowing the colonies to govern themselves for six years.
How did Napoleon deal with the Holy Roman Empire?:
he replaced the empire with the Confederation of the Rhine.
After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era, France?:
was divided into departments rather than provinces.
Which country was NOT ruled by a member of the Bonaparte family during the first decade of the 19c?:

An executive group consisting of talented and meritorious people from the French population, for their service to the nation.
Legion of Honor
The French legal system enacted in 1804 containing the details for French civil , commercial, and criminal war.
Napoleonic Code
A series of laws to help supervise the rights of other religions in France besides Catholicism.
Organic Articles
I depicted the cruelty of the French in their attacks on Spanish citizens in my paintings.
This finalized the exile of Napoleon to a Mediterranean island off the coast of Italy where Napoleon would be emperor of Elba alone.
Treaty of Fontainebleau
This was the result of Napoleon's growing frustrations with the inefficiency of the Continental system and his growing interests in the Mediterranean region.
1812 Invasion of Russia
Composed of 16 German states who excepted French presence in southern Germany, and promised to support Napoleon if war broke out. It also ended the Holy Roman Empire.
Confederation of the Rhine
Leader of the English fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar, he died in the battle but the success of his fleet was one of history's most decisive victories.
Nelson Horatio
State secondary schools, intended to give it's students technical training and to produce loyal military officers and government officials from the graduates.
Napoleon's escape from Elba back to France where he is reunited with his old army am marches through southern France.
100 days, Cent Jours
Former slave whom aided in the independence of Haiti from the French.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
The conclusions of Malthus and Ricardo relative to economic affairs suggested that?:
liberals were right to reject government interference in economic affairs because it could do no good.
Robert Owen's only success was the?:
organization of consumers' cooperatives.
(Robert Owen (14 May 1771, Newtown, Powys – 17 November 1858) was a Welsh utopian socialist and social reformer. He is considered the father of the cooperative movement.

Owen's socialistic philosophy was derived from three fundamental pillars of his thought. First, he believed that no one was "responsible for his will and his own actions" because "his whole character is formed independently of himself." Owen firmly believed that people were the product of their environment, which fueled his support for education and labor reform. His views made Owen a pioneer in the promotion of investment in human capital. Owen's second pillar was his opposition to religion. Owen felt that all religions were "based on the same absurd imagination" which he said made mankind "a weak, imbecile animal; a furious bigot and fanatic; or a miserable hypocrite." [However, he did embrace spiritualism towards the end of his life (O'Hara, 2006, p.75).] His third pillar said that he disliked the factory system, and supported the cottage system.)
In England, the Factory Act of 1833 clearly?:
forbade work for girls under 18 years of age.
The New Poor Law did which of the following?:
established unpleasant workhouses in the hopes that only the truly needy would seek public assistance.
Classical liberals supported universal manhood suffrage. True or False?
During the century following 1832, the MAIN objective of the Reform Acts passed by the British Parliament was the?:
extension of suffrage.
The group that gained most political power as a result of the Reform Bill of 1832 was the?:
middle-class people of the towns.
This Scott, who originally made musical instruments, also was responsible for perhaps the most significant invention of the Industrial Revolution - the steam engine.
Thomas Newcomen
This limited labor by young children in Britain to an eight hour work day.
The 1833 Factory Act
Starting in the sixteenth century, Parliament passed acts that transformed open fields or communally owned land into privately owned, fenced-in fields that could be more intensely and profitably farmed by individual owners. This was known as ??
A movement of British workers that attempted to stop the Industrial Revolution through a campaign of destroying factory machines, which they blamed for unemployment.
In 1815, the English Parliament established this to study factory conditions. They thoroughly interviewed workers to discover the trueevents of their work day.
Stadler Commission
This man published "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation" in 1817. In it, he justified low pay and proposed the "iron law of wages," which said that if wages were left to the laws of supply and demand, they would fall to near subsistence level.
David Ricardo
This was the largest industrial city in all of Britain and the center of cotton manufacturing. One onserver once called it "The enterance to hell realized" and Elizabeth Gaskell wrote a book exposing the harsh reality of industrial life here.
This, also known as the German Customs Union, removed many of the tariff barriers in the German states and made trade cheaper and easier.
This man was a factory owner that believed a person's character was formed by the effects of their environment. As a result, he refused to mistreat his employees like many of his colleagues. He published "The Formation of Character" and "A New View of Society" and his cooperative philosophy influenced several worker's movements and played an important role in establishing the Grand National Conslidated Trade Union in 1834.
Robert Owen
These forbid the formation of trade unions and worker's strikes in Britain. They were repealed by Parliament in 1824.
The Combination Acts
English philosopher Herbert Spencer popularized this belief that theory of "survival of the fittest" should be applied to the marketplace and that concentration of wealth in the hands of the "fit" would benefit the human race.
Social Darwinism
In France, this encouraged business interests, kept taxes low, and sometimes maintained high tariffs that protected special interests, therefore not following the trend of laissez faire government.
The July Monarchy
Also known as domestic industry, this was the system in which merchant-manufacturers sought labor in the counrty side to produce goods. This was partially done to compete with the guilds.
The putting-out system
In the trade guilds that were popular at the beginning of the industrial Revolution, this was the beginning level, before craftsman and master.
The July Ordinances were repressive decrees issued by?:
Charles X of France.
Metternich may have been a brilliant statesman, but he was particularly misguided in?:
thinking he could stop forces of nationalism and liberalism.
In 1820, revolutionaries overthrew the governments of which two states?:
Spain and Naples.
The Burschenschaften was?:
student societies in Germany who wanted to spread German nationalism.
What became known as the "Eastern Question" in European affairs was actually a reflection of the?:
weakness of the Ottoman Empire.
The Decembrist Revolt of 1825?:
was the first rebellion in modern Russian history whose instigators had specific political goals.
All of the following are true of the Romantic movement in the early 19c EXCEPT?:

A) it sympathized with revolts against oppression.
B) it placed great emphasis upon the individual.
C) it called for social reform.
D) it instilled a reverence for nature.
E) it accepted the basic ideals of the Enlightenment philosophes.
E) it accepted the basic ideals of the Enlightenment philosophes.
Following the death of Alexander I in 1825, Russia under Nicholas I became?:
a police state due to Nicholas's fear of revolution.
Generally, the revolutions of 1848 resulted in?:
the end of the age of romantic revolution.
The Frankfurt Assembly failed because?:
it did not resolve the contradictions between liberalism and nationalism in the building of a German state.
The novelty of the "Concert of Europe" system was its recognition that?:
war had become too dangerous a luxury for Europe to afford.
The most important symbol of Romanticism became the?:
isolated individual in heroic struggle.
Count Henri de Saint-Simon believed that?:
the key to progress was proper social organization.
The Protocol of Troppau?:
permitted stable governments' intervention into countries experiencing revolution for the purpose of restoring order.
Utopian socialism was built upon the idea that?:
cooperative living might create a better environment for people.
An agreement between five major countries, who would meet annually, in order to preserve the balance of power in 19c Europe and to join together to put down revolutionary movements that upset this balance.
Concert of Europe
I was the British Foreign Minister at the Congress of Vienna. I despised people like Robespierre and Napoleon who disrupted the balance of power in Europe.
Lord Castlereigh
The most fanatical enemies of the Revolution, who launched the "White Terror" against the supporters of Napoleon.
I was the British writer who argued that monarchical stability and noble privilege were inseparable and were necessary components of a strong society.
Edmund Burke
This next one is important to know :p.
Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535), also known as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, author, and statesman. During his lifetime he earned a reputation as a leading humanist scholar and occupied many public offices, including that of Lord Chancellor from 1529 to 1532. More coined the word "utopia", a name he gave to an ideal, imaginary island nation whose political system he described in a book published in 1516. He is chiefly remembered for his principled refusal to accept King Henry VIII's claim to be supreme head of the Church of England, a decision which ended his political career and led to his execution as a traitor.
Repressive legislature passed in response to the revolutionary stirrings in 19c Europe that banned demonstrations, suspended the writ of habeas corpus and restricted the press.
Six Acts
Passed by Louis XVIII, it recognized equality before the law, accepted the Napoleanic Code, granted freedom of the press and established The Chamber of Deputies and The Chamber of Peers.
Charter of 1814
A series of repressive measures unanimously accepted by the Diet of the German Confederation in 1819, which severely limited the press and dissolved all student fraternities.
Carlsbad Decrees
Five decrees passed in 19c France that dissolved the newly elected Chamber of Deputies, muzzled the press and increased the amount of political power in the hands of the wealthiest property holders.
July Ordinances
I made the close connection between the development of German nationalism and the reverence for a strong state that characterized some German liberal thought.
George Hegel
I was known as the "heart" of the struggle to unify the Italian states into one nation and I was also the founder of a society of young men called "Young Italy."
Giuseppe Mazzini
Note the following, important.
Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 – December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his influence on authors such as Goethe and the role he played in the development of the larger cultural movement known as romanticism. Herder replaced the traditional concept of a juridico-political state with that of the "folk-nation" as organic in its historical growth, thus creating the Romantic nationalist school. Every nation was in this manner organic and whole, nationality a plant of nurture. He talked of the "national animal" and of the "physiology of the whole national group" , which organism was topped by the "national spirit", the "soul of the people" (Volksgeist).
The disestablishment of the Church of Ireland and the passage of laws to protect the Irish tenant farmer occurred during the first ministry of?:
William Gladstone.
Bismarck's Kulturkampf represented an effort to?:
weaken the political influence of the Catholic Church in Germany.
The unification of Italy was primarily due to?:
the success of Cavour and Garibaldi together with the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War.
The Risorgimento was the name of?:
the movement to unify Italy.
Count Camillo Cavour hoped to unify Italy by means of?:
a military alliance with France against Austria.
The Catholic Emancipation Act allowed Roman Catholics in England?:
to hold public office.
Under the terms of the Act of Union of 1801?:
Ireland lost its own legislature and instead sent representatives to London.
The Compromise of 1867 transformed the Habsburg Empire into?:
a Dual Monarchy.
By the Treaty of Frankfurt, France?:
lost Alsace-Lorraine to Germany.
The long-term goal of the Paris Commune was the?:
creation of Paris as an autonomous commune separate from France.
After the publication of Theodor Herzl's book The Jewish State?:
a Zionist Congress proclaimed its aim to create that state in Palestine.
The Concert of Europe was shattered as a result of?:
the events of the Crimean War.
The nationalists of the first half of the nineteenth century were often?:
liberals attempting to overthrow tyrannical regimes.
One of the most important barriers to the initialization of Italian unification.
the papacy
This person's drive for unification was based on the belief that it would provide for a common purpose, making the Italians worthy of democracy.
Giuseppe Mazzini
July 1838, Cavour secretly met with him at Plombieres to discuss a war between Austria and Piedmont-Sardinia.
Napoleon III
This Italian republican revolutionary's claim to power was a result of the support received by Sicilians.
This secret society under Mazzini believed work by Italians themselves would bring about unification of Italy.
Young Italy
This army under Garibaldi helped to overtake Naples and end papal resistance.
Red Shirts
The Treaty of Vienna established a union between these two duchies under the administration of Prussia and Austria.
Schelswig-Holstein, in Denmark
This person emerged as the leader of Hungarian liberals and saw Hungary's partnership with Austria as an obsatcle to liberal reform.
Bismark assured Napoleon III compensation in this land if he promised to stay out of an Austro-Prussian War.
As a result of this treaty, Austria was eliminated as a dominant threat to the German states; the German Confederation was dissloved.
Treaty of Prague
One of the most obvious differences between realistic and romantic writers was the fact that?:
realists rejected poetry as a proper way of expressing the real world and preferred the novel instead.
Nietzsche's criticism of Christianity was aimed primarily at?:
Christian morality, which he believed was repressive and fit only for slaves.
The "demographic transition" that took place between 1870 and 1914 involved?:
a huge migration of Europeans to the United States, South America, and Australia
Emmeline Pankhurst was noted for her?:
militant advocacy of women's suffrage.
By 1900, the leading industrial power in Europe was?:
Sigmund Freud believed that the way to solve the conflicts of his psychologically disturbed patients was to?:
trace repression back to its childhood origins.
The positivists believed that?:
general rules of social behavior can be derived from the examination of empirical data.
What view of Fabian socialists differed from orthodox Marxism?:
democracy could lead to socialism, revolution was not necessary.
This English philosopher was a forceful proponent in the fight for government intervention in social reform.
John Stuart Mill

(John Stuart Mill (20th May 1806 – 8th May 1873), was a British philosopher, political economist and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. He was an advocate of utilitarianism, the ethical theory that was systemized by his godfather, Jeremy Bentham, but adapted to German romanticism.)
This realist author wrote about the real life experiences of the people of his time, rather than focusing on romantic ideals and heroes.
Charles Dickens
This utilitarian believed that laws should be judged based on social use or whether or not the laws provided "the greatest good for the greatest number of people."
Jeremy Bentham
This conservative thinker believed in ordered change and criticized misgovernment and corruption through his literary works.
Edmund Burke
This artist used bright, light colors on large canvases and began to paint the impression he received from the scene he was observing.
Claude Monet
uring the Romantic Period, this musician helped to make folk songs part of musical expression.
Franz Schubert
This scientist reasoned that society could be studied in a scientific manner. His positivism helped students of society understand the laws of social development.
Auguste Comte
A belief that humanity was capable of improving itself through faith in science and gradual progress.
This social scientist used the term "survival of the fittest" to describe his belief that nations must struggle to survive.
Herbert Spencer (created Social Darwinism)
This French socialist was disillusioned by the failure of the socialist revolts in 1848.
Louis Blanc
The artists of this movement painted what they saw at first glance and they attempted to capture visual sensations such as the way sunlight falls on inanimate objects.
The necessity of having a nation-state and the superiority of the German Volkgeist were all part of this nationalists views.
Johann Fichte
The rule of the British East India Company in India was terminated as a result of?:
the Sepoy Mutiny.
Great Britain exported opium to China in order to?:
find a means of paying for imports from China.
In arguing for the positive effects of her imperialist rule in India, Britain could point to all of the following EXCEPT?:

A) a competant civil service which generally served well in India.
B) an increase in education including instruction in English.
C) eradication of discrimination based on caste.
D) development of the Indian infrastructure.
E) control of hostilities among diverse Indian religious groups.
C) eradication of discrimination based on caste.
Which of the following is the BEST reason for the beginnings of late 19c imperialism?:

A) the need to develop manufacturing in non-industrialized nations.
B) the global competition of European nations for claims to less developed areas.
C) missionary activities to proselytize and convert the heathens.
D) the acquisition of territories promising strategic benefit.
E) national security and the need for an international balance of power.
E) national security and the need for an international balance of power.
A unique feature of the "new imperialism" was the?:
establishment of direct political control over colonies through elaborate imperial bureaucracies.
Which of the following did NOT occur at the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885?:

A) It was determined that nations claiming territories in Africa would have to demonstrate the creation of a real presence calculated to produce economic development.
B) The Congo was yielded to Leopold of Belgium as the Congo Free State.
C) The conference laid the ground rules for all further acquisitions in Africa.
D) The conference divided all of Africa among the major European powers.
E) The conference organized and structured the terms under which Africa would fall to European nations.
D) The conference divided all of Africa among the major European powers.
One striking difference between the British and the French imperial models in Africa is that?:
the British preferred to use local institutions to control subject populations.
What statement can be used to described the internal economies of the European colonies?:
colonial economies were steadily reduced to dependence on the European-dominated global market.
The suppression of a secret anti-foreign society, that killed Europeans in China, by an expeditionary force composed of British, Russian, German, French, Japanese, and American forces.
Boxer Rebellion
Summoned by Otto von Bismarck, this conference set guidelines for the partitioning of the "Dark Continent" and established the definition of "effective occupation."
Congress of Berlin 1885
Provisions following the Opium War that include Chinese payment of war costs to Britain, the opening of Chinese ports to British trade and the island of Hong Kong given to the British.
Treaty of Nanking
Use of pig fat to grease rifle cartridges that was against the religious beliefs of Indian troops in the British army, resulted in British suppression of the revolt as well as the end of the rule of the East India Company and establishment of direct rule in India.
Sepoy Rebellion
A geographer, missionary, and explorer who discovered Victoria Falls and was found by American journalist, Henry Stanley.
David Livingstone
A rivalry between Britain and France over control of territory in Africa almost erupted into war until the French recognized British and Egyptian claims to the Nile Basin while Britain recognized French control in West Africa.
Fashoda Affair
Conflict between China and Britain from 1840-1842 that occurred after increasing addiction led to China to outlaw Britain's drug trade.
Opium War
A financier, entrepreneurial and adventurer, and prime minister of the Cape Colony who envisioned a railroad that would connect all of the east coast
Cecil Rhodes
One of the most dangerous outcomes of the Bosnian crisis was that?:
Russia and Serbia were humiliated, encouraging them to more reckless and belligerent actions in the future.
At the Paris Peace Conference, the two major powers NOT represented were?:
Germany and Russia.
Which European state existed in 1919, but NOT in 1914?:
As public morale weakened in the later stages of the war?:
police powers were expanded to include the arrest of dissenters as traitors.
On the eve of the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914, William II of Germany corresponded with Nicholas II of Russia in what manner?:
attempted to engage Nicholas II in a diplomatic dislogue to avoid war if at all possible.
The most visible effect of World War I on European working habits was?:
an end to unemployment.
Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty?:
contained the war guilt clause blaming Germany for World War I.
The British won a major propaganda victory at the start of the First World War because of?:
German atrocities in Belgium.
The mandate system, created by the League of Nations, was a form of colonialism where the colonial rulers were?:
accountable for the well-being of the inhabitants with the ultimate goal of teaching them how to rule themselves.
This early 20th Century alliance included the European countries of France, Great Britain and Russia.
Triple Entente
This alliance of late 19th Century European countries included Germany and Austria.
Triple Alliance
I assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne on June 28, 1914.
Gavrilo Princip
As British Under-Secretary of the Admiralty, I authorized an attack on Turkey which was such a disaster that it almost cost me my entire political career.
Winston Churchill
After being invaded twice, in 1870 and 1914, I wanted to ensure that Germany would never again be a threat to my country.
Georges Clemenceau
This country along with Austia-Hungary signed an armistice on December 15, 1917 which terminated their effort in World War I.
This battle took place in France from July to November 1916 during which a million casualties were sustained by both sides.
Battle of the Somme
This rigid airship was used for air raids by Germany during World War I.
This event took place between France and Germany from February to December 1916 which resulted in nearly 700,000 casualties.
Battle of Verdun
Which of the following best describes the wartime Russian government?:

A) Holy man Rasputin ran the bureaucracy efficiently.
B) The Tsarina Alexandra kept Nicholas ignorant of domestic problems.
C) The general population was largely supportive of the war.
D) Newer weapons kept Russian losses to a minimum.
E) Numerous reforms kept the peasants happy.
B) The Tsarina Alexandra kept Nicholas ignorant of domestic problems.
After the Revolution of 1905 in Russia?:
Russia at last adopted the Western model of representative assemblies and political parties.
Stalin's policy in postwar Russia is best characterized as?:
rapid industrialization and agricultural collectivism.
Which of the following was the result of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in 1918?:
Russia lost one-third of her total area.
Trotsky and Stalin's interpretations of Marxism differed most significantly in which of the following ways?:
Trotsky wanted to foster world revolution while Stalin wanted "to build Socialism in one country.
Which of the following was not part of Count Witte’s policy of industrialization?:

A) banking reform to encourage domestic savings and investment.
B) promotion of foreign investment in Russian industry.
C) construction of the trans-Siberian railroad.
D) protective tariffs to support emerging Russian industries.
E) nationalization of key industries such as coal and steel.
E) nationalization of key industries such as coal and steel.

(Count Sergei Yulyevitch Witte (Russian: Сергей Юльевич Витте, Sergej Jul'evič Vitte) (June 29, 1849 – March 13, 1915), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. He was also the author of the October Manifesto of 1905, a precursor to Russia's first constitution, and Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) of the Russian Empire. Witte served as Russian Director of Railway Affairs within the Finance Ministry from 1889 – 1891, Transportation Minister (1892), where he pursued an ambitious program of railway construction and oversaw the building of the Trans-Siberian Railway.)
Lenin had to adapt pure Marxist ideology to the situation in Russia because?:
the majority of the Russian population were peasants, and Marx said little about peasants' revolutionary potential.
The Kronstadt Rebellion was caused by?:
the economic disaster and social upheaval of the Russian Civil War.
Which of the following is a uniquely Russian contribution to Marxist theory?:
a communist revolution must be led by a party of professional revolutionaries.
In Lenin's, "April Thesis," this Bolshevik slogan summed up the promise to take Russia out of World War I, to organize the seizure of peasant land, and to control industrial production by the workers.
"Peace, land, and bread"
The conservative socialist, "Minority," faction of the Social Democratic Party that supported a Democratic Revolution and Russia's continual participation in the war.
A belief that the existing society and government must be destroyed so that a better society can be created.
The equivalent of the French Revolution's Reign of Terror, under Stalin's leadership, that resulted in the massive killing of Russians through the aid of the secret police and slave labor camps known as gulags.
Great Purge
The slogan of the Menshevik leader, Alexander Kerensky.
"Justice, Equality, and Liberty"
Mussolini won support for his Fascists by promoting his party as a bulwark against?:
Which of the following groups composed the "Popular Front" in France during the 1930s?:
socialists and communists.
The social group that was hit most severely by Germany's inflation in the 1920s was the?:
middle class.
Catholicism was recognized as the sole religion of Italy by the?:
Lateran Accords
All of the following are true of women in Mussolini's Italy EXCEPT?:

A) they were urged to have more children.
B) they were not allowed to join the work force.
C) they were discouraged from using contraception.
D) they were given subsidies if they had large families.
E) they were discouraged from participating in the work force.
B) they were not allowed to join the work force.
In the early 1920s, Germany's Weimar Republic was crippled by?:

A) the election of Adolf Hitler.
B) its close identification with fascist organizations.
C) the number of elderly people it had to subsidize.
D) a lack of political leadership.
E) the economic reversals of the Great Depression.
D) a lack of political leadership.
In seizing and maintaining power in the 20th century, Communists, Fascists, and Nazis all?:
blamed their nations' troubles on scapegoats.
Mussolini’s Fascist Party gained public support in post-war Italy by?:

A) working within the political system to elected to Parliament.
B) arguing that Italy had been slighted by the Allies at the Peace Conference.
C) taking advantage of labor unrest and directing violence against socialists.
D) appearing to align themselves with the rightful authority, the king.
E) all of these choices are correct.
E) all of these choices are correct.
Which of the following did NOT contribute to Mussolini's rise to power?:

A) support of strong wealthy landowners and industrialists.
B) nationalists demand that Italy should receive more territory from the Versailles Treaty.
C) a growing number of disgruntled World War I veterans.
D) peasant unrest in the countryside of Italy from 1919 to 1922.
E) severe unemployment after the war.
D) peasant unrest in the countryside of Italy from 1919 to 1922.
The fasces or bundle of rods with an ax was a symbol that Mussolini's party derived from?:
ancient Rome.
The program of the British Labor party in the post-World War I period may be described or characterized as?:
Fabian socialist.

(The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. It is best known for its initial ground-breaking work beginning in the late 19th century and then up to World War I. The society laid many of the foundations of the Labour Party during this period; subsequently, it affected the policies of newly independent British colonies, especially India, and is still in existence today.)
The European country hardest hit by unemployment during the Great Depression was?:
The British economist John Maynard Keynes became famous during the depression of the 1930s because he?:
argued that if private investment funds were idle, government funds must be employed to encourage economic activity and to increase purchasing power.
The Spanish Civil War became an international issue because?:
Italy and Germany sent troops and arms to fascists in Spain.

(It should be noted that the democratic governments of France and Great Britain refused to help the anti-fascists in the Spanish Civil War because of fear of going against their policy of appeasing Hitler.)
France in the 1920s and 1930s?:
experienced a time of political discord and military conservatism.
The European economy was stirred by this League of Nations commission that extended the schedule for payment of German reparations.
Dawes Plan
These political parties were characterized by racism and xenophobia and had their origins in the anti-republican nationalism of the late 19th century.
This authoritarian dictator became known as "Caudillo" when he came to power in 1939.
General Francisco Franco
Under this 1928 agreement the major powers of Europe renounced war as an intrument of national policy.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
When translated from Gaelic, the name of this Irish Republican political organization means "Ourselves Alone".
Sinn Fein
I was assassinated in Mexico in 1940.
Leon Trotsky
Poland was the first country to become a dictatorship, after World War I, with this man as its leader.
Joseph Pilsudski
The major strategic reason for Allied landings in Italy was to?:
open a second front to take the pressure off the Soviets.
The important decision made by leading German officials at the Wannsee Conference was?:
to begin implementation of the "Final Solution" to the Jewish Question.
Hitler's primary motivation for the invasion of the Soviet Union was?:
to destroy Bolshevism and acquire lebensraum for German colonization.
The chief argument between Truman and Stalin at Potsdam in July, 1945, was over?:
free elections in eastern Europe.
Why was the Atlantic Charter of 1941 critical to colonial peoples?:
it promoted the concept that all people had the right to choose the form of government under which they live.
Irish writer James Joyce wrote this epic novel using the technique of "stream of consciousness".
This group was an alliance between the Radical, Socialist, and Communist parties in France.
Popular Front
The tide turned in the Russian theater turned in favor of the Russians when?:
German forces were surrounded and captured at the crucial battle of Stalingrad.
Nazi occupation in Western Europe differed from that in the east in that?:
Nazi occupation was more extremely brutal in the east, because of Nazi racial ideology.
Winston Churchill's vision for the postwar world?:
stressed the balance of power to check the Soviets, and resisted ending colonial empires.
President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill announced at their wartime conference in Casablanca that their principal war aim was to?:
force the unconditional surrender of both Germany and Japan.
What exception to unconditional surrender were the Japanese allowed?:
Emperor Hirohito was retained by the Japanese.
All of the following were results of World War II EXCEPT?:

A) the creation of new states in Europe.
B) the positioning of the United States as a world power.
C) the loss of colonial empires by European nations.
D) Japan's adoption of a democratic constitution.
E) the adoption of the United Nations Charter.
A) the creation of new states in Europe.
Which statement expressed a defense used by some Nazi war criminals at their trials in an attempt to justify their actions during World War II?:
one's behavior is not accountable when one is following orders.
Held in July of 1945. Attended by Stalin, Truman, and Churchill. Displayed the disunity of the shaky alliance.
Potsdam Conference
American victory against the superior Japanese naval force.
Battle of Midway
I am a preserving communist in Yugoslavia. I am known by the name of Tito. I helped lead a resistance movement that aided in Germany's military demise.
Josip Broz
Reference to the planned invasion of France, "D-Day", coordinated by General Eisenhower.
"Operation Overlord"
Also known as 'Night of the Broken Glass'. When Nazi mobs wrecked Jewish temples throughout Germany.
The last German offensive. The battle took place in Belgium. After this battle, the Germans were in retreat on all fronts.
Battle of the Bulge
A pledge between Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin which guaranteed that after the end of the war Germany would be occupied by Allied powers and demilitarized.
Teheran Conference
Refers to General Erwin Rommel who attacked the lifeline of Britain, the Suez Canal.
The Desert Fox
Where the second atomic bomb was dropped in Japan, causing them to surrender to the United States.
The Nazis consolidated power by following this policy which builds economic self-sufficiency, by allowing a country to strive independent of imports and foreign markets.
Occurred in 1922 and it caused the current government to collapse, allowing Mussolini to create a new form of government.
March on Rome
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed in response to?:
the events surrounding the Berlin Blockade.
The collapse of the Fourth Republic and the rise of the Fifth Republic occurred in France over?:
the independence movement in Algeria.
Euro-communism is?:
a program devised by Italian Communists to make their policies more compatible with the needs of Western Europe.
Which communist country successfully asserted independence from Moscow's control soon after the end of the Second World War?:
Under Clement Atlee's administration, the government?:

A) undertook a major housing program.
B) strongly supported British trade unions.
C) assumed ownership of certain major industries.
D) instituted a major program of welfare legislation.
E) all of these choices are correct.
E) all of these choices are correct.
Which of the following was NOT a result of the Polish and Hungarian disturbances in 1956?:

A) they demonstrated the hollowness of American political rhetoric.
B) they demonstrated that Austrian neutrality would not be imitated in Eastern Europe.
C) they demonstrated the limitations of independence within the Soviet bloc.
D) they exposed the lack of military will on the part of the West to really help freedom-fighters in Eastern Europe.
E) they brought an end to independent action in the Soviet bloc.
E) they brought an end to independent action in the Soviet bloc.
The "Prague Spring" refers to?:
the unsuccessful liberalization program attempted by Alexander Dubcek.
The most serious fear shared by Soviet and Western statesmen after World War II was?:
revival of a strong military state in Germany.
The most serious post-World War II split in the Communist Bloc was?:
the rupture of the Soviet-Chinese alliance.
Between the death of Stalin and the rise of Gorbachev, the Soviet Union?:
experienced some liberalization along with increasing economic decline.
One of Gorbachev's key policies was perestroika, which meant?:
drastic restructuring of the centrally planned command economy.

(Glasnost: Mikhail Gorbachev used the term to describe a program of reform introduced to the Soviet Union in 1985 whose goals included combating corruption and the abuse of privilege by the political classes. In the broadest sense, it aimed to liberalize freedom of the press gradually, and to allow for freedom of dissent.
The most innovative Soviet postwar scientific achievement was its?:
launch of the world's first unmanned space satellite.
In reality, the policy of detente between the Soviet Union and the United States?:
defined the process by which the superpowers agreed to formalize their postwar dominance.
As President of France, Charles de Gaulle's policy toward the Cold War was to?:
remain independent of both superpowers.
The European Economic Community had its origins in an agreement about?:
coal and steel production.
The outbreak of student revolts in Western Europe the late 1960s was inspired by?:

A) the war in Vietnam.
B) overcrowded classrooms and lack of professorial attention.
C) discontent with materialism.
D) poor job prospects for new graduates.
E) all of these choices are correct.
E) all of these choices are correct.
The 1960 US-USSR summit meeting was wrecked when?:
a U-2 spy plane was shot down over Russia.
Margaret Thatcher's popularity rose when she successfully prevented?:
Argentina from taking the Falklands.
Thatcherism stressed all of the following EXCEPT?:

A) nationalization of industries.
B) high interest rates.
C) destroying the power of labor unions.
D) sharp tax cuts.
E) reduced government spending.
A) nationalization of industries.
The Solidarity movement in Poland, which ultimately toppled the communist regime, was helped by what other Polish institution?:
the Catholic Church.
"It must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples [against Communist aggression] ". This statement made in 1947 advocating economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey is derived from this document.
Truman Doctrine
This four-year program (1948-1951) contributed 13 billion dollars to rebuilding the war-ravaged cities of Europe, encouraging industrial and agricultural growth, fostering political stability, encouraging trade, and most importantly, reducing the danger of Communism.
Marshall Plan
When Germany was divided, the United States, France, and Great Britain combined their territories to form West Germany, also known as this.
German Federal Republic
October 16-28, 1962 were arguably the most dangerous thirteen days of the cold War. During this period nuclear war seemed not only plausible but probable. This particularly unstable time was due to this dilemma.
The Cuban Missile Crisis
I led Communists in China, supported by the U.S.S.R., to defeat the corrupt regime of Chiang Kaishek's Nationalists.
Mao Zedong
"An armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all." This statement reflects the United States' goal of collective security, realized through this organization.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO
This symbol of the Cold War was created by the East Germans in 1961, prompted by the prosperity of West Germany, which attracted many to migrate, causing much political embarrassment.
The Berlin Wall
This American policy focused on strengthening the US and its allies in order to discourage Soviet aggression.
Upon gaining control of the Soviet Union, I criticized the "cult of personality" of the Stalinist Era and argued that a "peaceful coexistence" between communism and capitalism was possible.
Nikola Khrushchev
This was the first major military conflict between the West and the Communists.
The Korean War
In response to the formation of a united West Germany, the Soviets created this territory, also known as East Germany.
German Democratic Republic
I was imprisoned during Stalin's reign and emerged in 1956 to head the Polish government.
In 1958, I won a Nobel Prize for literature for my novel, Dr. Zhivago. Unfortunately, my work was censored by the Soviet government and I was forbidden to receive my award.
Boris Pasternak
This meeting between President Eisenhower, the Prime Ministers of Britain and France, and the Soviets, led to a slightly more agreeable atmosphere between nations.
Geneva Summit
This formally divided Vietnam into the Communist North and Non-Communist South.
Geneva Accords
Which of the following statements concerning economic agreements is NOT CORRECT?:

A) the International Monetary Fund was organized to provide small loans to the desperately poor (particularly women) in developing countries.
B) the Marshall Plan provided economic aid for the rebuilding of western Europe following World War II.
C) the European Economic Community was founded in response to the pressures of the Cold War
D) North American Free Trade Agreement in 1994 established a partnership involving the U. S., Canada, and Mexico.
E) OPEC created an oil cartel among oil-producing countries to set the price of oil.
A) the International Monetary Fund was organized to provide small loans to the desperately poor (particularly women) in developing countries.
In mid-1991, war broke out in the former Yugoslavia when?:
Serb armed forces carved out enclaves for Serb minorities in the republics of the former Yugoslavia.
In 1991, members of the European Union drew up a plan for common policy, currency, and banking known as the?:
Maastrict Agreement.
Which of the following statements about the reunification of Germany is TRUE?:

A) West Germany suffered a dramatic economic depression.
B) East Germans staunchly opposed political and social reforms.
C) economic problems were minimal.
D) The Soviet Union paid the German government $15 billion for the ecological damage caused by decades of military dumping of major carcinogens.
E) East Germans suffered a loss of welfare benefits.
E) East Germans suffered a loss of welfare benefits.
Why have so many violent clashes broken out between ethnic and religious groups in Central and Eastern Europe since the fall of Communism?:

A) the opening of Eastern Europe to a free market economy has promoted ferocious competition, and this has provoked ethnic hatred.
B) because under Communism, the different ethnic and religious groups were allowed complete freedom, but under the new governments they are repressed.
C) the Eastern Europeans have simply imitated the growing nationalism in Russia.
D) the Communist regimes suppressed or permitted only cultural expression of national ambitions, and now these have resurfaced.
E) all of these choices are correct.
D) the Communist regimes suppressed or permitted only cultural expression of national ambitions, and now these have resurfaced.
In 1993, Czechoslovakia?:
split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The Paris Accord of 1990 was a Europe-wide agreement to?:
affirm existing borders and reduce arms.
Which of the following was not a factor in the collapse of the communist governments of eastern Europe in 1989?:

A) the leadership of Yugoslavia in opposing the Soviet Union.
B) the defeat of the communist regimes in democratic elections.
C) Gorbachev’s announcement that the Soviet Union was withdrawing its financial and military support.
D) the efforts of the Solidarity movement in Poland.
E) the failure of communism to gain the support of indigenous populations.
C) Gorbachev’s announcement that the Soviet Union was withdrawing its financial and military support.
The event which finally galvanized NATO action against the Bosnian Serbs was?:
the slaughter of several thousand citizens in Srebrenica.
Mikhail Gorbachev embraced this policy of liberation known in Russian as an openness in government combined with a greater degree of free expression.
A treaty signed by twelve members of the European Community and most of the seven nations of the European Free Trade Association which anticipated the creation of a European Economic Area, providing for the elimination of national barriers to the movement of capital, goods and services, and people between member states, and planned the future use of a common currency.
Treaty of Maastricht
I was the electrician from Gdansk who became the leader of the Polish Solidarity movement.
Lech Walesa
This organization was created in 1967 and subsidized farmers and some favored industries and transferred money from wealthier northern states to poorer members like Greece and Portugal and eliminated troublesome tariffs.
European Community

(Formerly known as European Economic Community but changed through the Treaty of Maastricht.)
I am the current Prime Minister of England who has implemented a "third way" program, reducing Labour's traditional reliance on state action to address social problems.
Tony Blair
The United States and the Soviet Union signed this treaty in July 1991 which called for a reduction in the number of long-range nuclear warheads and bombs held by each country by about one-third over a period of seven years.
Start I
A restructuring of the Soviet system in order to make it more efficient and responsive to the needs of soviet citizens.
A governmental organization founded on December 8, 1991 which composed of former Soviet republics and a partial successor to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Commonwealth of Independent States
I was the leader of the Serb Communist Party who turned the Communist Party and state apparatus into instruments serving Serb nationalist interest, preparing to establish a "Greater Serbia" if Yugoslavia broke up.
Slobodan Milosevic
The United States and Russia signed this treaty in 1993 which would cut the total number of US and former Soviet long-range nuclear warheads and bombs to less than half.
This leader of the Civic Forum was the first president elected under free elections in Czechoslovakia after the fall of the Communists in 1989.
Vaclav Havel
Orchestrated in November 1995 by the US Government, Bosnia was to remain a single state that included a Bosnian-Croatian federation and a Serb Republic.
Dayton Peace Agreement
A bloodless revolution led by writers, actors, and students in Czechoslovakia which swept away communism.
Velvet Revolution
A charismatic person and former mayor of Moscow, I rose to power in Russia as a liberal reformer challenging Gorbachev's authority and the very legitimacy of the Soviet state.
Boris Yeltsin
I undertook reform in the Soviet Union in a last attempt to save the Communist state.
Mikhail Gorbachev
I led the Christian Democrats in their return to power in 1982 in West Germany and I conntinued to dominate the political life of the German Federal Republic.
Helmut Kohl
I was nicknamed the "Iron Lady" and was the first woman to become the British Prime Minister who committed herself to ending completely the government's control over major industries and to slashing government expenses.
Margaret Thatcher
Changes affecting women in Western Europe since the 1950s include?:

A) greater participation in the labor force.
B) the achievement of wage equality with men.
C) a reduction in life expectancy.
D) increasing family size.
E) declining opportunities in higher education.
A) greater participation in the labor force.
The surrealistic movement in modern abstract art is based upon the theme of?:
portraying the subconcious and irrational in the artists work.
The French writer Simone de Beauvoir?:
provided European women an intellectual framework for their feminism.
Which of the following statements about immigration to Western Europe since 1960 is NOT accurate?:

A) immigrants from poor countries were recruited to do poorly paid jobs in wealthier countries.
B) the admission of former colonies to the European Communist facilitated immigration.
C) immigration created significant Muslim communities in several Western European countries.
D) anti-immigrant movements became a significant political force in many Western European countries.
E) immigrant communities in Western European countries became targets for violent attacks.
B) the admission of former colonies to the European Communist facilitated immigration.
saw human beings as condemned to be free because of a rejection of societal customs.
The influential Annales school of historical thinking, developed in France, focuses on?:
long-term elements in historical change such as population, economy, climate and natural resources.
Which group has seen its importance in European politics increase since the 1970s?:
This theologian urged each individual to seek God alone without relying on organized religion?:
Soren Kierkegaard.
A characteristic of Late Modernism was?:
a sense of saving Western civilization from itself.
All of the following were 20c art movements EXCEPT?:

A) Bauhaus.
B) Dadaism.
C) Impressionism.
D) Cubism.
E) Expressionism.
C) Impressionism.
Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in neutral Zürich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1920. The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature (poetry, art manifestoes, art theory), theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti war politic through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals. Passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture filled their publications. The movement influenced later styles, movements, and groups including Surrealism, Pop Art and Fluxus.
Bauhaus (help·info) is the common term for the Staatliches Bauhaus (help·info), an art and architecture school in Germany that operated from 1919 to 1933, and for its approach to design that it publicized and taught. The most natural meaning for its name (related to the German verb for "build") is Architecture House. Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture, and one of the most important currents of the New Objectivity.[1]

The Bauhaus art school had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design and typography.

One of the main objectives of the Bauhaus was to unify art, craft, and technology. The machine was considered a positive element, and therefore industrial and product design were important components. Vorkurs ("initial" or "preliminary course") was taught; this is the modern day Basic Design course that has become one of the key foundational courses offered in architectural and design schools across the globe. There was no teaching of history in the school because everything was supposed to be designed and created according to first principles rather than by following precedent.
Impressionism was a 19th century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists, who began exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s. The name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari.

Characteristics of Impressionist painting include visible brushstrokes, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, and unusual visual angles.

The emergence of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous movements in other media which became known as Impressionist music and Impressionist literature.
Cubism was a 20th century art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. It developed as a short but highly significant artistic movement between about 1907 and 1914 in France. In cubist artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form — instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Often the surfaces intersect at seemingly random angles presenting no coherent sense of depth. The background and object planes interpenetrate one another to create the ambiguous shallow space characteristic of cubism.
Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect; it is a subjective art form. Expressionism is exhibited in many art forms, including painting, literature, theatre, film, architecture and music. Additionally, the term often implies emotional angst – the number of cheerful expressionist works is relatively small.

In this general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco can be called expressionist, though in practice, the term is applied mainly to 20th century works.
This British political party's slogan was Life, Liberty, and Property!
This famous maritime insurance company was founded in 1688.
Lloyd's of London
"The Virgin Queen."
Elizabeth I
It was through her son that the Stuarts came to the throne of England.
Mary of Scotland
Paris is worth a Mass!
Henry IV
This British political party's slogan was The King, the Church, and the Land!
He was the favorite classical author of Renaissance scholars.
This medieval philosophy emphasized a study of the sciences, theology, and professional training in the law and medicine.
"I think; therefore I am!"
He believed that the sun revolved around the earth.
He discovered the "Laws of Planetary Motion."
"I completely disagree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."
In his book, Essays on Crimes and Punishment, he formulated new laws of justice based on deterrence.
In Two Treatises of Government, he proposed that all men, living in a state of nature, possessed certain natural rights of life, liberty, and property.
He was the "Father of Utilitarianism" which emphasized "the greatest good for the greatest number."
He built the first mechanical "calculating machine" and felt that there was danger in the surrender of traditional religious beliefs. Reason would bring man to faith and dependence on divine grace.
He believed in a higher reality of the Noumena and the Phenomena.
He believed that: knowledge + power = progress.
God created two kinds of fundamental realities in the world -- "thinking substance" and the "extended substance."
Cartesian dualism
These were issued by the French King and acted as warrants of arrest without charge.
lettres de cachet
The French nobility who had been given titles because of their services as good judges or competent civil administrators.
nobless de robe
Under the leadership of Robespierre, they instituted the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution.
He was Henry IV of France's finance minister.
These thinkers believed that there were universal laws in all aspects of life, not only in science.
French government officials appointed from the middle class who owed their total allegiance to the king, and not to the local aristocracy.
This document made Catholic clergy in France become paid government officials elected by the French people.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
This political group in early revolutionary France wanted a middle-class Republic similar to that in the United States.
The battle in which the Russians beat the Swedes and ended Swedish domination of the Baltic region.
The primary governing body in France during Robespierre's reign.
Committee of Public Safety
The descendents of the French feudal aristocracy.
nobless d-epee
The French city-workers, known for their long, puffy trousers.
He came from the Borgia family and was the most infamous Renaissance Pope.
Alexander VI
They were the "left-wing" of the Protestant reform movement.
Leader of the Presbyterian Church in Scotland.
A government in which God is recognized as the supreme civil ruler and divine or religious laws are taken as the laws of the state.
The changing of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ.
This extension of the Spanish Inquisition prevented heretical ideas from corrupting the minds of those who still remained in the faith.
Index of Prohibited Books
The "Father of the Swiss Protestant Reformation."

(Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. Independent of Martin Luther, who was doctor biblicus, Zwingli arrived at similar conclusions, by studying the Scriptures from the point of view of a humanist scholar.)
This law, passed in 1662, forbade all non-Anglicans from public worship, teaching their faiths, or attending universities.
Test Act
The "Father of Methodism."
Another name for the Protestant settlements in northern Ireland during the Cromwellian period.
Ulster Plantation
It was during the reign of Edward VI of England that this work was published which became the basis of Anglican worship.
Book of Common Prayer
This piece of English legislation excluded non-Anglicans from civil and military positions.
Clarendon Code
A Protestant Evangelical revivalist movement of the mid-19c which deplored the stress on natural law.
The complete Renaissance person.
l'uomo universale
He painted the Sistine Chapel.
He invented the printing press.
This art movement got its name from the French word for "seashell". Pastel colors dominated.
The most famous musician of the Baroque period.
London's principal architect.
The light, lyrical folk music of the Renaissance.
This Renaissance writer believed that sin was unknowable and that the "road to salvation lay in doubt, not in faith."
de Montaigne
The artistic technique that Da Vinci used which emphasized the blurring of colors until they disappeared into the background.
He was the Renaissance artist known for his Madonnas.
He originally designed one of the greatest domes in the world--that of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
The chief portrait painter of 18c England.
This art movement was characterized by very heavy, ornate decor which appealed to the emotions of the widest possible European audience.
He was the transitional artistic figure between the late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance.
He wrote Paradise Lost in which he supported Cromwell's Puritan Revolution and showed the destructive qualities of pride and the redeeming possibility of humanity.
He wrote Pilgrim's Progress in which he proposed that individuals could do nothing to save themselves.