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80 Cards in this Set

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The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.
Anschluss
The making of concessions to an adversary in the hope of avoiding conflict. The term is most often used in reference to the meeting between Hitler and British prime minister Chamberlain in Munich, where agreement was made, in September 1938, to cede the Sudetenland (the German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia) to Germany.
Appeasement
Hitler's attempt, in 1923, to overthrow the Weimar Republic when he fired his pistol in the ceiling of a Munich beer hall.
Beer Hall Putsch
The private army of Mussolini.
Black Shirts
Hitler's private army of supporters, also known as the SA (Sturm Abteilung)
Brown Shirts
The November 1938 destruction, by Hitler's brown Shirts and mobs, of Jewish shops, homes, and synagogues.
Crystal Night (Krystallnacht)
(1924)-The provision of U.S. Loans to Germany to help meet reparation payments, which were also reduced
Dawes Plan
Article 48 of the Weimar constitution, which enabled Hitler to issue decrees carrying the force of law.
Enabling Act
The political and economic methods of Mussolini in Italy. The name comes from the fasces or bundle of rods tied around an axe, the symbol of authority in ancient Rome.
Fascism
(1847-1934-President of Weimar Germany, who appointed Hitler chancellor in 1933; formerly a general in World War I.
Paul von Hindenburg
(1889-1945)-The Nazi leader who came to power legally in Germany in 1933. He set up a totalitarian dictatorship and led Germany into World War II
Adolf Hitler
(1928)-Document, signed by fifteen countries, that "condemned and renounced war as an instrument of national policy."
Kellogg-Briand Pact
The British party that replaced the Liberals in the early twentieth century and championed greater social equality for the working classes through the efforts of labor unions.
Labor Party
(1929)-Pact that provided recognition by Mussolini of the Vatican and a large sum of money to the church as well.
Lateran Agreement
(1925) Pact that secured the frontier between Germany and France and Germany and Belgium. It also provided for mutual assistance by France and Italy if Germany invaded its border countries.
Locarno Treaty
Work written by Hitler while in prison in 1923; the book outlines his policies for German expansion, war, and elimination of non Aryans.
Mein Kampf (My Struggle )
1883-1945)-The founder and leader of the Italian Fascist Party.
Benito Mussolini
(Nazis)-The political party of Adolf Hitler.
National Socialists
1935-Measures that excluded Jews from white-collar professions and from marriage and habitation with non-Jews.
Nuremberg Laws
Forcible and illegitimate attempt to seize power
Putsch
A plebiscite: the referring of a matter to the people for a decision
Referendum
Left-wing Marxists in Germany who hoped to bring about a proletarian revolution in 1919.
Spartacists
German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia, ceded to Germany in the Hitler- Chamberlain Munich meeting (September 1938)
Sudetenland
Name given to Germany during the Nazi regime, between 1933 and 1945. The First Reich (or empire) was from 963 to 1806 (the Holy Roman Empire); the second was from 1871 to 1917 (the reigns of William I and William II).
Third Reich
An attempt by government to control a society totally through a dictatorship that employs the modern methods of communication-press, radio, TV-to glorify the state over the individual. Its varieties are Fascism, Nazism, and communism
Totalitarianism
Independent sovereign state of the pope and the Catholic church, established in Rome In 1929.
Vatican
(190~1946)-King of Italy who asked Mussolini to form a cabinet in 1922, thus allowing Mussolini to take power legally
Victor Emmanuel III
(1921)-Conference of major powers to reduce naval armaments among Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, and the United States.
Washington Conference
A reference to the republic of Germany that lasted from 1919 to 1933.
Weimer
(1929) Schedule that set limits to Germany's reparation payments and reduced the agreed-on time for occupation of the Ruhr
Young Plan
(1876-1967) The first chancellor of West Germany; he was able to establish a stable democratic government
Konrad Adenauer
An eight-year struggle by Algeria to secure independence from French colonial control; the goal was finally achieved in 1962.
Algerian Liberation Movement
The joint declaration, in August 1941, by Roosevelt and Churchill, stating common principles for the free world: self-determination, free choice of government, equal opportunities for all nations for trade, permanent system of general security and disarmament.
Atlantic Charter
(1908-1986)-Existentialist and feminist who has written on the psychology and social position of women.
Simone de Beauvoir
Concrete barrier constructed by the Soviets in August 1961 between West Berlin and East Berlin to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West. (In 1990, the wall was torn down.)
Berlin Wall
1913- )Chancellor of West Germany in the late 1960s; he sought to improve relations with the states of Eastern Europe
Willy Brandt
1907-1982-Soviet leader who helped oust and then replace Khrushchev.
Leonid Brezhnev
Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need
Brezhnev Doctrine
1913-1960) -French existentialist who stated that in spite of the general absurdity of human life, individuals could make rational sense out of their own existence through meaningful personal decision making.
Albert Camus
An intense conflict between the superpowers using all means short of military might to achieve their respective ends
Cold War
Another name for the European Economic Community, which created a free-trade area among the Western European countries.
Common Market
(Comecon)-An economic alliance, founded in 1949, to coordinate the economic affairs of the Soviet Union and its satellite countries.
Council for Mutual Economic Aid
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
Decolonization
Reference to the period of relaxation or thaw in relations between the superpowers during Khrushchev's rule in the Soviet Union
Detente
Organized by Jean Monnet (1888-1979) it called for an integration of the coaland steel industries of France and West Germany. It finally added Italy and the Benelux states.
European Coal and Steel Community
(Common Market) Organization, begun on January 1, 1958, including France, German Federal Republic, Italy, and the Benelux nations (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg). By 1966 the Common Market would eliminate all customs barriers between the countries, would set up a common tariff policy on imports, and would gradually remove all restrictions on the movement of workers and capital.
European Economic Community
An association of Western European nations agreeing to favor each other in respect to tariffs. Members were Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Switzerland, and Great Britain. Sometimes referred to as the Outer Seven-i.e., outside the Common Market; formed in 1959.
European Free Trade Association
A label for widely different revolts against traditional philosophy, stressing choice, freedom, decision, and anguish, and emerging strongly during and after the World War II years.
Existentialism
Government established in France in October 1958. The First Republic lasted from 1793 to 1804; the Second, from 1848 to 1852; the Third from 1875 to 1945; and the Fourth, from 1946 to 1958.
Fifth Republic
Supporters of General de Gaulle who refused to acknowledge the French armistice in 1940. In 1944, de Gaulle's Committee of National Liberation was proclaimed and recognized as the French provisional government.
Free French
(1881-1954)-The leader of the Christian Democrats in Italy, he was committed to democracy and moderate social reform
Alcide de Gasperi
1890-1970}First president of the French Fifth Republic and former head of the Free French movement in World War II.
Charles de Gaulle
Gorbachev used the term toexplainhis new policy of "openness" in allowing russians more freedom to dissent.
Glasnost
Forced labor camps set up by Stalin for political dissidents.
Gulag
1956)-Attempt by students and workers to liberalize the Communist regime and break off military alliance with the Soviet Union.
Hungarian Revolt
1883-1969) German existentialist seeing all people as equally co-responsible for the terrors and injustices of the world.
Karl Jaspers
(1894-1971)-Soviet leader who denounced Stalin's rule and brought a temporary thaw in the superpowers' relations
Nikita Khrushchev
Program that advanced more than $ 11 billion for European recovery to sixteen Western nations from 1947 to 1953; the final cost to the United States was $20 billion
Marshall Plan
Former premier of Italy and leader of the Christian Democratic Party who was assassinated by a terrorist group in 1978.
Aldo Moro
1896-1958) Hungarian Communist Party leader who attempted to end association with the USSR which lead to the 1956 Hungarian revolt
Imre Nagy
Military alliance founded in 1949, between the United States and Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Portugal, and Italy; later, Greece, Turkey, and West Germany joined.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
1890-1960) Russian author of Dr. Zhivago, a novel condemning the brutality of the Stalin era.
Boris Pasternak
The thaw in cold war tensions between the superpowers
Peaceful coexistence
Gorbachev's policy of "restructuring" which included reducing the direct involvement of the Commuist Party leadership in the day to day governing of the nation. It ws a decentralization of economic planning and controls
Perestroika
The July-August 1945 meeting of Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee of Great Britain, at which disagreements arose over the permanent borders of Germany and free elections in East European countries. Stalin refused to hold free elections, in fear of anti-Soviet governments
Potsdam Conference
The liberal reforms introduced by Alexander Dubcek, the Czechoslovak Communist Party secretary. On August 20, 1968, twenty thousand troops from the Soviet Union and its satellite countries occupied Prague to undo the reforms
Prague Spring
Terrorist group committed to radical political and social change that claimed responsibility for the assassination of former Italian premier Aldo Moro in 1978.
Red Brigade
1972 Treaty between America and Soviet Union whichlimitedthenumberof intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) at their existing levels for five years.
SALT I
Additional arms limitations signings in 1979 which places limits on long-range missiles, bombers and nuclear warheads
SALT II
(1905-1980)-French existentialist most famous for his statement that "existence precedes essence"-i.e., first we exist and then our decisions and choices shape our character or essence.
Jean-Paul Sartre
An international organization set up in 1952 to control and integrate all European coal and steel production; also known as the European Coal and Steel Community.
Schuman Plan
Polish political party (anti communism) lead by Lech Walesa wanted free elections for Poles.
Solidarity
(1918-)-Russian author of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, a novel detailing life in a Stalinist concentration camp
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
b. 1925- ) Conservative British PrimeMinister andfirst woman to head a major European government
Margaret Thatcher
Josip Broz) (1892-1980) Communist chief of Yugoslavia who proclaimed independence of his country from Soviet influence
Marshal Tito
Pact, created in 1957, that set up the European Economic Community (also known as the Common Market)
Treaty of Rome
Policy providing military aid to Greece and Turkey in an effort to contain Communism (1947-1948
Truman Doctrine
Pope John XXIII called the conference which met in four sessions between 1962-65. The purpose was to bring the church up to date (aggiornamento
Vatican II
A military alliance, formed in 1955, of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite nations
Warsaw Pact
Founded by Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) the Zionists sought the creation of a national homeland forthe Jews in Palestine. It was supported by the British Balfour Declaration during WWI but did not become a reality until 1948
Zionism