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28 Cards in this Set

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Aristotle's views (Aristotelian view)
-geocentricism/earth didn't move
-10 crystal spheres around earth kept perfect by angels
-earth had four elements (air, fire, water, earth)
-uniform force moved object at constant speed
Ptolemy's views (Ptolemaic theory)
-Geocentricism
-Epicycles
-Geocentricism followed perfectly w/ Christians, humans supported the geocentric theory
Copernicus' concept of the universe
-heliocentricism
-crystal spheres/perfect circular motion
-earth=just another planet
-his views=full of math
Ideas of Brahe
-all planets revolve around sun, then that group revolves around earth
-couldn't make sense of his data
-his ideas cast doubt on geocentric theory
-Discovered paradox (your view of an unmoving thing adjusts as you move)
-discovered something is circular (paradox) for no reason
Kepler's ideas
-earth built on mystical mathematical relationships
-3 laws of planetary motion
-demolished systems of ptolemy/aristotle
-unusual speeds of planets when circulating
-very accurate
Ideas of Galileo
-made experimental method
-made law of inertia
-discovered first 4 moons of jupiter
-moon has phases>supports Copernicus
Newton's ideas
-put discoveries from other scientists all together
-gravity, orbit, tides, particle attraction, laws of motion
-published "Principia"
who published teh encylopedia?
diderot
who wrote teh Social Contract, what was it?
Rosseau ( a philosopohe), it was based on general will/popular sovereignty, appealed lots to democrats/nationalists, influenced political theory
Frederick the Great of Prussia
-enlightened absolutist
-religious freedom
-better education
-no torture
-reconstructed agriculture/industry
-jews were persecuted
Catherine the Great of Russia
-brought w. europe's sophisticated culture to Europe
-limited religious toleration
-no torture
-improved education
-strengthened local gov't
-territorial expansion (Poland, Caucasus)
Maria Theresa of Austria
-brought relations between church/state under gov't control
-revamped taxes
-strengthened bureaucracy
Joseph II of Austria
-son of Maria Theresa
-controlled Catholic church
-religious toleration
-abolished serfdom
Louis XV of France
-Restored Parliament
-French nobility got power back
-heavy expenses of war (Austrian succession)
Voltaire's ideas on religion
-the author of man is TOTALLY amazing
-men need to help eachother out
-believed nature to be God, and thus nature needed to be respected
new agricultural system
-crop rotation
-swamps/unavailable land now open for agriculture >produced more food, fed more animals
-Jethro Tull used horses for plowing and used drilling equipment to sow seeds
Open-field system
-not privately fenced gardens
-peasants in a township all worked land together
-more land gained for peasants in french revolution
who discovered turnips and clovers?
Viscount Charles Townsend
Jethro Tull
-empirical research
-used horses (fast) instead of oxen(slow)
-sowed seeds w/ drilling equipment
-selective breeding
bad results of enclosure movement
-division of common ppl
-costs divided among landowners
-poor peasants couldn't pay
-inde. peasant farmers disappeared
-cottagers lost to common pasture
what were the causes of the 18th century new population pattern? (growth in population)
-disappearance of bubonic plague
-cleaner water/drains/sewage as promoted by absolutists
-famine was eliminated
consequences of battle of quebec
-France lost all possessions on mainland n. america
-canada/french territory east of mississippi went to britain
-Louisiana given to Spain from France
-Britain got France's holdings on India
5 great powers dominating european affairs
england
france
prussia
russia
austrain (Habsburg) empire
political system of great britian
parliamentary monarchy
political system of france
absolute monarchy
political system of prussia
enlightened absolutism
political system of russia
enlightened absolutism
political system of austria
enlightened absolutism