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15 Cards in this Set

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John Wycliff
-Criticized vices of teh clergy, taxes collected by the pope, transubstantiation, and authority of the pope
-Believed church should only follow the scriptures->translated bible from Latin to English
-His ideas were used by teh peasants in the revolt of 1381
-his followers=Lollards
John Huss
-Beliefs were similar to Wycliff's
-produced national following in Bohemia which rejected pope's authority
-Burned at stake @ council of constance
Babylonian Captivity
1305:
-Clement V was elected the new pope of France
-Never went to Rome..but instead settledin Avignon near the French kingdom
-The popes in Avignon weren't held captive by French kings
-poes resided in Avignon from 1309-1377
Great Schism
-1377:Pope Gregory XI moved to Rome (ended Babylonian captivity) but died soon afterward
-Disputes about election of his successor led to election of 2 popes
-One stayed in Rome (Urban VI)
-One went to Avignon (Clement VII0
-The 2 monarchs chose differnt sides/neitiher pople made any church reforms
-lasted until 1417
Conciliar Movement
-effort made to have the church ruled by everyone in the church instead of the pope
-Marsiglio of Padua (wrote the Defender of the Peace) argued church was subordinate to the state
-efforts after 1409 at councils of Pisa and Constance united church under ONE pope (Martin V)
->didn't do any reforms
-Martin and his successors rejected conciliar movemnt
Immediate cause of teh hundred years war/who was it between
-between England and France
-English king was bassal of French king for duchy of Aquitaine
-French king wanted control of the duchy
-English king (Edward III) had claim to French throne through his mom(princess of France)
secondary causes of the hundred years' war- (FLANDERS)
-French nobles sought opportunities to gain power at expense of French king
-England exported its wool to Flanders (Flanders was coming under control of king of France)
-kings/nobles shared valuies of chivalry>portrayed war as glorious/uplifting adventure
course of 100 years war
-Fought in France/Scots invaded n. England
-Battles of Crecy, Poitiers, Agincourt(English won them all)
-French slowly wore down the English
-French won
technological changes in warfare(during WHAT war??)
-made during 100 years war
-English longbows
-plate armor of knights (expensive)
Results of 100 years war
-English lost all its continental possessions (except Calais)
-French farmland devastated
-England/France both lost lots of money
-Population (especially in France) declined
BOTH COUNTRIES:
-soldiers died>sheriffs left to fight in war>local gov't was bad..towns were in chaos
-Trade (everywhere) was disrupted
-England's wool trade to low countries slumped badly >heavy taxes put on peasants
-Nobility continued fighting in War of the Roses
FRANCE:
-Nobles sought power from the king>king refused to deal w/ nobles
-French king faced many problems:
*Duchy of Burgundy was almost independent
*no national assemblyu to confront>only a series of provincial bodies
*monarch had right ot levy taxes on salt (gabelle) and a national tax (taille)
*royal standing army existed>reliance on nobles became unnecessary
BENEFITS IN BOTH COUNTRIES:
-Growing nationalism
-kings used propaganda to rally widespread support
-literatue was used to express nationalism
-written in the language of the people (secular) not Latin (vernacular)
Golden Bull
-1356
-a constitution of the german empire (Habsburg empire) the right to naming the emperor to seven German electors, pope had no role
problems the "new monarchs" faced
-general economic stagnation of late Mid. Ages
-increasing expense of mercenary armies
>forced monarchs to seek new taxes (monarchs now forced taxes instead of nobles)
-nobles faced declining incomes/rising desires to control king's gov't
-nobles engaged in civil war with other nobles
how was the bubonic plague brought to Europe? how much percent of the population did it kill?
-carried by fleas on black rats
-brought from Asia by merchants and arrived in Europe in 1347
-killed 25-40% of population
consequences of black death
-clergy died b/c they attempted to help the sick
-b/c fewer people>economy declined
-jews killed b/c ppl believed they poisoned the wells of the Christians
-Flagellants whipped themselves for their sins (they thought their sins brought on the plague)
-literature/art reflected death (ex. Dance of Death)
renaissance values
CHRIS-R
-Classical past-ancient greek and rome
-Humanism-reading/understanding of writings/ideals of classical past.
-realism
-individualism
-secularism
-