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105 Cards in this Set

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Marie Curie
Max Planck
Albert Einstein
CURIE: studied radioactivity and in 1910 isolated radium
PLANCK: Theorized that energy doesn't flow in a steady continuum, but dlivered in discrete units, or quanta: quantum physics
EINSTEIN:Developed a theory of relativity where he explained that time, space, and movement are not absolute entities, but are relative to tht position of the observer
Friedrich Nietzsche
Philosopher who began to question and reject the ideas of the 18 century enlightenment; in "Thus Spake Zarathustra" he argued that it was nessicary to break free from traditional morality; proclaimed "god is dead"
Sigmund Freud
the father of psychoanalysis; he took methods of modern science and proposed to find a way to treat mental disorders by delving into the human subconscious; wrote "The Interpretation of Dreams" and "Civilization and Its Discontents"
Edvard Munch
artist who sought to reveal the emotions rather than portray the way things are on the surface; painted (The Scream)
Gustave Klimpt
Artist who sought ways to shock his viewers through vibrant colors, or by showing classical images in strage ways
Pablo Picasso
the most revolutionary artist of the age; painted "Les Demoiselles d' Avignon"
New Imperialism
Term given to the period of European nations expanding into Africa and Asia
Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936)
His famouse poem, "The White Mans' Burden" he writes that although we may not want to do so we have a moral obligation to "bind your sons to exile, TO serve your captives' need."
Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
Called to deal with the control of the Congo, ended up setting rules for the establishment of colonies
Belgian Congo
King Leopold II established this massive colony and expected the procedes from the wealthy land to go to him. Many Africans were enslaved, maimed, or killed in the persuit for profits.
Moroccan Crises (1905, 1911)
Twice Germany and France almost went to war over the Territory of Morocco
Unionists vs. Nationalists (Ireland)
In Ireland, Nationalists wanted independance from Great Britain, while Uinionists wanted to remain as a part of Great Britain
Dreyfus Affair
Began in 1894, a Jewish officer was falsely accused of telling military secrets to the Germans. The "Affair" was also tied to the issue of the proper role of the Catholic Church in a democratic French state
Russo-Japanese War (1904)
War between Russia and Japan which revealed the bankruptcy of Russia which led to a revolution in the following year.
Nicholas II & the Duma
As a result of the revolution after the Russo-Japanese war, the Duma was created. The Duma was a parliamentary body which transformed Russia into a constitutional monarchy; Tsar Nicholas II agreed to rule in conjunction with the Duma
"Magyarization"
the mandatory dominance of the Magyar language and culture in the Hungarian part of the Austria-Hungary Empire
Wilhelm II (r.1888-1918)
Kaiser of Germany
Dual Alliance
A mutual defense treaty between Germany and Austria-Hungary to keep an eye on the Russians
Entente Cordiale (Triple Entente)
In 1904 Great Britain signed an entente cordial (cordial understanding) with France and in 1907 another entente with Russia
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
In Sarajevo, Heir-presumptive of the Austrian-Hungarian Thrones who was assassinated on June 28, 1914 by a Bosnian Serb. (someone who wanted Bosnia to become a serbian state)
Gavrilo Princip (1895-1914)
Archduke Franz Ferdinand's assassin who worked with The Black Hand, a secret Serbian nationalist group
Resons Why WWI was not a short war
New weapons that favored soldiers on the deffensive: machine guns, barbed wire, mines, and better artillery shells; also airplanes could spot enemy positions, and due to the economic expansion, industrial strenght, and national wealth, brought by the Second Industrail Revolution, countries could stay at war longer
Schlieffen Plan
Germany's plan to rapidly advance through northern France in hope to knock France out of the war in just 6 weeks, then shift the army to the East via railway to defeat Russia
Invasion of Belgium
The Schlieffen Plan required that the Germans take Belgium which had a promise that its neutrality would be guaranteed by the Europen powers. When Germany invaded Belgium this brought Great Britain into the war and inflamed the public opinion of the U.S.
Battle of the Marne & trench warfare
After the Germans crossed the Marne River they were met by a French army in what came to be known as the First Battle of the Marne; trench warfare was where each side dug trenches from which they fought(usually ended in stalemates)
poison gas
In 1915 poison gas was being used by both sides and althought gas masks were introduced modern warfare was becoming increasingly inhumane
Winston Churchill (1874-1965)& Gallipoli
Churchill, who was First Lord of the Admiralty, organized a plan to invade Turkey, when the troops landed on the beach of Gallipoli in April 1916, they found that the Turks were well dug in and by January had to withdraw
General Philippe Petan
French General who lead the defense of the French fortress of Verdun
Lusitania
A British passenger ship that was sank by German U-boats; 120 of the ship's passengers were American, this stirred the U.S into joining the war
U-boats
a submarine-like sea vessel used by the Germans
Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)
The American President during WWI, whom the German kaiser contacted to sue for Peace
Fourteen Points
An idealist document that sought to reduce further tensions between nations by maintaining free trade and to end secret negotiations; devised by Woodrow Wilson
total war
no segment of the population within any of the participating nations could avoid the impact of the war
Social Impact of WWI
1)All aspects of economy became regulated to support the war effort 2)Governments tried to manipulate public opinion through censorship and propaganda 3)the war helped bring about civil rights movements, and the emacipation of women
Treaty of Versailles
Signed on June 28,1919 in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles. While America wanted to reshape the world through Wilson's 14 Points; France and Great Britian wanted Germany punished
League of Nations
Proposed by Wilson at the Treaty of Versailles, it would be an international body that would settle disputes between nations
Georges Clemenceau (1841-1929)
French Premier at the Treaty of Versailles; wanted to see that Germany would never be a threat again
David Lloyd George (1863-1945)
British Prime Minister who at the Treaty of Versailles, wanted to see Germany Punished
war guilt clause (Article 231)
Added to the treaty of Versailles by the victorious allies; it assigned the responsibility for the outbreak of the war to Germany and its allies. It also made Germany pay a reparation sum of 132 billion gold marks to the Entente Powers
reparations
the payment of damages
Empress Alexandra & Gregory Rasputin
Nicholas II of Russia left his wife Alexandra in charge of the state while he led the army. Alexandra was personally under the influence of a monk named Gregory Rasputin, who took political advantage of her.
March Revolution of 1917
Order collapseed when the people of St. Petersburg grappeled witha food shortage, and troops who were sent out to disperse the strikers join them forcing the tsar to abidicate on March 14
Provisional Government
When the tsar abdicated the Provisional Government took over. It was made up of members from the Duma, and was supposed to only exist long enough to establish a constituent body which would write a constitution for a Russian republic.
Mensheviks & Bolsheviks
Two political soviets made up of Russian socialists.
Mensheviks: insisted that Russia had to progress through the proven historical stages before it could achieve an ideal socialist society, as Marx mandated
Bolsheviks: followers of Vladimir Lenin, who insisted that a small party of professional revolutionaries could sieze power on behalf of the working class
Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
Russian socialist who started the Bolshevik soviet on the belief that a small party of professional revolutionaries could sieze power on behalf of the working class
Leon Trotsky (1870-1940)
Bolshevik who led the November Revolution of 1917
November Revolution of 1917
Bolsheviks took over key positions (such as power stations and communication centers) in the city of Petrograd (St. Petersburg) forcing the provisional government to collapse
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Signed in 1917 by the Germans and the new Bolshevik state pulling Russia out of WWI
Karl Liebknecht & Rosa Luxemburg
radical Marxists who started a rebellion in the early years of the Weimar republic
inflation
a continuing rise in the general price level usually attributed to an increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods and services
Locarno agreements
Signed by Germany and France, in which Germany agreed to accept the current boundaries between France and Germany, and started withdrawing Frech troops from the Rhineland
Communists
the name adopted by the Bolshevik party in 1919
Reds vs. Whites
The civil war in Russia between the "White forces" (anti-Communist factions such as monarchists and republicans, ) and the "Red Terror" the Communists
Third International (Comintern)
Held by the Russian communists in 1919 to aid the cause of revolution in western Europe.
New Economic Policy (NEP)
policy placed by Lenin in replace of war communism; it placed tthe "heights of industry" in the governments hands but also allowed for private enterprise
Nikolai Bukharin (1888-1938)
leader of the "Right Opposition" who advocated continuing NEP and building communism within the Soviet Union, rather than his opponent, Trotsky, who wanted to spread Communism to western Europe and return to war communism.
Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
A Georgian who joined the Communist party in 1902 and was the successor to Lenin.
Old Bolsheviks and show trials
When Stalin came to office he decimated the ranks of the "Old Bolsheviks": he arrested close to 10 million Russians, executing 7 million on the spot while the rest died in detention camps in Siberia. Stalin also launched a series of show trials against his former political opponents
Five-Year Plan
Implemented by Stalin in 1928 with the goal to turn the Soviet Union into an idustrial nation;
Collectivization & the kulaks
Stalin wanted to collect together all the agriculture and waged open war on the kulaks, who were the wealthy peasantry; many were killed when they refused tojoin the colective farm
Great Depression
A time of great economic disaster that swept Europe and the U.S.
Stock Market Crash of 1929
in October of 1929 the stock market crashed which was one of the major factors of the Great Depression
Credit-Anstaldt
Vienna's most powerful bank, which collapsed in May 1931
Gold standard
a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. Under the gold standard, currency issuers guarantee to redeem notes in that amount of gold. Governments that employ such a fixed unit of account, and which will redeem their notes to other governments in gold, share a fixed-currency relationship.
John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946)
during the depression he argued that governments should get the economy flowing again by increasing government expenditures
Franklin Roosevelt
U.S. President during the Great Depression and WWII
New Deal
President Roosevelt's plan to get the U.S out of the Depression
Fascism
Had one central goal: to destroy the notion of the individual and instead push for common community
Benito Mussolini (Il Duce)
(1883-1945)
The founding leader of the Italian Facists. He was first a socialist but his views shifted during the war. After which he started the National Facist party which grew quickly. He then led an attack on Rome and was named Prime Minister by the king. He would enter an alliance with Hitler during WWII
Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934)
President of the Weimar Republic. In 1933 he asked Hitler to become chancellor due to the large amount of Nazi seats in the Reichstag
Reichstag
The parliamentary body for Germany
Adolf Hitler (der Fuhrer)
(1889-1945)
Austrian-born dictator ogf Germany when his Nazi party rose to power. He ordered the sistimatic execution of millions of Jews and was the antagonist for WWII
National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis)
A small extremist group that formed in the early days of the Weirmar Republic and quickly grew under Hitler
Beer Hall putsch
staged by Hitler who though it would set the stage for a revolt throughout Germany. It failed and Hitler was put on trail and put in prison
"Mein Kampf"
"My Struggle"- Book writen by Hitler while he was in prison; it outlined his extremist views and his desire to overturn the Treaty of Versailles; a view shared by many Germans
Enabling Act
passed by Hitler when he was chancellor: it granted the Nazi party emergency powers to govern the state and combine the the authority of the Chancellor and the President into one title: der Fuhrer
Joseph Goebbels & Propaganda
Goebbels was the leader for the new Ministry of Propaganda to help boost Nzi encouragement
Hitler Youth
one of many groups set up to indroctrine children to the Nazi ways
Labour Party (Britain)
Became Britain's second largest political party by more effectively voicing the concerns of the working man.
Popular Front (France)
a group formed by a number of parties on the center and on the left to block the possibility of a facist victory that looked possible due to the lage riot by the right
Leon Blum
he was the leader of the Socialist party who was elected Prime Minister of France by the Popular front
Spanish Civil War
The government of Spain was divided between republican loyalists and socialists
General Francisco Franco (1892-1975)
in 1936 he led a group of army officers to take control of large parts of Spain
Pablo Picaasso
A great Spanish Artist who was inspired to paint his masterpiece "Guernica" after the attack on Guernica by Italian and German planes
Rearmament and Remilitarization of the Rhineland
In 1935 Hitler openly began to rearm Germany and remilitarize the Rhineland (both acts prohibited by the Treaty of Versailles.) When Frnace and Great Britain did nothing Hitler continued with his plans.
Anschluss
When Hitler annexed Austria into the Greater German Reich; met by wild approval of the Austrians
Sudeten Germans
3.5 million Sudeten Germans lived in the western part of Czechoslovakia
Rome-Berlin Axis
an alliance between Germany and Italy
Appeasement & the Munich Agreement
The British Prime Minister Chamberlain realized that Britain could nver rearm itself against Germany and Italy so he sought to work out an understanding between either Hitler or Mussolini. He flew to Munich to attend a summit with France, Italy and Germany concerning the Sudenten territories in Czech. which Hitler wanted. The agreement was that all the territories would be handed to Hitler if he promised to respect the sovreignty of the rest of Czech.
Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940)
The Prime minister of Great Britain who sought appeasement with Italy and Germany and attended the Munich Agreement
Soviet-German non-aggression pact
On August 22, 1939 Stalin announced that Germany and the Soviet Union ad signed a non-agression pact. This opened the to Poland for Germany and the soviets were able to seize eastern Poland, Finland, and the Baltic states which were lost during WWI
Blitzkrieg
a style of warfare that used swift attacks with tanks and other highly mobile, units supported by warplanes
Phony War
Name given to the winter of 1939-1940 after Germany invaded Poland
Maginot Line & Dunkirk
The Maginot line was a series of seminly impregnable defenses built by the French. The Germans simply bypassed the fortifications via Belgium. When the British saw that France was about to fall, they retreated from the Belgian Beaches of Dunkirk back to Great Britain
Vichy France
Marshal Petain reformed the French government into a more authoritarian one. This new Vichy regime put an end to the Third Republic
Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970)
A French General who went to London and called for French forces from the colonies to create a new French army. Vichy authorities labeled him as a trator and Gaulle's army, the Maquis, found itself fighting the Germans and the Vichy state.
Battle of Britain
Under Winston Churchill who became the Prime Minister of Great Britain the Royal Air Force battled the Luftwaffe. (German Airforce) While the Germans had more planes and pilots, the British had radar that could detect oncoming planes; they also had better types of planes, better leadership, and had cracked the German military code.
Nuremburg Laws
A set of laws passed by the Nazis when they came to power. They took away Jewish citizenship, forced them to wear a yellow star on their clothing, and forbade marriage between Jews and Gentiles.
Kristallnacht
"night of the broken glass"- November 9, 1938 Nazis raided and destroyed Jewship stores and homes, several hundred were killed, and 30,000 were sen to concentration camps.
"Final Solution"
Plan that Hitler had his top lieutenants organize to exterminate Europe's Jewish population.
Aushwitz
The Most notorious of the Nazi extermination camps; camps that sistimatically executed 6 million Jews and 7 million Gypsies, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Russian POWs, Communists, and other groups that the Nazi's deemed "undesirable"
Holocaust
The slaughter of 6 million Europen Jews at the hands of the Nazi's
Erwin Rommel and El Alamein
Erwin Rommel was A German general, known as the "Desert Fox", who was sent to help aid the Italians invade Egypt. However at the Battle of El Alamein a British army under General Montgomery pushed the Axis forces back to Tunisia.
D-Day
On June 6, 1944 American and British troops invaded the Beaches of Normandy, which landed the Allied Forces in Europe.
Nuremburg Trial
The name given to the trials of the Nazi leaders after then end of WWII