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58 Cards in this Set

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Louis XVI (r.1774-1792)
French king, who was kindly and quite stupid, who had the burden of restoring taxation on the French nobility.
Marie- Antoinette
Austrian princess who was extremely unhappy w/ her marriage to Louis XVI
Problems Facing the French Monarchy
The French monarchy was bankrupt due to wars with Britain, and was unable to tap into the wealth of the nation
Estates General
an institution from medieval times that consisted of a three-house body made up of clergy,nobility, and commons
First, Second And Third estates of the Estates General
1st= Clergy
2nd= Nobility
3rd=Common Frenchmen
Abbe Sieyes (1748-1836)
lower clergyman who wrote a pamphlet about the 3rd Estate: What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been in the political order up to the present? Nothing. What does it ask? To become something.
National Assembly
June 27, 1789 Louis XVI combined the three estates general into a new national assembly
Tennis Court Oath
When the Third Estate gathered on a tennis court on the grounds of Versailles, where they promised to meet "until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon solid foundations"
Bastille
a fortress prison in Paris famous as a symbol of royal despotism
Commune of Paris
the new municipal government that appeared and would play a major role in the french Revolution
Marquis de Lafayette
Involved in the American Revolution and placed incharge of the newly formed National Guard During the French Revolution
Great Fear
a general panic that set in on the peasant people living in the coutryside during the French Revolution, that the monarchy was organizing groups to steal from the peasants
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Written by Lafayette and Thomas Jefferson, declared that political sovereinty did not rest in the hands of a monarch, but in the whole nation; also stated that all citizens were equal before the law
Olympe de Gouges
French woman who argued that women should enjoy fundamental rights in her "The Rights of Women"
Assignants
government bonds that were backed by the sale of church lands.
Civil Constitution of the Church
French legislation that made the Catholic Church a department of the state
Constitution of 1791
Created a constitutional monarchy; the king had the right to delay legislation for up to 4 years and retained military and foreign policy control
emigres
during the French revolution, nobles who fled to the borders and actively began working to restore the ancient regime and their fudal privileges
Flight to Varennes
The royal family fled France and on Jone 20, 1791 they reached the border town of Varennes, where the king was exiled and escorted back to Paris
Jacobins
One of the many political clubs that emerged throughout France; named Jacobins because they met in the Jacobin monastery
Girondins
Faction named for the Gironde department where most of the members came from. They favored starting a revolutionary war to free people from tyranny in absolutist states like Austria and Prussia
sans-culottes
people not of the aristocracy; poor commoners
National Convention
New legislative body created by the National Assembly, which was given the task of drawing up a new constitution ending the constitutional monarchy
Republic
France officially became a republic on September 21, 1792, and the royal family was placed under house arrest. Louis XVI was executed via guillotine in 1793
William Pitt
British Prime Minsiter during the French Revolution who was very entusiastic about the revolutiona and stated:"the present convulsions in France must sooner or later culminate in greater harmony and regular order and thus circumstanced, France will stand forth as one of the most brilliant powers in Europe..."
Edmund Burke
A leading British politician who was cautious of the French Revolution and in his book "Reflections on the French Revolution" he predicted France would head in a violent direction
Reign of Terror
began in the spring of 1793 and was a time of counter revolution
The Mountain
Label for the Jacobins who sat on the left side of the hall on a raised platform
laissez-faire
the idea that the government should not play an active role in regulating the economy
Vendee
A counter- revolutionary revolt inspiredby anger toward the restrictons placed on the church; inspired the "Reign of Terror"
Committee of Publict Safety
One of two committees created by the National Convention during the Reign of Terror; assumed virtually dictorial power over France
Maximilien Robespierre
Lawyer with anti-monarchial sentiments who became one of the leaders of the Committee of Publicy Safety
Levee en masse
a drafting of the entire population for military service
Republic of Virtue
What the Jacobins tried to create once they came to power; they mad major adjustments like re-arranging the calendar; they also attacked Christianity and forced the removal of religious symbols from public buildings
Cult Of Supreme Being
Established by Robespierre to move the people away from what he thought was the corrupting influence of the church; turned Notre Dame into a Temple of Reason
Guillotine
a machine for beheading by means of a heavy blade that slides down in vertical guides
The Directory (1795-1799)
Government set up by the Thermidorians after they executed the leading members of the Convention and the Committee of Public Safety; it was led by an executive council of 5 men all with the title of "Director"
Council of Ancients/ Council of 500
The 2 houses of legislature during the rule of the Directory; the Council of Ancients would discuss and vote on legislation proposed by the Council of 500
Napolean Bonaparte
French general born to a minor noble family on the island of Corsica. Rose through the ranks during the revolution and became fully recognized when he put down a royalist rebellion for the Directory. Then through a series of political reforms, obtained full control of the state.
Admiral Horatio Nelson
British Naval Officer who beat a French fleet at the Battle of Abukir on August 1, 1798
First Consul
The position Napolean appointed himself, one month after the coup with Sieyes, and used a plebiscite to get the approval of the people of his new position.
plebiscite
a vote by the people
Concordat of 1801
worked out between Napolean and Pope Pius VII; it stated that "catholicism was the religion of the great majority of the French" but it didn't make Catholicism the official state religion
Napoleonic Code
A.K.A The Civil Code of 1804, provides the framework for the French legal system to this day. Provided a singal unitary legal system for all of France.
Treaty of Amiens (1802)
Officially declared peace between Great Britain and France
Battle of Trafalgar
October 21, 1805, battle that occured due to Napolean trying to defeat the Royal Navy in order to invade England; the French Fleet was ultimately destroyed and Admiral Nelson died
Third Coalition
Austria and Russia joined Great Britain in the war against Napolean
Confederation of the Rhine
Napolean abolished the Holy Roman Empire and made into a grouping of 16 German States placed under the influence of France; caused the Prussians to join the 3rd Coalition
Treaty of Tilsit
Alexander I of Russia met with Napolean on a raft in the Nieman River to make peace. Alexander convinced Napolean not to obliderate Prussia as long as Prussia would ally itself with France against Great Britain
Continental System
An attempt by Napolean to wage economic warfare against Great Britain in which he banned British goods from arriving on the continent
Invasion of Russia (1812)
Napolean set out to conqure Russia with his grand army; the Russians merely retreated into their vast landscape. When He reached Moscow in September he found it in ruins; with no enemy and few supplies he turned back; harsh winter and Russian attacks cut his forces down to 40,000
Grand Army
Napolean's Army of 600,000 men
Duke of Wellington
British commander who closed in on France through Spain while Austria, Russia, and Prussia attacked from the east
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of the G.Britain, Austrian, Prussian, and Russian allies in September 1814. To try to create lasting peace and stop the revolutionary movement
Prince Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859)
Austrian Chancellor who was the great architect of the Congress of Vienna settlement who wanted to make sure that ideas eminating out of the French revolution, like liberalism, would have no place in a redrawn Europe.
balance of power
the great powers want to ensure that no nation should ever dominate Europe again
Battle of Waterloo (June 18, 1815)
Wellington, the British commander, and Marshal Blucher, the leader of the Prussian forces, defeated Napoleans newly revived army
Hundred Days
Napolean returned to France on March15 1815. He found numerous support from the army and from the people. He reinstated himself as Emperor and raised his army