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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Prince Henry the Navigator
Younger son of the King of Portugal, sponsored a navigational school in Lisbon and a series of expeditions
Bartholomew Dias
Portuguese captain who sailed arounf the Cape of Good Hope at the tip of Africa in 1487
Vasco de Gama
Sailed from Portugal to India in 1498
Christopher Columbus
Genoese sailor who sailed West for Spain to find another route to Asia.
Ferdinand Megellan
in 1519 set out to circumnavigate the world, but died in the Philippines
Hernan Cortes & the Aztec Empire
Cortes landed in 1519 w/ 600 men; had cooperation of other natives under Aztec rule; Aztecs thought the Spanish were gods; Spanish claimed the Aztec Empire as New Spain in 1521
Francisco Pizzaro & Incan Empire
Pizzaro set out for Peru w/ 200 men; captured Chief Atahualpa; used him to ransom gold then killed him; by 1560s the Spanish stamped out last bit of resistance
plantaions set up by the Spanish in the New World which first had natives for labor then imported Africans
monarchical states
States were it was deemed that monichical power was God-gived and absolete
Absolute power
when there are no restrictions on a king or other monarch
parliamentary institutions
an assembly of nobles that restricted a monarch's power
3 Characteristics of new nation-states
1.Growing Bureaucratization
2.Existence of a Permanent Mercenary Army
3.Growing need to tax
Treaty of Lodi (1455)
Created an alliance between Milan and Naplesand included support of Florence; combined powers ensured outside powers wouldn't mess with Italy
Savonarola (1452-1498)
radical Dominican preacher who had led the Floentine people in expelling the Medici
Niccolo Machiavelli
wrote "the Prince" (1513)
Ferdinand and Isabella
King of Aragon and Queen of Castille; their marriage unified Spain and their combined armies drove out the Muslims in the south
Charles V
Grand son of Ferdinand and Isabella, who controlled a vast empire due to some well-planned marriages
Philip II
Son of Charles V, who recieved Spain and its holdings in the New World, plus s.Italy and the Netherlands when Charles abdicated
Revolt in the Netherlands
Revolt angainst the Spanish, caused by both religious and nationalistic ideas; rebels we aided by the British
Spanish Armada
a great fleet of Spanish war ships
Golden Age
sixteenth and early seventeenth ceturies (Spain)
Cervantes (1547-1616)
Spanish writer during Spain's golden age; wrote "Don Quixote"
El Greco
Greek born Spanish painter in Spain's golden age
Price Revolution
significant increase in prices in the Early Modern period
Population growth between 1500-1700
populations increased all over Europe which was important for economic productivity& greater need for food and resources
Enclosure (and rural poverty)
the gentry would gain community graizing lands for their own personal use
Guild production-to-Capitalist entrepreneurs
directed by the growth of population and expansion of markets; made new harships for guild members
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
signified the end of the religious wars in the time of Charles V in the Holy Roman Empire
Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
War that lasted 30 years which marked one final attempt within the Holy Roman Empire, to creat a unified German state
Edict of Restitution
outlawed Calvinism in the Holy Roman Empire, and required Lutherans to turn over all property seixed since 1552
Gustavus Adolphus
King of Sweden who entered the 30 years war after the Edict of Restitution had been signed. (was interested in German territory along the Baltic)
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
marked the end of the 30 year war
Catherine de Medici
Mother of the French kings: Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
Catherine de Medici had her son the king order the killing of many Huguenots, while the Huguenot aristocracy were all gathered for the wedding of a Burbon prince and the king's sister
Henry IV (of Navarre)
Burbon Prince who was named Hanry III's(the last Valois king) heir
Edict of Nantes
Passed by Henry IV, granted Huguenots freedom of worship and assembly as well as the right to maintain fortified towns
Louis XIII
Son of Hnery IV who had to take the throne a 9 years old
Cardinal Richelieu
served as a strong minister for the young king Louis XIII
Louis XIV
Son of Louis XIII who ahd to take the throne at age 5
Cardinal Mazarin
selected by Ann of Austria to be the regent during the childhood of Louis XIV; had a less politically sure hand than Richelieu
a series of rebellions that came about as a result of Mazarin's political weakness
divine right of kings
political philosophy that kingship was God given and only God may take it away or may judge the king
a giant palace Louis XIV had built 12 miles outside of Paris; it was for him and for the rest of the aristocracy
Jean- Baptiste Colbert
minister to Louis XIV who centralized the French economy by instituting mercantilism
system that was designed to build up France's supply of gold by exporting goods to other lands in exchange for gold, and by relying on the mother country's colonies to buy exports
French East India Company
Organixed by Colbert to compete with the commercial Dutch empire
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV revocted the Edict of Nantes in order to eradicate Calvinsim in France; demolished Huguenot churches and schools and took away thier civil rights
Wars of the Roses
series of civil wars to determine which aristocratic fraction, York or Lancaster, would dominate the monarchy
Tudor Dynasty & Bosworth Field
The Tudor Dynasty was established by Henry Tudor who defeated Richard III in 1485 at the Battle of Bosworth Field
Henry VIII
Son of Henry Tudor and took the crown after his father's death; also created the Church of England
Elizabeth I (r.1558-1603)
Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boyln; strong ruler and said to be the greatest of all the Tudors
Mary Queen of Scots
Queen of Scotland and heir to the English throne until Elizabeth I ordered her execution
James VI of Scotland, James I of England
Cousin of Elizabeth I who took the throne after her death. Asserted his divine notion of kingship over parliament
English Renaissance
Age of cultural flourishing under Queen Elizabeth, after the conquest of the Spanish Armada. (included Shakespeare)
Stuart Age and Puritans
Radical Calvinists a.k.a Puritans emerged during the Stuart period. The puritans petitioned King James to eform the Church but he denied (Some Puritans left to found Plymouth)
Charles I (r.1625-1641)
Son of James I of England; like his father, felt that the Anglican Church provided the greatest stability for the state
Archbiship Wiliiam Laud
a member of the Arminian wing of the Anglican church who was named Archbishop of Canterbury by Charles I
tonnage and poundage
custom duties granted to the English Monarch for life by parliament, a custom dating back to the 15 century
Petition of Rights
put out by Parliament in 1628;stated that the king could not demand a loan w/out the consent of Parliament, there could't be imprisnoment w/out published cause, no housing of soldiers in private homes, &outlawed using martial law against civilians
Ship money
certain coastal cities were responsible for raising funds for naval defense in times of emergency
Short and Long Parliaments
Short Parliament: in 1640 King Charles called parliament to grant money to put down the Scottish rebellion, dissolved after 3 weeks
Long Parliament:met for 20 years; called to raise funds to meet Scottish demands
The Grand Remonstrance & the English Revolution
Grand Remonstrance: a list of 204 parliamentary grievances
English Revolution:Started when King Charles tried to seize 5 leaders or of the House of Commons and failed, then left London for Nottingham in 1642
Oliver Cromwell
Individual during the English Revolution who was more dedicated to creating a winning war policyand replaced early aristocratic leaders; created the New Model Army, and executed the king Charles when Cromwell defeated him
Levellers and Diggers
radical fractions within Cromwell's army who combined their radical religious beliefs with a call for a complete overhaul of English society
Charles II
Eldest son of the executed Charles I; faced with probles of monarchy vs. parliament& direction of the Church of England
James II
Catholic,younger brother of Charles II; faced with probles of monarchy vs. parliament& direction of the Church of England
Test Act
an English act that effectivly barred Catholics from serving as royal official or in the military
Glorious Revolution: William and Mary
William, the Statholder of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, invaded England and jointly took the throne
Bill of Rights (1689)
1.The power to suspend and dispense laws was declared illegal 2.Armies could not be raised w/out parliamentary conssent 3.Parliament elections were to be free of monarch interference4. Monarchs had to be Protestant and not Catholic
The Act of Toleration (1689)
Gave religious toleration to Protestant non-comformists(Protestants who weren't part of the Church of England) but not to Unitarians or Catholics
Act of Settlement (1707)
passed to prevent the Catholic Stuart line from occupying the English throne
Act of Union (1707)
marked the political unification of England and Scotland to create Great Britain
Dutch Dominance and Bank of Amsterdam
Dutch became merchant and trading dominance due to its geographical position and its defeat of the Portugese fleet;
Bank of Amsterdam:founded in the early 17 centuryissued its own currency and increased the amount of available capital
Franz Hals(c1580-1666)
Jan Vermeer(1632-1675)
Rembrandt (1606-1669)
Franz Hals: Dutch painter from Haarlem
Jan Vermeer:painted genre scenes of everyday Dutch life
Rembrandt:influenced by the High Baroque style, painted "The Night Watch"