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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hundred Years' War
Edward III of England asserted a claim to the French throne; England and France went to war
Peace of Bretigny
England returned the kidnapped king of France in exchange for a ransom, freedom from French vassalry, and a bunch of French territories
Treaty of Troyes
Henry V became successor of French king Charles VI; both died, and infant Henry VI became king of both England and France

The French ignored this treaty, and made Charles VII their unofficial king
Black Plague
Population increase led to more crowded cities and unsanitary living conditions; the plague was introduced by rats and carried by fleas, and killed about 40% of Europe's population
Peasant revolt
Estates General
France's rather uneffective governing body (the French version of Parliament, only more incompetent)
Joan of Arc
Peasant girl from Domremy who saved France for Charles VII, then was executed by the Inquisition
Pope Boniface VIII
Against clerical taxation (Clericos laicos and unam sanctam), fought with Philip the Fair of France
Pope Clement V
Moved the papacy to Avignon (strong French influence)
Most powerful Avignon pope
Pope Gregory IX
Moved the papacy back to Rome
Great Schism
Pope Urban VI came to power; the French cardinals didn't like him, so they held their own conclave and chose Pope Clement VII
Council of Pisa
Deposed both popes and elected Alexander V; Urban and Clement refused to step down, so there were three popes
Council of Constance
Elected Martin V to succeed all three popes - this time it worked
John Wycliffe
Supported clerical poverty and doubted papal infallibility; followed by Lollards
John Huss
Supported lay communion, criticized traditional ceremonies and superstitious practices; followed by Hussites; put to death by the Council of Constance
Transition from the medieval to modern; rebirth of ancient Greek learning
Italian city-state
Ruled by groups of wealthy people (instead of kings), by despots or oligarchies
5 major Italian city-states
Duchy of Milan
Republic of Florence
Republic of Venice
Papal States
Kingdom of Naples
Despotism (Cosimo de Medici)
Medici was the despot of Florence, the city's richest man; head of the Office of Public Debt - manipulated everything behind the scenes
"scholarly study of everything for the sake of scholarly studies"

Revival of Greek and Latin classics, liberal arts, ancient tradition; aimed at educational reform and well-roundedness
Treaty of Lodi
Allied Milan, Naples, and Florence against the Papal States and Venice

Milan asked France for help; France invaded; Milan switched sides; everyone fought of France together
Concordat of Bologna
France gained control of its clergy; the Church gained taxes and papal superiority over councils; France remained Catholic
"crazy idealist who favored Roman patriotism and advocated tyranny in The Prince; hoped for absolute Medici rule"
Brothers of the Common Life
Lay religious movement that allowed men and women to take traditional vows
Johann Gutenburg
Invented the printing press with moveable type
"prince of humanists"; educational and religious reformer
Pope Alexander VI
Member of the powerful Borgia family; helped Louis XII attack Italy
Pope Julius II
The warrior pope; suppressed the Borgias and frove the French out of Italy