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35 Cards in this Set

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European Economic Community
(Common Market) Organization, begun on January 1, 1958, including France, German Federal Republic, Italy, and the Benelux nations (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg). By 1966 the Common Market would eliminate all customs barriers between the countries, would set up a common tariff policy on imports, and would gradually remove all restrictions on the movement of workers and capital.
European Free Trade Association
An association of Western European nations agreeing to favor each other in respect to tariffs. Members were Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Switzerland, and Great Britain. Sometimes referred to as the Outer Seven-i.e., outside the Common Market; formed in 1959.
Existentialism
A label for widely different revolts against traditional philosophy, stressing choice, freedom, decision, and anguish, and emerging strongly during and after the World War II years.
Fifth Republic
Government established in France in October 1958. The First Republic lasted from 1793 to 1804; the Second, from 1848 to 1852; the Third from 1875 to 1945; and the Fourth, from 1946 to 1958.
Free French
Supporters of General de Gaulle who refused to acknowledge the French armistice in 1940. In 1944, de Gaulle's Committee of National Liberation was proclaimed and recognized as the French provisional government.
Alcide de Gasperi
(1881-1954)-The leader of the Christian Democrats in Italy, he was committed to democracy and moderate social reform.
Charles de Gaulle
(1890-1970}First president of the French Fifth Republic and former head of the Free French movement in World War II.
Glasnost
Gorbachev used the term toexplainhis new policy of "openness" in allowing russians more freedom to dissent.
Gulag
Forced labor camps set up by Stalin for political dissidents.
Hungarian Revolt
(1956)-Attempt by students and workers to liberalize the Communist regime and break off military alliance with the Soviet Union.
Karl Jaspers
(1883-1969) German existentialist seeing all people as equally co-responsible for the terrors and injustices of the world.
Nikita Khrushchev
(1894-1971)-Soviet leader who denounced Stalin's rule and brought a temporary thaw in the superpowers' relations.
Marshall Plan
Program that advanced more than $ 11 billion for European recovery to sixteen Western nations from 1947 to 1953; the final cost to the United States was $20 billion.
Aldo Moro
Former premier of Italy and leader of the Christian Democratic Party who was assassinated by a terrorist group in 1978.
Imre Nagy
(1896-1958) Hungarian Communist Party leader who attempted to end association with the USSR which lead to the 1956 Hungarian revolt.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO)-Military alliance founded in 1949, between the United States and Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Portugal, and Italy; later, Greece, Turkey, and West Germany joined.
Boris Pasternak
(1890-1960) Russian author of Dr. Zhivago, a novel condemning the brutality of the Stalin era.
Peaceful coexistence
The thaw in cold war tensions between the superpowers.
Perestroika
Gorbachev's policy of "restructuring" which included reducing the direct involvement of the Commuist Party leadership in the day to day governing of the nation. It ws a decentralization of economic planning and controls.
Potsdam Conference
The July-August 1945 meeting of Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee of Great Britain, at which disagreements arose over the permanent borders of Germany and free elections in East European countries. Stalin refused to hold free elections, in fear of anti-Soviet governments.
Prague Spring
The liberal reforms introduced by Alexander Dubcek, the Czechoslovak Communist Party secretary. On August 20, 1968, twenty thousand troops from the Soviet Union and its satellite countries occupied Prague to undo the reforms.
Red Brigade
Terrorist group committed to radical political and social change that claimed responsibility for the assassination of former Italian premier Aldo Moro in 1978.
SALT I
1972 Treaty between America and Soviet Union whichlimitedthenumberof intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) at their existing levels for five years.
SALT II
Additional arms limitations signings in 1979 which places limits on long-range missiles, bombers and nuclear warheads.
Jean-Paul Sartre
(1905-1980)-French existentialist most famous for his statement that "existence precedes essence"-i.e., first we exist and then our decisions and choices shape our character or essence.
Schuman Plan
An international organization set up in 1952 to control and integrate all European coal and steel production; also known as the European Coal and Steel Community.
Solidarity
Polish political party (anti communism) lead by Lech Walesa wanted free elections for Poles.
Alexander Solzhenitsyn
(1918-)-Russian author of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, a novel detailing life in a Stalinist concentration camp.
Margaret Thatcher
b. 1925- ) Conservative British PrimeMinister andfirst woman to head a major European government.
Marshal Tito
(Josip Broz) (1892-1980) Communist chief of Yugoslavia who proclaimed independence of his country from Soviet influence.
Treaty of Rome
Pact, created in 1957, that set up the European Economic Community (also known as the Common Market).
Truman Doctrine
Policy providing military aid to Greece and Turkey in an effort to contain Communism (1947-1948).
Vatican II
Pope John XXIII called the conference which met in four sessions between 1962-65. The purpose was to bring the church up to date (aggiornamento).
Warsaw Pact
A military alliance, formed in 1955, of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite nations.
Zionism
Founded by Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) the Zionists sought the creation of a national homeland forthe Jews in Palestine. It was supported by the British Balfour Declaration during WWI but did not become a reality until 1948