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238 Cards in this Set

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What major 15th century innovations helped spurn the Age of Exploration?
improvements in shipbuilding and the invention of compasses
What were Asia's main exports to Europeans?
silk, cotton, rugs, jewelry, porcelain, sugar, spices
What were in major Middle East trading centers?
Alexandria, Beirut, and Constantinople
Around what year did Vasco de Gama sail?
1498
Where did Vasco Da Gama sail and what did he discover?
Sailed around the tip of S. Africa and discovered the S. Tip of India (Malabar Coast).
How was the Malabar Coast economically?
It was booming economically.
What did Vasco Da Gama do after discovering the Malabar Coast?
Sailed back to Portugal. Returned to India in 1502 with 21 ships and began a war against the Arabs in India.
Who supported the Arabs in the Portuguese/Indian War?
Turkey, Venice, and Egypt because they wanted to maintain old trading routes.
Who won the Portuguese/Indian war and why?
Portuguese, b/c of their long history fighting the Moors. They massacred the Indians in Malabar.
What did the Portuguese do in India, and many other countries to gain trading dominance?
Established permanent trade centers--in India, Persia, E. Africa, Singapore, China, New Guinea, Spice Islands.`
Why were the Portuguese able to maintain a trading empire?
Superior weapons and ships, monopolies and trading centers.
What did the Portuguese trade do to trade in Venice?
Made trade flourish in Lisbon and not in Venice.
Were there ways to measure longitude/latitude in 1492?
No.
Why did Columbus name the people "Indians?"
Because he thought he was in the West Indies.
Who funded Columbus' expedition? Why?
Isabella of Castile. Spain wanted to beat Portugal to China.
What did Columbus really hope to find in his exploration?>
A Western route to Asia.
How did the Spanish clergy, nobility and gov't view the New World differently?
Clergy= new area of conversion, gov't= new income, nobility= new people to fight against (after wars w/Moors).
What conquistador conquered the Aztecs and where?
Cortes, Mexico.
What conquistador conquered the Incas, and where?
Pizarro, Peru.
Who sailed around the globe and when?
Magellan, 1520.
Who were the Cabots?
English explorers.
Who was Jacques Cartier?
French explorer.
What did Jacques Cartier and the Cabots have in common?
Both failed at finding a NW passage to the Pacific.
What important 1553 discovery kicked off trade with Russia?
Discovery of the White Sea.
What was the Treaty of 1494?
Spain and Portugal divide the globe by a N/S line.
Spain= right to Americas.
Portugal= right to Asia, Africa, E. Indies.
Who discovered Brazil in 1500?
Pedro Cabral (Portugal)
Who discovered the Phillipines in 1521?
Magellan
What was the main difference between Portugal and Spain's approaches to exploration?
Spain was more about decimation and total cultural conquest, while Portugal focused on establishing permanent trade outposts.
What court of law did Spaniards establish in the Americas?
The Inquisition.
What was the encomienda?
An effort to regulate Indian labor...allowed Indians to work for certain hours yet retain their own land.
What was the difference b/w Creoles and Mestizos?
Creoles= Spaniards born in America (white).
Mestizos= half Indian/Spaniard.
When was the printing press brought to Mexico?
1544.
What two American establishments were in place by 1550?
Viceroyalties of Mexico and Peru.
What important economic discovery was made in 1545?
Potosi silver deposits in Peru.
After 1545, what became Spain's chief import from the Americas?
Silver.
How did Potosi contribute to the counter-Reformation?>
It funded the militaristic side of the Counter-Reformation.
What allowed Spain to control the global market for Chinese products?
Discovery of Silver at Postosi.
What two countries dominate the Age of Exploration until 1600? Why?
Spain and Portugal. Other countries have too many domestic/religious issues.
Where did the major population growth in Europe occur?
Rural regions, not cities.
How did population growth contribute to inflation?
More food needed, so new unfertile lands are used, thus raising the price of agriculture.
How did the Age of Exp. contribute to the inflation?
trade= money
What economic job was least affected by inflation, or a steady rise in prices?
The price of hired laborers.
How did inflation and pop. growth benefit merchants?
More consumers, higher stock values, loans that could actually be repaid.
How did inflation benefit royal governments?
More tax money and money for armies.
In the big picture, how did the economy change from the 1300's to the 1800's?
Changed from a town-centered economy to a capitalistic, nation-centered economy.
What was Johann Fugger's first job? How did he rise to success?
1. Cotton cloth brings in large income.
2. Sells Eastern spices, etc. Very large income.
3. Invest in mining. Very large income.
4. Loans $ to Charles V. to help him pay for HRE (1519).
5. Becomes a banker for the Habsburgs.
6. Helps finance Portugal's trade with Asia.
Why were bankers like the Fuggers allowed to achieve such success?
There was a need for someone to manage long distance trading of popular items.
What led to the downfall of the Fugger family?
Habsburg bankruptcies and Germany's poor 1500's economy.
Until the 1400's England's chief export/import was...
exported raw wool, imported finished wool.
What changed in England's wool usage after 1400?
They began spinning, weaving and dyeing it in England.
What did it mean in England to "put out" work?
Give rural people their own looms to make cloth. This stopped restrictive town guilds. Cloth could be made and sold at a cheaper price.
What was the laborer like in the 1500s?
1. worked by his employer's need.
2. Freelance-like job.
3. No interest/knowledge besides his own skill.
4. Alive by his own farming, not vitally dependent on his labor.
What was the average 1500's capitalist like?
1. a manager/entrepeneur.
2. No knowledge of his workers.
3. Owned all his materials/equipment.
4. Coordinated everything that was made.
How did capitalist gain fame?
By having a large business.
What was the main societal institution that suffered with the advent of 1500's capitalism?
Restrictive trade guilds.
What were the large-scale capitalistic enterprises?
Mining, printing, shipbuilding, military supplies.
What were the most popular bulk-trade items?
Rice, sugar and tea.
Where, besides the Americas, did trade begin to flourish.
Inside Europe.
What does it mean to loan on interest?
You get back more money than you originally loaned.
What term did the church use to define interest?
usury
What was Luther's opinion of the Fugger family and interest?
He didn't approve of them.
How did society come to accept loaning on interest?
Loaning on interest began to be seen as an economic advantage, interest rates fell, banks were established. Interest was seen as an important asset to a Capitalist economy.
What were the three aspects of the Commercialization of Industry?
1. merchants, 2. industry, 3. producers.
What was the key to merchant success?
Knowing where something could be successfully sold.
Was mercantilism laissez-faire?
No, it was controlled by the gov't.
What factors contributed to the rise of mercantilism?
1. Rulers needed $, so they began to regulate merchants.
2. Need/desire for a strong, self-sufficient econ.
What was the proper import/export system for a successful economy?
More exports than imports. No imports except for necessary raw materials.
What was Parliament's Statute of Artificers in 1563?
Regulated trade guilds- terms of admission and wages for certain trades.
Why doesn't France get rid of guilds?
It wants to tax them, use them as tools of royal power.
What English Law of 1601 outlawed idleness and unemployment?
The English Poor Law.
How did England learn to dye and finish wool and spread the knowledge?
It imported skilled people.
What was Henry VII's 1496 treaty with Flanders about?
Gov't support of his merchants in Flanders.
What did tariff barriers against imports accomplish?
Why were internal tariffs disliked?
Reduced competition. Internal tariffs discouraged free trade.
What was the ultimate key to unlocking awesome merchant success?
Government support-$ and protection.
Why did trading companies grow? (East India companies, etc.)
Europeans trading far-away can't be independent.
What was the main rule of trading companies?
Only company merchants can trade in their company's region.
What led to the initial "overhaul" of Spanish/Portuguese trade monopolies?
Creation of trading companies by Dutch and England and France.
What three main movements affected social structure, 1400-1600ish?
Commercial Rev., Pop. Growth, Inflation.
What was the social ladder?
Landed Aristocracy, Middle Class/Peasants, Urban poor.
Who were small freeholders? How did they get rich?
Peasants who held their own land but paid fees to a manorial lord. Pop. growth meant a surge in agricultural prices, allowing these peasants to actually earn money on their land.
Who made up the landed aristocracy?
Former estate/feudal lords.
What did the aristocracy do when their estates became less successful?
joined king's army, got big gov't/church positions.
What were two of the aristocracy's biggest values?
Education and ancestry (stops new $).
What was the name for the middle class?
Bourgeosie.
How did the Bourgeosie differ economically from the landed aristocracy?
No land, but no other clear economic difference.
What various positions could define a member of the bourgeosie?
1. urban elite (gov't) 2. merchant, banker, shipownder, lawyer, doctor, judge, etc.
3. Clergy
4. Small retailer/innkeepers.
Which country had the most blending b/w the aristocracy and the bourgeosie?
England.
Who made up the working class/poor?
Unskilled wage laborers- miners, fisherman, sailors, domestic servants, homeless.
When did the idea of Charitable Relief spring up?
1590's (Poor Law, view that poor needed to be separate from society).
Did wages for the working class increase because of inflation?
No. The class divide therefore grew considerably b/w middle and lowest classes.
What inspired a new demand for education in the middle 1500's?
Conter Ref- need for a smart clergy, need for literate clerks in commerce, need for more understanding of commerce, need for able lawyers.
How many French Universities were founded b/w 1580-1640?
92.
How did England improve its education system?
Founding of secondary "grammar" schools.
Who were the Ursuline Sisters?
Founded 350 Italian convents to educate girls.
Did only Protestant countries push for education?
No, both Protestant and Catholic countries pushed for education.
Who did Spanish U's cater to?
Hidalgos, or lesser nobles.
Who did French U's cater to?
mainly upper class, but includes all classes.
Who did English U's cater to?
Mainly plebeians; but very inclusive.
How did monarchs benefit capitalism?
Granted monopolies, borrowed $ from bankers, issued royal charters.
How did monarchs benefit their aristocracy?
Royal taxes that benefited the rich, "made" nobles, tax exemptions for rich.
What did the English/Spanish gov'ts do to promote economic growth?
Spain- inhibited econ. growth. England- promoted econ. growth.
Instead of the peasants, who benefited from inflation in E. Europe? Why?
The lords benefited from inflation b/c the peasant's land was more dependent on the lord.
What allowed E. European lords to increase their outputs?
Increase in market for wood, Baltic shipbuilding, grains.
What did E. European peasants turn into?
Serfs.
How did the Wars of Religion contribute to the lord/serf relationship in E. Europe?
It worsened it.
What was robot?
3-4 days/week of forced labor endured by E. European serfs.
Why did lords in E. Europe have so much power?
Very little centralization in E. Europe, not even real towns are prosperous!
What did the lord's authority represent?
An independent entity with complete control over his serfs.
What did Charles V do in 1556?
He abdicated the HRE and retired to a monastery.
What was most important part of the year 1555?
The Peace of Augsburg.
Who was the next HRE after Charles V, how was he related, and what did he inherit?
Next HRE was Charles V's brother Ferdinand. He inherited Austria, Bohemia and the Netherlands.
Who was King of Spain in 1550's and how was he related to Charles V?
Philip II, Charles' son.
How was the Habsburg family split?
Austrian Habsburgs (Ferdinand) vs. Spanish Habsburgs (Philip II).
By 1580, what did Philip II inherit?
PORTUGAL, Netherlands, Burgundy, Milan, Naples, Tunis, W. Mediterannean Sea.
What was Philip II's other job in 1553-1558 and why?
He was King of England b/w 1553-1558 b/c he was the husband of Bloody Mary.
What was Philip II's most valuable territory?
Entire Spanish America.
What was the main purpose (to Philip)of Phillip II's reign?
He wanted complete control of the Med. Sea from the Ottoman Empire (Turks). He was not a true crusader for Catholicism.
What was the "Siglo de Oro"? When was it? What fueled it?
Spain's Golden Age, 1550-1650. Fueled by money from exploration.
Who were Spain's main cultural figures during the Siglo de Oro?
Miguel De Cervantes, Lope de Vega (dramatist), El Greco, Murillo, Velazquez (painters), Suarez (Jesuit philosopher)
What was Philip II's "Versailles"?
His Escorial. It was the center of Sp
What was the shape of the Escorial?
Shape of a grill to honor the death of St. Lawrence.
How many provinces made up the Netherlands?
17 provinces
When did Netherland's nationalism grow and why?
At the election of Philip II as their leader--he was foreign and disliked.
Why were there many Calvinists in the Netherlands?
They had fled from France.
What did Prot/Cath nobles do in 1566 in reaction to Philip II's use of the inquisition in the Netherlands?
They formed a United league to stop the use of the Inquisition.
What did Philip II do in response to the Netherland's pleas to stop the Inquisition?
He refused to stop the Inquisition.
What was the Revolt of the Netherlands?
Lower-class Calvinists destroyed churches b/c of economic/social/religious grievances, also in reaction of Philip's not-stopping the Inquisition.
Did the Nobles approve of the Revolt of the Netherlands?
No. They returned to appease Spain.
How does Philip II react to the Revolt of the Netherlands?
He sends in the Duke of Alva and the Inquisition. The Duke of Alva becomes the Cath. Gov. General.
What does the Duke of Alva do in the Netherlands?
He starts the Council of Blood/ Council of Troubles.
What does the Council of Troubles accomplish?
Kills thousands, creates new taxes, confiscates estates of nobles--all against state uprising.
Which famous noble has his land taken away in the Council of Troubles?
William of Orange.
What does William of Orange do after his land is taken away?
He rises to power, spurs rebellions...makes Spain have an even worse retaliation.
What do the Netherlands Provinces do in 1576?
They unite against Spain.
Why did Elizabeth send money to the Netherlands secretly?
She was against Spain, b/c there was a threat of Spain and English Catholics uprising against Elizabeth.
What was Mary Stuart the Queen of?
First she was the Queen of France, until her husband died early. Next, she was the Queen of Scotland, but she was overthrown by Calvinists.
What does Elizabeth do to Mary Queen of Scots?
Mary posed a threat to Elizabeth's throne, so Elizabeth imprisoned her for 20 years.
Who became the Gov. General of the Netherlands after the Duke of Alva? in 1576?
Don Juan, Spanish naval hero from the Battle of Lepanto.
What was Don Juan's grand plan?
He wanted to use the Netherlands as a base for invading England, then overthrow Elizabeth, and place Mary Stuart as Queen and himself as King.
How did Elizabeth react to news of Don Juan's grand plan?
She signs a treaty with United anti-Spanish Netherlands provinces.
What happens to Don Juan in 1578?
He dies.
Who becomes the gov. general of the Netherlands after Don Juan?
The Prince of Parma
What Union do the N. 7 provinces form in 1579 against the Prince of Parma?
The Union of Utrecht.
What do the Union of Utrecht Providences do in 1581?
They declare their independence from Spain and become the United Provinces fo the Netherlands, or HOLLAND.
Who was Holland's leader?
William of Orange.
What does Parma do in 1585?
He attacks Antwerp and threatens easy access to England.
How does Elizabeth react to Parma's attack on Antwerp?
She sends 6000 troops to the Netherlands under the Earl of Leicester.
Does England unite during the war with Spain?
Yes, major outburst of Nationalism.
How was the war England+Netherlands vs. Spain fought?
Open sea piracy
Who does Elizabeth execute in 1587, after hearing word of a Spanish armada?
Mary Queen of Scots
Who was Sir Francis Drake?
English "sea dog", heroic in sea piracy.
What was Philip II's reason for gathering the Spanish Armada?
He wanted to conquer England, instead of wasting time with the sea piracy.
When was the Spanish Armada?
1588
Where was the Spanish Armada supposed to go?
Sail to the Netherlands, take Parma's army to England.
What was the size of the Spanish Armada?
The largest ever. 130 ships, 30000 men, 2400 artillery.
What stopped the Spanish Armada?
200 English ships in the English channel.
Why was the Spanish Armada defeated?
lighter/faster English ships drive it out to sea, then a huge storm blows the Armada into ultimate destruction.
What Spanish King dies in 1598?
Philip II.
What makes England more sea-powerful in 1600?
Founding of the English East India Company
What was the 12 year's truce of 1609?
The Netherlands are split b/w 7 Northern provinces (Dutch) which are both Prot. and Cath., and 10 Southern provinces which are the "Spanish Netherlands," and all Catholic.
How do the Dutch gain power b/w 1602 and 1612?
The founding of Dutch E. India company, New York, as a result of booming N. Amsterdam.
After the death of Philip II in 1598, Spain is completely dependent on this economically?
imported gold/silver
Why didn't Spain enjoy benefits of the commercial rev?
Too many minor aristocrats who thought themselves "above" mundane work after their victories in wars against heretics.
Who leaves Spain between 1609-1611?
The expulsion of Moriscos, who were the most successful Spaniards at the time. They are sent away on boats, over 100,000 of them. Causes pop. drop and economic loss.
Who became King after the death of Philip II?
King Philip IV
Who was King Philip IV's main gov't minister?
Count of Olivares
What were the main goals of the Count of Olivares?
He wanted centralization, control over church and aristocracy.
Was Count of Olivares popular?
NO!
What happened to Portugal in 1640?
Reestablished its independence from Spain.
Who rebels against Spain in 1640?
Cataolonia in the Catalan War, Catholic uprising against the Count of Olivares. France helps Catalonian rebels, but in the end, Spain wins.
Were the French Wars of Religion more about religion or politics?
Politics, state vs. centralization.
Why was Calvinism so influential in France?
Calvin was French.
Why did Calvinism take root in France?
Since the Concordat of Bologna, France had no strong ties to Rome. Therefore, the French gov't wasn't very supporting of a Prot. Rev. Radicals were the only ensuing force.
Who made of the Huguenots?
Nobility, lords who wanted the right of religion on their estates installed their own Calvinist ministers and made their peasants catholic. Also included were bourgeois oligarchy.
Why do French Kings/Lutherans/Anglicans disapprove of the Huguenots?
It threatens the idea of a ntl. church and a ntl. monarchy.
What French King is accidentally killed in a duel in 1559?
Henry II
Who does Henry II leave behind when he dies?
Sons Francis II, Charles IX, Henry III, and wife Catherine de'Medici. He also leaves behind a monarchy in chaos.
What was the cause of the French civil War? (1560's-1590s)
No real monarchy in place after the death of King Henry II, so Huguenots and Catholics are fighting for the throne.
Who were the major Huguenot leaders during the French civil war?
Admiral de Coligny and Henry of Bourbon, King of Navarre
Who were the major Catholic leaders during the French Civil War?
The Guise Family
Who was in the middle of the Guise/Huguenot war?
Catherine de'Medici
What events led up to the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572?
Catherine de'Medici feared Admiral de Coligny's growing influence over her young son, King Charles IX.
What was the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of 1572?
Many Huguenots were in Paris celebrating the marriage of Henry of Navarre, and Catherine de'Medici killed 1000s of them in a surprise attack. She also has Coligny killed.
What is the result of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of 1572?
Renewed civil war in France, Spain invades France.
Who were the Politiques?
Secular prots and Caths who wanted civil order over religious turmoil. Famous politiques were Henry of Navarre and Jean Bodin.
Who was Jean Bodin?
Philosopher who developed the modern theory of royal absolutism.
Who is assassinated in 1589 (France)
Henry III and Henry of Guise.
Who gains power legally in 1589?
Henry of Navarre, who becomes Henry IV.
What is the significance of Henry IV's quote "Paris is well worth a mass"?
The Catholics wouldn't recognize him a king, so they barred him from Paris. in 1593, Henry IV converted to Catolicism.
What is the result of Henry IV converting to Catholicism in 1593?
He estranges Huguenots.
How does Henry IV make up for his estrangement of Huguenots in 1598?
With the 1598 Edict of Nantes.
What was the Edict of Nantes?
Protestant is allowed in your own home, but cannot be in Paris. Caths and Prots have equal rights, Prots can have their own defense.
How does Henry IV appease Catholics after the Edict of Nantes (1598)?
He does favors for the Jesuits.
How does Henry IV repair France after the Civil Wars?
He promises a "Chicken in the pot" for every Frenchman, restores gov't, collects taxes, repairs infrastructure, increases mercantilism, etc.
How is Henry IV's reign the beginning of royal absolutism?
He makes his decisions without ever summoning the Estates General.
What happens to Henry IV in 1610?
He is assassinated;.
Who takes over in 1610 in France? What happens?
Marie de'Medici takes power, failed Estates General occurs.
Who is the true power-holder after the death of Henry IV in 1610?
Cardinal Richelieu
What was Cardinal Richelieu's political standing?
He was a politique who valued centralization.
Who leads a Huguenot rebellion against Richelieu in 1627?
The Duke of Rohan.
How does Richelieu end the Huguenot rebellion of 1627?
Peace of Alais, an amendment to the Edict of Nantes, which takes away the right of Prots. defense.
What religion was the Palatinate?
A Calvinist State
What unions form in 1608/1609?
Protestant Union and League of Catholic States (Bavaria and Spain?)
What treaty expired in 1621 (Spain and Dutch)
The 12 Year's Truce
What was France's main fear about Germany?
That it would be united.
What two large empires were going against eachother before/during 30 year's war for territory?
Austrian vs. Spanish Habsburgs.
What was phase 1 of the 30 year's war?
The Bohemian War (1618-1625)
Who was HRE and King of Bohemia in 1618?
Matthias
Who throws two of Matthias's HRE emmisaries out the window in Prague?
Prot. Czechs in 1618.
What does Matthias do once his emmisaries are thrown out of the window?
He sends troops to Prague.
What happens to Matthias in Prague?
He is overthrown.
Who do the Bohemians elect as their new King?
Calvinist Elector Palatine, who becomes Frederick V.
Who does the HRE elect as the new HRE after Matthias?
Ferdinand.
What 1620 battle does Ferdinand and Span. troops defeat Frederick V?
Battle of the White Mountain, where Frederick becomes the "Winter King"
Who becomes King of Bohemia after Battle of White Mountain?
Ferdinand, HRE.
What does HRE Ferdinand do as King of Bohemia?
Takes away 1/2 of noble estates and gives money to new nobles, churches.
What has happened to the Prot. union by 1621?
it has dissolved.
What is phase 2 of the 30 year's war?
The Danish War (1625-1629)
IS Phase 2 (The Danish War) more religious or political?
Religious
Who was the Duke of Holstein?
King Christian IV of Denmark, who emerged as a Prot. leader in 1625- phase 2. He gathers aid from the Dutch and English.
What does HRE Ferdinand do in response to the growing power of King Christian IV?
He gets Albert of Wallenstein to raise an army.
What was Albert of Wallenstein's army like?
Very tortuous and bad.
What does Albert of Wallenstein and his army do?
They invade Denmark and overthrow King Christian Iv.
What was the 1629 Edict of Restitution?
After Denmark became Catholic, HRE Ferdinand went ahead and made all German prot. states become Catholic again.
What was Phase 3 of the 30 Year's War? (1630-1635)
The Swedish War 1630-1635
Was Phase 3 more religious or political?
more religious
Why is France, under Richelieu, so concerned with fighting the HRE?
They are afraid of the growing threat of a united Germany.
What does France, under Richelieu, do to defend against the HRE?
Richelieu finds the King of Sweden, Agustus Adolphus, and promises him mucho money if he can supply Prot. Germany with 40000 troops.
The Swedes are successful in military defeats against HRE in Germany until 1632 when...
Gustavus Adolphus is killed in battle.
What is the 1635 Peace of Prague?
Wallenstein has been killed, Swedes are getting nowhere, this is an agreement b/w HRE and Prot states to stop supporting Swedes.
What does HRE Ferdinand do to the Edict of Restitution in 1635?
He annuls it.
What is Phase 4 of the 30 Year's War?
The Swedish-French War (1635-1648)
Who is Richelieu still feeling threatened by in 1635 and what does he do about it?
He still feels threatened by the Habsburgs, so he hires German Prince Bernard of Saxe-Weimar to maintain a German army for France.
What is important about Bernard of Saxe-Weimar--the very action of Richelieu's to use him for France?>
France is openly supporting PRot. Germany.
What does Spain do to France in Phase 4?
It invades France
When was the Peace of Westphalia?
1648
Who was rep'd by the Peace of Westphalia?
EVERY main entity in Europe, including the pope.
What did the Peace of Westphalia do?
Renewed terms of peace of Augsburg, ok'd Calvinism, dissolved the HRE, took away main powers of HRE on German states, blocked the counter-ref., angered Austrian HAbsburgs.