Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Martin Luther
wrote 95 theses & posted on the door of Wittenburg church on October 31 1517, hatched the egg that erasmus laid, born to a family of prosperous peasants, attended breathren of common life, pursued legal carreer until experienced a life altering experience in which he promised to devote his life to the monestary, becomes an augustinian monk, 1510 goes to Rome (his only time there), is appalled by the corruption, 1512 gets a PhD in theology and becomes a proffessor, he is catholic, he doesnt want to start a new church, he wasnt to propose changes to the old church, objections with the conduct of the church, JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH, PRIESTHOOD OF ALL BELIEVERS

opposes peasants revolt- not a social reformer
Archbishop of Albrecht of Mainz
needed money because he had purchased his offices and held three (simony and pluralism) so tetzel is selling indulgences to make money for him
Leo X
Pope from 1513-1521
revived a plenary Jubilee indulgence that had first been issued by Pope Julius II- the proceeds of which was used to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome- such an indulgence promised forgiveness of all outstanding unrepented sins upon the completion of certain acts- preached in Saony and in the territory of Albrecht of Mainz
Clement II
Pope 1342-1452
in 1343 he proclaimed the existance of "treasury of merit"- an infinite resevoir of good works in the church's possession that could be dispensed at the Pope's discretion
Johann Tetzel
famous indulgence preacher who was enlisted to rpeach indulgences in Albrecht of Mainz's territory because he was a seasoned professional who new how to stir ordinary people to action. "dont you hear the voices of your dead parents..."- the impression that indulgences actually remitted sins was protested by Luther
Johann Eck
Ingolstadt proffesor whom Luther debated in Leipzig June 27 1519- during this contest Luther challenged the infallibility of the Pope and the inerrency of the church councils, appealing to the soverign scriptures alone- he burned all of his bridges to the old church when he defended the teachings of John Huss who had been condemned by the Council of Constance- both Eck and Luther thought they won this debate
Ulrich Zwingli
the leader of the swiss reformation- humanistically educated, strongly influenced by erasmus, critic of mercenary service, believed in the supremecy of scripture, only two sacrements, justification by faith alone, published the sixty seven articles in rhich he compained about the Roman Church, he was agains the veneration of saints, relics, and idols, lent (eats a sausage during lent which is rejection tradition, a highly political move) celibacy (he himself inpregnated a young women an action he elequently defended during his canidacy for people's priest in the main church of Zurich), priest shouldn't assign pennence, only excommunicated by peers, against indulgences, faith alone guarentees salvation, religion and church shouldn't control lay politics. Dies at battle in 1531 at the Battle fo Happel which was between cantons split between catholosim and protestantism. SOCIAL REFORMER UNLIKE LUTHER (luther opposes peasant's revolt)
Heinrich Bullinger
Zwingli's protege, and later married his daughter, he bacame the new leader of the Swiss Reformation and guided its development into an established religion
Conrad Grebel
with whom anibaptism originated, perfrmed the first adult rebaptism in Zurich in January 1525. Initially a co-worker of Zwingli's and an even greater biblical literalist, grebel broke openly with Zwingli. in religious dispuatation in October 1523, Zwingli supported the city governmnet's plea for a very gradual removal of traditional religious practices- Grebel's group came to be known as the alternitive of the Swiss Breathren, and was embodied in Schleitheim Confesion of 1527.
John Calvin
founder of calvinism, born into a well-to-do family who converts to Protestantism in 1534 and moves to Geneva, 1536 writes Institutes of The Christian Religion (best summery of Protestant beliefs)- recieved church benifaces at age twelve which financed the best possible education- his mature theology stressed the sovereignty of of god over all creation and the necessity of humankind's conformity to his will. In 1538 he is exiled from geneva because he is too radical - in 1538 he is invited to return to Geneva where he will reside until his death in 1564
Beliefs: predestination (some are meant for hell, some are meant for heaven, there are the "elect", can be immoral because it wont effect anything (initial reaction) but "elect" will live honorably, because all want to appear elect all will act honorably/ obviously you aren't elct if you behave badly- Calvinism influences Puritans and Presbyterians, sets up a theocracy in geneva and establishes extremely strict laws ad rules to govern moral behavior
-can only go to church when it is time for congregation, cannot say the lords name in vain (fines and then stockade), drunkeness is forbidden (fines and prison), no dances or immoral songs, can only charge 5% interest, no games or gambling
1542-1548, 58 people executed/76 exiled, Michael Cervantus was killed by Caliv (he rejected the trinity)
Philip Melanchthon
the "praeceptor" of germany, oversaw the enactment of educational reforms that provided for compulsory primary education, schools for girls, a humanist revision of the traditional curriculum, and a catechetical instruction of the laity in the new religion
Thomas Cromwell
replaces thomas wolsley as henry's advisor- he has a lutheran symapthy
Catherine of Aragon
married to henry VIII has one daughter- henry wants marriage annulled because needs male heir but first pope ok'd it becuase of her previous marriage to Henry's brother Arthur- after Henry becomes head of church and annuls marriage no longer his wife (link to spanish throne)
Anne Boleyn
married to Henry VIII in 1533, also only produces a female heir, beheaded for treason and adultury, although her children became legal heirs to the throne in the act of succession, this is retracted
Jane Seymour
Henry's third wife, died shortly after childbirth of Edward VI
Anne of Cleves
married to Henry to form a worthless allience- divorced in 1540
Catherine Howard
fifth wife, beheaded for adultury in 1542
Catherine Parr
patron of humanists and reformers, for whom Henry was the third husband, survived him to marry a fourth time
"defender of the faith"
henry wrote a pamphlet against luther defending the seven sacraments earning himself the title of "defender of the faith" from pope Leo X
Reformation Parliment
passes legislations that harrassed and then put reins on the clergy- in doing so it established a precedent that would remain a feature of English government- whenever fundemental changes are made in religion, the monarch must consult with and work through Parliment. in 1531 the Convocation publicly recognized Henry as the ehad of the english church. 1532 parliment published official grievences against the church, and passed in the same year Submission of the Clergy, which put canon law under royal control and the church under royal jurisdiction. after henry married Anne Boleyn, Parliment made Henry the official highest court of appeal for all English subjects. passed act of succession and supremecy, and dissolved all nunneries and monestaries in 1538-38.
Act of Succession
made Anne Boleyn's children official heirs to the throne
Act of Supremecy
made Henry "the only supreme head in earth of the church of England".
th Six Articles
published by Henry in reaction to the growth of Protestantism even among his own advisors, they reestablished transubstantiation, denied the Eucharistic cup to the laity, declared celibate vows invoilable, provided for private masses, and ordered the continuation of oral confession (reffered to by protestants as the whip with six stings)
First Act of Uniformity
imposed Thomas Cramner's Book of Common Prayer upon all english churches, and images and alters were removed in 1550.
Book Of Common Prayer
a moderate protestant doctrine written by thomas cramner and imposed on all english churches in the act of uniformity
Ignatius of Loyola
Organized the Jesuits in the 1530's, officially recognized by church in 40's. He was a heroic figure- a dashing courtier and caballero in his youth, he began his spiritual passage in 1521 after being wounded in the legs by the french. he read christian classics while he recovered and was so impressed with the self-sacrifice that he underwent a major conversion- he applied his lessons in morals and self- discipline to "Spiritual Exercises".
1525- better education for clergy
preach amongst common people
cared for sick, poor, orphans
repair war-torn Italy
educate girls
secular preaching
started by Ignasius of Loyola
-unquestioned loyalty to church, church is unquestioned authority
-chastity is marriage, marriage is better than not
-praised relics, indulgences, icons, pilgrimages
-scholastic theology
-absolute conformity to catholisism, oath of obedience
-missionary work, education
The Spiritual Exercises
written by Ignatius of Loyola
a guidebook for the Jesuits- psychologically perceptive contained mental and emotional exercises designed to teach one absolute spiritual self mastery over one's feelings- taught that a person could shape his or her own behavior through disciplined study and regular practice
The Council Of Trent
three sessions, spread over eighteen years, with long interuptions due to war, plague, and imperial and papal politics.
Strictly under the Pope's control, bwtween ninety and seventy five percent Italian the whole time, voting was limited to high levels of clergy
-most important reforms concerned internal church discipline, curtailed selling of church offices, forced bishops to move to their respective dioces, strengthened the authority of bishops so they cold efectively discipline poplar religious practices, bishops had to by highly visible during preaching and had to conduct annual visitations, gave the parish priest a brighter image, called for the construction of a seminary in every dioces.
-didnt give any concession to the protestants and reaffirmed scholastic education, the role of good works, authority of tradition, seven sacraments, transubstantiation, etc.
-rulars initially resisted the decrees but as the pope assured them that religious reform was his only intent, parish life revived under a devout and better trained clergy.
lay religious movements
-many laypeople felt a sense of crisis about the traditional teaching and spiritual practice of the church
-lay critisism sparked from increasingly knowledgeable more widely travelled laity, more advanced postal systems and the use of the printing press, and a laity that was increasingly able to take initiative.
-inspired by an idea of apolistic poverty in religion, (true self-sacrifice), sought a church that gave the members as well as the head of the church a voice, a more spiritual church, and one that lived manifestly in accordance to the new testiment
definition: remission of the temporal penalty of punishment in purgatory that remained after sins had been forgiven
-protested by reformers such as luther, zwingli, and calvin
-preached by indulgence preachers such as tetzel
-originally, indulgences had been given only for true self-sacrifice of going on Crusade to the Holy Land (and usually dying), but by Luther's time they were given out for small cash payments (which were regarded as the good work of almsgiving).They were presented as not only remitting their own future punishments, but also those of their dead relatives who were presumed to be suffering in purgatory
-Albrecht of Mainz had them preached (including the Jubilee indulgence that was revived by Leo X) in his territories to raise money to cover the debts he incurred purchasing his church office
-started being used commonly for the laity after Clement II proclaimed the "treasury of merit"
justification by faith alone
-started by luther who was troubled that god seemed to demand a perfection that he knew neither he nor any other human being could achieve- he dicided that the rightiousness that God demands did not result from many religious works and ceremonies but rather was given in full measure to those who believed and trusted in Jesus Christ, who alone was the decon of perfect rightiousness- to believe in Christ meant to stand before God clothed in Christ's rightiousness
-also prieched by calvin and zwingli
simony, nepotism, absenteeism, pluralism
simony- selling of church offices (related to beniface system)

nepotism- using a position to benifit the your family members (i.e. pope alexander vi and his son cesar)

absenteeism- holding a church office but not living in the parish of the office

pluralism-holding more than one church office at one time- often in different parishes
"Address to the Christian Nobility of The German Nation (1520)"
Luther's pamphlet in which he urges German Princes to challenge papal authority (appealing to German nationalism)
"Babylonian captivity of The Church (1520)"
luther's pamphlet stating that the number of sacrements should be reduced to two- including only communion and baptism
"Freedom of a Christian (1520)"
luther's pamphlet that talks baout justification by faith alone
Papal Bull
Pope Leo X issued a papal bull called Exurge Domine on June 15, 1520 that condemned luther and gave him sixty days to react (he burned it) the final Papal Bull of excommunication was issued on January 3, 1521
the doctrine that the entire substances of the bread and wine are changed in the Eucharist into the body and blood of christ- supported by the catholic church
bread and wine in the eucharist are actually bread and wine not body and blood and they are symbols of christ, (calvin and zwingli- main dispute at marburg colloquy), luther believed in their coexistance
Augsburg Confession (1530)
a moderate statement of protestant beliefs taken by the schmalkaldic league as lutherans formed their own defensive allience - this statement was spurned by by the emporor at the diet of Augsburg
Tetropolitan Confession (1530)
the confession in which semi-zwinglian theological views came to be embodied- was prepared by the Strasbourg reformers Martin Bucer and Casper Hedio for presentation at the diet of Augsburg as an alternitive to the Augsburg confession
the sixteenth century ancestors of the mennonites and the amish, they were especially distinguished by their rejection of infant baptism and their insistance of only adult baptism- they believed that baptism was to be performed only on a consenting adult (this conformed to scripture) and was more respectful of human freedom- percecuted by lutherans, zwinglians, and catholics- their opulation became more and more rural- held a large majority in Munster and came to reign - transformed into an old testament theocracy where they practiced polygamy (because so many more women than men) - after munster was crushed by the other religions, moderate pacifistic anabaptism became the norm- leader: Menno Simons who started the Mennonites
the calvinistic belief opposed by the antitrinitarians that some are meant for hell and some are meant for heaven- there are the "elect" who are meant for heaven who can be immoral ebcause it wont effect anything but because they are the "elect" they will live honorably (everyone wants to appear elect so everyone acts honorably/ obviously you are not elect if you behave badly)
“Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)
Written by calvin, he published his second masterful edition while in Strasbourg, a model protestant city, which may consider the difinitive theoligical statement of the protestant faith
a government controlled by and based on the leaders and principles of the religion of the country- Munster (anabaptist) and geneva (calvinist) are Reformation examples
Schmalkaldic League
The defensive allience formed by the Lutherans in february 1531 in response to to order by the diet of augsburg that all lutherans revert to catholisism
cuius regio, eius religio
the agreement recognized in law what had already been recognized in practice by the poeace of augsburg in september 1555 that made the division of christiandom permanent stating that the ruler of the land would deturmine the religion of the land
Ninety Five Theses
October 31, 1517
written by luther, the ninety five these were a series of complaints posted on the door of the church at wittenburg (such a posting was the equivilent of a message board) that sparked an arousal of complaint and defense in and against the church- these theses- luther challenges papal infallibility and relies only on the scripture- defends in the debate against john eck
Disputation at Leipzig
(June 27, 1519)
Luther and eck have a formal scholorly debate (common at this time)- during this debate luther challenged the infallibility of the pope, and the inerrency of the church councils, appealing for the first time to the sripture alone - he alos burned all of his bridges to the old church when he defended the actions and beliefs of condemned man john huss
Diet of Worms
in april of 1521 luther presents his views before the empire's diet of worms, over which the newly elected charles V presided. After being ordered to recant his beliefs, Luther declared that to do so would be to act against the scripture, reason, and his own conscience. On May 26, 1521, he was placed on an imperial ban tat made him an outlaw to secular as well as religious authority. the Duke of Saxony held him in Wartburg castle where he translated the bible into german
Peasant's Revolt
German peasants originally thought that Luther was their ally, peasant leaders saw luther's teachings about christian freedom and his views about monastic landowners similar to their own and openly solicited his support for their political and economical rights, including their revolutionalry request for release from serfdom. However the Lutherans were not social revolutionaries and when the Peasants revolted against their masters in 1524-25, Luther condemned them as unchristian and urged the princes to crush the revolt without mercy. Had Luther supported the revolt he would have contradicted his own teachings and jeapordized the future of his reforms
Marburg Colloquy
Landgrave Phillip of Hesse sought to unit swiss and german lutherans in a mutual defense pact, a potentially significant political allience. His efferts were spoiled by the disagreement of Luther and Zwingli over the nautre of Christ's presence in the Eucharist. Zwingli maintained a symbolic representation and Luther maintained a more catholic physical ideals- Phillip brought the two leaders together in his castle in Marburg but the two were unable to resolve their differences on the issue- although cooperation on the two sides did not cease, the disagreement seperated the prrotestant movement both thologically and politically- Seperate defense leagues formed, as well as the Tetrapolitan Confession and the Augsburg Confession
Diet of Augsburg
overseen by Charles V, it was a meeting of protestant and catholic representitives to impose a settlement on the religious divisions. With its terms dictated by the Catholic Emporor, the diet adjorned with a blunt order that all Lutherans revert to Catholisism. But the reformationw as by this time to established for this to occur and in February 1531, the Lutherans responded with the formation of their own defense alliance, th Shmalkaldic League which took as its banner the Augsburg Confession.
Peace of Augsburg
In September 1555 the peace of augsburg made the division of christiandom permanent. This agreement recognized in law the practice of cuius regio, eius religio, and permitted Lutherans to keep all lands forcibly siezed before 1552. It did not however extend official recognition to Calvinism or Anabapism as legal forms of Christian Belief and practice.
Henry VIII
(ruled from 1509-1547)
Makes England stronger , marries his brother arthur to cathrine of aragon to secure a spanish allience- his brother dies and henry doesnt want to lose the alience- he has the pope annul the marriage (otherwise Henry can't marry his brother's wife)- papal dispention.
-cathrine has only one child, a doughter mary I, who wrote a pamphlet against luther "defender of the faith"- but henry needs a male heir in the 1520's. he thinks the marriage is cursed and asks Pope Clement II for an annullment, which he refuses becuase the previous pope okayed the marriage and he cant annul it without causeing a church upset- charles V sacks Rome and controls Clement II
- In 1529, Wolsley is dissmissed for not getting the mariage annulled and Cromwell is hired who has a Lutheran sympathy
-in 1520 Henry summons the Reformation parliment that lasts for 7 years, ad in 1531 he assembles the Convocation (a body of English Clergy) that recognized Henry as the head of the church as far as Law allows
-in 1532 he appoints Cramner as the bishop of canterbury who will work for Henry
-in 1533 he annulls the marriage and Henry marries Anne Boleyn who gives birht to Elizabeth II
-in 1534 he issues the act of supremecy which makes the kind of england the head of the english church and takes all authority away from the Pope- a formal break of the church
-he gets married four more times
William Tyndale
An English reformer who met at the White Horse Inn in Cambridge to discuss Lutheran writings smuggled into England by merchants and scholars - he translated the New Testament into English while in Germany- this began to circulate in England in 1526
Cardinal Thomas Wolsley
chief minister of King Henry VIII, and Sir Thomas More, his successor, guided royal opposition to incipient protestantism- the king himself defended the seven sacraments agianst luther recieving the title of defender of the faith from pope Leo X
Thomas Cramner
appointed by Henry VIII as the bishop of canterbury, wrote the English book of common prayer which was enforced on all english churches by the act of uniformity in 1549