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30 Cards in this Set

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ch14

the process which established the new view of the universe; a reappropriation of older knowledge as well as new discoveries
Scientific Revolution

#1 ch14
ch14

astronomer; provides intellectual springboard for a complete criticism of the then-dominant view of the position of the Earth in the universe
Nicolaus Copernicus

#2 ch14
ch14

-Copernicus; a revolution-making rather than a revolutionary text; challenged Ptolematic idea-went to heliocentric
1543: "On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres"

#3 ch14
ch14

standard explanation of the place of the Earth in the heavens (geocentric)
Ptolemaic System

#4 ch14
ch14

Ptolemy's work; mathematical astronomy; makes of Ptolemaic sys
150 CE: Almagest

#5 ch14
ch14

-when planets appear to go backwards; planet moves in small circle
epicycles

#6 ch14
ch14

sun-centered universe
heliocentric

#7 ch14
ch14

took next step towards sun-centered sys; did not embrace Copernicus's views of sun-centered and tried to prove earth-centered
Tycho Brahe

#8 ch14
ch14

-convinced Copernican; heliocentric model; elliptical cycles
Johannes Kelper

#9 ch14
ch14

-Kepler published findings; solved problem of planetary motion using Copernicus sun-centered and Brahes data
1609: "The New Astronomy"

#10 ch14
ch14

-first telescope; universe rational
Galileo Galilei

#11 ch14
ch14

Galileo used rhetorical skills to argue that his new discoveries required Copernican interpretation
1610: Starry Massengers and Letters of Sunspots (1613)

#12 ch14
ch14

-established a basis for physical that endured for more than 2 centuries on planetary motion
Issac Newton

#13 ch14
ch14

Newton- Galileo math bias permeated his thought as did his view that inertia applied to bodies at rest and in motion
1687: "The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"

#14 ch14
ch14

the proponents of the new science sought to explain the world in terms of mechanical metaphors-the language of machinery (a clock)
mechanism

#15 ch14
ch14

father of empiricism adn of experimentation in science- natural philospher; sets intellectual tone and helps create a climate conducive to science work
Francis Bacon

#16 ch14
ch14

The view that experience, especially of the senses, is the only source of knowledge
empiricism

#17 ch14
ch14

develops scientific method that relied on deduction rather than empirical observation
Rene Descartes

#18 ch14
ch14

Descartes rejects scholastic philosophy and education and advocated thought founded on a math model
1637: "Discourse on Method"

#19 ch14
ch14

political philosopher; low view of human nature-thought cantained echos of Calvinism
Thomas Hobbes

#20 ch14
ch14

famous for discovery of circulation of blood
William Harvey

#21 ch14
ch14

Hobbs portrayed human beings and society i na materialistic and mechanical way; all psychological processes to bare sensation and all motivations as egotistical to increase pleasure or decrease pain
1651: "Leviathan"

#22 ch14
ch14

influential thinker; criticism of absolutism and provided foundation for liberal political philosophy
John Locke

#23 ch14
ch14

proved enormously important by clearing the philosophical decks of a long standing traditional argument that could not stant rigorous analysis
1690: "First Treatise of Government"

#24 ch14
ch14

presented extended argument for a gov. that must neccessarily be responsible for concerns of teh governed
1690: "Second Treatise of Government"

#25 ch14
ch14

uses "Second Treatise" to defend extensive religious toleration; each individual stood charged with working out their own religious salvation
1689: "Letters Concerning Toleration"

#26 ch14
ch14

portrayed persons mind at birth as blank slate-written on by experience
1690" "Essay Concernint Human Understanding"

#27 ch14
ch14

science pioneers made schools for it- first school; members followed path Bacon had laid
1660: Royal Society of London

#28 ch14
ch14

people who had ideas for improving production, navigation, military artillery could seek support of associated societies
projectors

#29 ch14
ch14

significant contributions to scientific literature; quarreled with ideas of Descarted and Hobbes and criticized Royal Society for being more interested in scientific insterments than pratical problems
Margaret Cavendish

#30 ch14