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65 Cards in this Set

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c11

-establish Modern Devotion, centralized in Netherlands
Gerald Groote

#1 c11
c11

-fostered religious life outside formal ecclestical officies and apart from formal religious vows
The Modern Devotion (Brothers of the Common Life)

#2 cll
c11

-summarized philosophy of Common Life Brothers in book
-guide to inner life
Thomas a Kempis/ "Imitation of Christ"

#3 c11
c11

officies granted by ruler or pope to individual
benefice

#4 c11
c11

-righteousness that God demands does not result fom religious cerimonies but given to those who believe in Christ
-challenges infallibility of Pope, wants sovereign athority of Scripture alone
Martin Luther

#5 c11
c11

-by Luther, seemed to demand a perfection that could not be given by humans
"righteousness of God"

#6 c11
c11

-Luther, gradual process that extended b/t 1513 and 1518
"justification by faith alone"

#7 c11
c11

remission of temporal penalty imposed by priests on penitents
indulgence

#8 c11
c11

-refers to money given to preists by sinners as payment for their mortal sins
"works of satisfaction"

#9 c11
c11

-proclaimed existence of ___
- infinite reservoir of good works in churchs possession that could be given by pope
1343: Pope Clement VI: "treasury of merit"

#10 c11
c11

-on basis of 'treasury of merit' church sold these which covered the works of satisfaction owed by penitents
"letters of indulgences"

#11 c11
c11

Pope Leo X
-proceeds from were to be used to rebuild St. Peters Basilica
-promised forgivness of all unrepented sins upon completion of certain acts
1517: Jubillee Indulgence

#12 c11
c11

-indulgence preacher; enlisted to preach the indulgence in Albrechts territories b/c seasoned professional who reached people
John Tetzel

#13 c11
c11

-embraced by humanists and other reforms
-made luther famous and prompted proceedings against him
"95 Thesis"/Whittenburg Door

#14 c11
c11

-succeeded grandfather and became___
-assisted by Hapsburg imperial rule and Fugger campaigne chest secured votes of seven electors
-development of REformation by preventing unilateral imperial action against germans
Charles I of Spain/ Emperor Charles V

#15 c11
c11

-urged german princes to force reforms on Roman church especially to curtail political and economic power in germany
1520: "The Address of the Christian Nobility of the Geramn Nation"

#16 c11
c11

-attacked traditional seven sacraments, arguing only two, Baptism and Eucharist, were biblical, and exalted authority of Scripture, councils, princes over pope
1520: "The Babylonian Captivity of the Church"

#17 c11
c11

-summarized new teaching of salvation by faith alone
1520: "Freedom of a Christian"

#18 c11
c11

-Leo's papal bull__condemned luther for heresy and gave him 60 days to retract
June 15, 1520: "Exsurge Domine

#19 c11
c11

final bull that excommunicated Luther
January 3, 1521: Decet Pontificem Romanum

#20 c11
ch11

-each german territory was free to enforce the Edict of Worms against Luther
-gave princes territorial sovereignty in religious matters
1526: German Diet of Speyer

#21 ch11
ch11

-Luther placed under imperial ban and thereafter became an outlaw to secular and religious athority
1521: Edict of Worms

#22 ch11
ch11

-influenced by Euramus; opossed indulgences
-competed for priest in Zurich but contested b/c fornitcation with woman but got position and reformed for clergy to marry
--party to breaking of Lenten fast; whatever lacked literal support in Scripture was to be neither believed or practiced
Ulrich Zwingli/ Swiss Reformation

#23 ch11
ch11

-Philip of Hesse brouth 2 Protestant learders together but they were unable to work out differences
-disagreement splintered Protestant movment
1529: Marburg Colloquy

#24 ch11
ch11

-'thanksgiving' celebration of last supper; considered central christian ritual
-doctrine that entire substances of bread and wine are changed in the Eucharist into body and blood of Christ
Eucharist/ Transubstantiation
#25 ch11
ch11

definitive statement of Lutheran belief
Augsburg Confession

#26 ch11
ch11

-seperate defense leagues formed, semi-Swinglian theological views came embodied in
Tetrapolitan Confession

#27 ch11
ch11

-to rebaptize
-distinguished by rejection of infant babtism adn insistence on only adult baptism
Anabaptist

#28 ch11
ch11

-Anabaptists originated; performed first adult rebaptism in Zurich
-supported sity gov plea for gradual removal of tradictional religous practices
-his group
Conrad Grebel/ The Swiss Brethren

#29 ch11
ch11

-Swiss Brethren embodied in
-not only by their practise of adult bap. but also by refusal to go to war, swear oaths, and participate in secular gov
1527: Schleitheim Confession

#30 ch11
ch11

-isolated indiv.-distain for tradition
-only religous athority is God
Spiritualist

#31 ch11
ch11

-freelance critic of dogmatic religion, proclaimed the religious autonomy of every soul
Sebastian Franck

#32 ch11
ch11

-exponents of a commonsense, rational, and ethical religion
Antitrinitiarns

#33 ch11
ch11

-a founder of Socinianism
-strongest opponents of Calvinism--its belief in original sin and predestination
Faustus Sozzini/ Socinianism

#34 ch11
ch11

-german sociologist;famous study-argues that this peculiar combination of religious confidence and self-disciplined activism produced an ethic that stimulated spirit of emergant capitalism
Max Weber/ (1904) "The Protestant Ethic and the Spitit of Capitalism"

#35 ch11
ch11

-son of bishop; own experience became model of reform that would later apply to recalitrant citizenry of Geneva
-stressed sovereignty of God over all and necessity of conformity to His will
John Calvin

#36 ch11
ch11

-considered to be difinitive theological statement of Protestant faith
-by Calvin
"Institutes of Christian Religion"

#37 ch11
ch11

-achieve his goal
-'model Protestant city'
-organized into 4 offices: 1-pastors; 2- teachers; 3- elders; 4- deacons
Strasbourg Model

#38 ch11
ch11
-they should live in a manifestly God-pleasing way
-God had foreordanined all souls to salvation or damination (Calvinism)
the "elect"/ predestination

#39 ch11
ch11

-strong worded Protestant confession by Luther in place of Augsburg Confession
1538: Schmalkadic Articles

#40 ch11
ch11

Charles reinstated the Protestant leaders and guaranteed Lutherans religiou freedom
1552: Peace of Passau

#41 ch11
ch11

made division of Christendom permanent
1555: Peace of Augsburg

#42 ch11
ch11

the ruler of a land would determine the religion of the land
cuius regio, eius religio

#43 ch11
ch11

-english reformer who translatd New Testament into English
William Tyndale

#44 ch11
ch11

King Henry VIII defended seven sacraments against Luther and earned___from Leo X
Defender of the Faith

#45 ch11
ch11

-daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
-daughter Mary, husband Henry VIII
-Charles worried about female heir
Catherine of Aragon

#46 ch11
ch11

-had Catherine, took Boleyn
-could not get annulment
-why not declare king supreme in English spiritual affairs
Henry VIII

#47 ch11
ch11

placed canon law under royal control and thereby the clergy under royal jurisdiction
1532: Submission of the Clergy

#48 ch11
ch11

made Anne Boleyn's children legitamate heirs to the throne
1534: Act of Succession

#49 ch11
ch11

by Parliament in 1534 that Henry VIII not the Pope was head of Church in England
1534: Act of Supremacy

#50 ch11
ch11

-1536 executed for treason and child called illagitimate
-Henry VIII second wife
Anne Boleyn

#51 ch11
ch11

-mild concessions to Protestant tenets, otherwise maintaining Catholic doctrine
Ten Articles of 1536

#52 ch11
ch11

-imposed Cranmers book on all English churches
1549: Act of Uniformity

#53 ch11
ch11

-images and alters were removed form churches
Thomas Cranmer/ "Book of Common Prayer"

#54 ch11
ch11

-42 article
-moderate Protestant doctrine; justification by faith, supremacy of Scripture
1552: Second Act of Conformity

#55 ch11
ch11

"Men are to be changed by, not to change, religion"
-by superior general of Hermits of Saint Augustine
1513: Fifth Lateran Council

#56 ch11
ch11

-religious order of 16th century
-to groom devout and reform minded leaders at high levels of church hierarchy
1524: Theatines

#57 ch11
ch11

-founder of Jesuits
-heroic figure; impressed by self sacrifice in Christian classics decided to serve church as a soldier of Christ
Ignatius of Loyola

#58 ch11
ch11

-new order of Jesuits
-by Ignatius of Loyola in 1530s
-officially recognized in 1540 by church
-original 10 members to 15000 all over world
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

#59 ch11
ch11

-Ignatitus applied lessons he learned to a program of religious and moral self discipline embodied in
-mental and emotional exercises to teach spiritual mastery of feelings
-can reshape behavior by practice
"Spiritual Exercises"

#60 ch11
ch11

-council of church met in 1545 at imperial city in northern Italy
-3 sessions over 18 years with interruptions of war, plague, and politics
-spaned over 4 diff popes
-under Popes control only
-most important reform: steps taken to surtail selling of church officies
-sought to give priest brighter image
Council of Trent

#61 ch11
ch11

selling of church officies
simony

#62 ch11
ch11

-contended that conquest was not necessary for conversion
-result of campaign was new royal regulation of conquest after 1550
Bartolome de Las Casas

#63 ch11
ch11

-another result of Las Casas compaign
-portrayed all Spanish treatment of Indians as unprincipled and inhumane
"Black Legend"

#64 ch11
ch11
-Calvins successor
-founded Genevan Academy; evolved into University of Geneva
-training Calvinist ministers
Thedore Beza

#65 ch11