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25 Cards in this Set
Who were Ancients and Moderns, how do they relate to the growing spirit of progressivm?
-since the late 17th century, Europeans had been enthusiastic about progress
-England and France: 17th century intellectual dispute b/w Ancients and Moderns
-Ancients: works of ancient Greece, Rome are the best we can achieve
-Moderns: Believed in progress, every generation is better than the last
-By 1700, many French/English were moderns
-extreme skepticism was rejected as a philosophy
What were the more secular relgious beliefs developing in the 18th century?
The educated or “moderns” ceased believing in magic, witches, superstitions, devil
-Moderns stopped fearing God
-less sense of a personal God, all-powerful God, God of Love, savior, etc.
-Just as a watch cannot exist without a watchmaker, so can the universe as discovered by Newton not exist without an almighty intelligence, or God.
What were some of the signs of renewed religious fervor in the 18th century?
-Isaac Watts= popular church hymns
-Bach= great church music of the 1720s
-Handel= The Messiah of 1741
-congregations begin singing Adeste Fideles or “O Come All Ye Faithful”
-movement of German Lutherans
-stressed the importance of inner spiritual experience over theological doctrines; the quest for “inner light” over the quest for reason
-**Highly critical of Enlightenment, b/c it stressed improvement of the individual over improvement of society
Who was John Wesley?
-member of the Church of England,
-while a student at Oxford, he formed a group of religious men who did charity work, prayer, meditation
-these men started doing “traveling preaching” to immense crowds in open fields, all over England, America
-helped spur the American 1740s Great Awakening
-traveled with George Whitfield
-movements emphasized individualism over established religious authorities
-by Wesley’s death in 1791, there were many Methodist churches
*Religious movement occurred in the lower classes!
Who were J.C. Lavater and F.A. Mesmer?
Reactionary Science/Regression to magic, superstition in popular culture
-J.C. Lavater= swiss Pastor who invented science of “physiognomy”
-believed that a person’s character could be read by facial features
-F.A. Mesmer= Austrian physician who made séances, etc. or “Mesmerized” people to cure their diseases…early form of hypnosis
What was Freemasonry? Who were the Illuminati?
-Freemasonry= group of people, known as Masons were generally enlightened, educated people. They met together with members from all social classes in “lodges” to do mysterious rituals, share occult knowledge. It was a harmless, enlightened group.
-Illuminati= German offshoot of the Freemasonry, the Bavarian gov’t had to suppress them in 1786 b/c of gov’t suspicion.
-*Secrecy was a foreign concept in the Enlightenment, b/c the Enlightenment was all about the spreading of open ideas.
Who were the Philosophes? Emilie du Chatelet?
-Philosophe= French for Philosopher
-to be a philosophe, you merely had to be a social/literary critic, popularizer, or publicist who could approach any subject in a critical and inquiring spirit.
-many worked freelance—they didn’t have to be excessively rich
-philosophes weren’t like our modern idea of philosophers who sit around and dwell over existence, etc.
-Philosophes wrote to gain attention
-Main spreading of Enlightenment ideas was done by the philosophes
-philosophes wrote for the general public
-mainly men, but some women were philosophes.
-Emilie du Chatelet
-translated Newton and wrote scientific essays
Describe literacy and education in the 18th century
-1780s France: 47% men and 27% women are literate
-Large Growth of the educated middle class
-women: reading novels, literary journals
-country men: reading new scientific farming advice,
-growth of newspapers, magazines, dictionaries, encyclopedias, surveys.
-growth of public reading rooms
-Public begins to expect more from literature—the better written, more appealing the better!
-we see clear, fluent, exact language
-middle class begins culture of intense literary criticism
-idea of the “public opinion” making or breaking a book
-people meet in public places (i.E. coffeehouses, etc.) to discuss merit of literature, art, music—they are separate from their private homes, and from the gov’t in these discussions*
Talk about censorship during the Enlightenment, especially censorship in France.
-England- very mild
-Spain- very strong
-France (center of Enlightenment)- strong censorship
-French church, parlement of Paris, royal officials, all censored books
-French censorship was loosely administered and by 1750 it meant nothing
-but…while things were being censored, it created a bad atmosphere in French society—atmosphere of distrust
-Writers couldn’t openly express all of their ideas, couldn’t criticize church or state, so they threw their criticisms on an abstract level, attacked matters in general
-They attacked matters abroad, ignoring matters at home
-works became full of double meanings, innuendos
-black market for forbidden books grows
Talk about the salons, and important salonnieres like Madame de Geoffrin. What was the French Republic of Letters?
-Paris= heart of the Enlightenment
-literary, social celebrities gathered in town-homes of the wealthy for literate conversation (note, not all philosophes were very rich!)
-Helvétius= wealthy philosophe, wrote On the Mind and On Man, held great gatherings
-Main meeting places for philosophes to share ideas, read their work, discuss,
-salons were run by women salonniéres
-these women played a crucial mediating role in what came to be called the “Republic of Letters”
-Madame de Geoffrin
-organized convos of artists, writers at dinner- 1750-1775
-gave financial help to some philosophes
-constantly connecting intellectuals
-welcomed foreigners like Horace Walpole, David Hume, young Stanislaus Poniatowski
-Julie de Lespinasse
-almost constant discussions happened in her Paris home
-great place for spreading of knowledge, ideas
*Salons/salon women promoted the ideals of a cosmopolitan Republic of Letters in which talent and creativity counted for more than noble lineage.
Talk about Diderot's Encyclopedie
-“most serious of all Philosophe enterprises”
-published in 17 large volumes b/w 1751 and 1772.
-Denis Diderot= editor
-great encyclopedia of scientific, technical, historical knowledge
-critical of current society, institutions
-first encyclopedia to have such distinguished contributors like Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau…almost all other French philosophes called the Encyclopedists.
-very popular, in France (where it sold in both the countries and the cities, especially to the upper classes, or classes which it criticized) and abroad. French was now a much more national language.
Who were many of the most famous philosophes from across Europe?
-Frederick the Great
-friend of Voltaire, had a circle of literary/scientific men, wrote epigrams, satires, dissertations, histories, works of military science,
-known to have sharp wit
-Catherine the Great (Empress of Russia)
-Joseph—son of Maria Theresa
-Bishop Warburton of England
-the Church of England was the epitomy of pure reason
-David Hume- Scottich Skeptic
-attacked Christianity in his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
-Marquis di Beccaria (Italian)
-sought to humanize the criminal law
-Baron Grimm (German)
-sent a literary newsletter from Paris to many subscribers
Who was Dr. Samuel Johnson?
Dr. Samuel Johnson= anti-Philosophe
-complied a new dictionary of the English language
-afraid of the supernatural, very pious, against pretentious authors
-declared that Voltaire and Rousseau were evil men who should be sent to the plantations.
Talk about Montesquieu.
Montesquieu (1689-1755)= great philosophe
-French baron, landed aristocrat, manorial lord of S. France
-had a seat in the Parlement of Bordeaux
-part of the noble resurgence that began in 1715
-1748: publishes his great work, The Spirit of Laws
-forms of gov’t vary according to climate and circumstances
-I.e. despotism only works in large empires in hot climates
-democracy only works in small city-states
-Called for the separation and balance of powers
-French power (he called French absolutism despotism) should be divided b/w the King and many “intermediate bodies” like parlements, estates, organized nobility, chartered towns (bourgeosie) and the church.
-As a noble, Parlement judge, and a provincial, he obviously wanted more rights.
-He understood the value of the bourgeosie and wanted them to have more rights
-He didn’t believe in the church—only saw it as a useful tool to screw up absolutism
-Admired the feudal rights of the middle ages
-Admired the English constitution
-Montesquieu was viewed as a reactionary, and he wasn’t supported by other philosophes b/c of “his conservatism”
Talk about the general facts about Voltaire.
-born into a bourgeois family
-Voltaire= pen name; his real name is Francois-Marie Arouet
-until age 40, Voltaire was mainly known for his epic, tragedies, etc. After age 40, he turned to more philosophical/societal thinking
-“easy writing to read”, master of irony, ridicule, sarcasm, logic, comedy
--gentleman of the bedchamber/royal historian to Louis XV
-couldn’t live in Paris and Versailles despite this role…they were too unsafe for him (?)
-friend of Frederick the Great
-had a manor where we became the “hotel keeper of Europe”, constantly receiving important guests, people who needed advice, etc.
Talk about Voltaire's general beliefs: his views on England, Louis XIV, freedom of thought, etc.
-mainly interested in the freedom of thought
-spent three years there
-1733: published Philosophical Letters on the English
-1738: published Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
-popularized new English scientific ideas, like Bacon’s inductive reasoning, Newton’s physics, Locke’s philosophy about the five senses.
-Voltaire admired England’s tolerance for religion, science, freedom of the press…
-viewed Louis XIV as a hero
-1751: published Age of Louis XIV, which applauded the king
-praised Louis XIV for his support of the arts and literature
-Adored Frederick the Great (even thought they argued)
-thought he was the “ideal enlightened ruler”
-Frederick the Great supported arts, science, was secular
*Voltaire was much less political than Montesquieu!
Talk about Voltaire's views on religion
-1740: becomes crusader for religious toleration
-fought to clear the memory of Jean Calas, a Prot. Who killed his son to prevent him from converting to Catholicism
-fought to exonerate a youth named La Barre, who had been killed from defiling a cross.
-Ecrasez l’infame! = Crush the Infamous thing!= famous Voltaire “war cry”
-Voltaire wanted to stop all the bigotry, superstition, intolerance, of all Christianity, esp. of the Catholic church.
-argued for natural religion/natural morality
-the human belief in God and the difference b/w good and evil arose from reason itself.; therefore, we need only believe in reason, not a supernatural force!
-published “Universal History”
-first purely secular account of world history
-documented the Great Civilizations of the world and explained how organized religion was a social phenomena; human invention
Talk about Voltaire's political views.
Voltaire’s Political Views: Liberty for the Enlightened
-neither a liberal nor a democrat
-all that mattered to Voltaire was that a gov’t was enlightenend
-a good gov’t must fight against sloth and stupidity, keep the clergy subordinate, allow freedom of thought/religion, and believe in progress. Voltaire didn’t care how much power a gov’t had!
-beliefs approached “enlightened/rational despotism”
-If the King is enlightened, he has the power to do whatever necessary to maintain his control
Talk about the general info about Rousseau
-born in Geneva to a Swiss Prot. Lower-class(ish) family
-neglected as a child, runaway at 16
-lived for years by odd jobs
-never felt at ease in French society
-always the “little man”/ “outsider”
-suffered from psychological complexes
-odd relations w/women—had 5 kids w/Therese Levassuer but dumped them in an orphanage
-trusted nobody, very paranoid
-for a long time he had no social status, money
-didn’t have any writing success until age 40
Talk about Rousseau's general philosophy: views on society, nature, etc.
-a person could not be happy in the current state of society
-Society is artificial and corrupt
-Reason is a false guide when followed alone
-doubted all the progressive ideas of his contemporaries
-1750: publishes his discourse “Arts and Sciences”
-1753: publishes his other discourse “Origin of Inequality Among Men”
-in both discourses, Rousseau argued that civilization was the source of much evil and that life in a “state of nature” would be much better.
*Voltaire abhorred Rousseau’s views; Voltaire loved the idea of an enlightened, prospering civilization!
-the best traits of human character= kindness, unselfishness, honesty,
-these traits are products of nature
-deep below reason lies the presence of FEELING
-loved feelings like intuition, sympathy, etc.
-**believed that impulse is more reliable than considered judgment, spontaneous feeling should be more trusted than critical thought (went against the grain of current views!)
*Rousseau as a transitional figure: Although he was a philosophe in his desire to change the existing social order, Rousseau’s belief in feeling over reason (belief in the subconscious) predicted the new age of romanticism. Rousseau was clearly an early, influential critic of the Enlightenment.
What were Rousseau's views on religion?
-believed in no church, no clergy, no revelation
-still Rousseau respected the bible, loved solitary meditation, revered the cosmos…believed in a God more of love and beauty.
-churches all over condemned Rousseau as the most serious of all infidels
Talk about Rousseau's social contract and its subsequent influence on nationalism
Rousseau’s 1762 Social Contract
-seemed to contradict his earlier sentiment about nature
-the state of nature is a brutish condition without law or morality
-good people can only be produced by an improved society
-CONTRACT= agreement among the people themselves, not b/w the people and their ruler.
-organized civil society/ the community rested on the contract
-CONTRACT= understanding by which all individuals surrendered their natural liberty to each other, fused their individual wills into a combined General Will and agreed to accept the rulings of this General Will as final.
-General Will= ruling, absolute power
-gov’t is secondary to this general will of the people
-in this society, every person had a place, sense of belonging…the general will was more understood than voted on
Impact on Nationalism
-social contract ideas support democracy, nationalism
-wrote Considerations of Poland during the Partition of Poland—to help unite the country under a calculated nationalism
-in the end, Rousseau’s social contract made the pysch of small-city state nationalism applicable to large territories
-*Rousseau’s philosophy of general will ends up relating to both totalitarian rulers and democratic
Talk about Rousseau's novels.
-1762: published Emile, 1760: published Nouvelle Héloise
-widely read by all classes, esp. by women
-evoked shades of thought and feeling never before expressed in lit.
-spread a new respect for the common person, human pity, sense of superficiality in aristocratic life
-influenced women to nurse their own babies
-influenced men to describe their “delicate” feelings more
-Marie Antoinette builds a village in Versailles where she pretends to be a milkmaid
-*Rousseau= the force leading to a new sense of human equality, made the French upper classes lose faith in their own superiority—this indirectly influenced the French Rev.
Talk about the physiocrats, and the new birth of economics.
-critics called them “economists”
-worked close to the gov’t as advisers/administrators
-Quesnay= Louis XV’s physiocrat, Turgot= Louis XIV, Dupont de Nemours= associate of Turgot’s who became founder of the industrial family the Du Ponts in the US.
-involved w/fiscal, tax reform, measures to increase national $
-opposed guild regulations, price controls, liked the economy to be
-laissez-faire (let them do as they see fit)
-liked strong gov’t
Birth of Economics
-rose from physiocrats, “cameralists” in Germany
-rose from the new birth of statistics
Talk about Adam Smith.
-1776: writes Wealth of Nations
-By 1800, Wealth of Nations had spread, been translated all across Europe
-wrote to increase the national wealth by the use of laissez-faire
-an empire is not necessary to build up a nation’s wealth
-predicted the coming independence of American colonies economically
-preferred private persons over the state- for the progress of enterprise, economy
-“prophet of free trade”
-if there is a shortage in an object, than its price will rise and more people will produce it—the market will grow. If there is an excess of an object, its price will fall and efforts will move to a more wanted object.
-demand increases w/lower prices, which depended on lower costs, which in turn depended on the specialization of labor
-wanted each country, in international trade, to specialize in its own labor (i.E. pin factory metaphor)
*In the end, Smith’s system can be described as the mutual interaction of the enlightened self-interest of millions of people that results in the highest welfare of all. (self-interested b/c people specialize in what can make them the most $)
-Smith overlooked the insecurity of many countries’ lower classes, the need for powerful gov’t to stop riots, bring food to the masses.