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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Litote
An understatement that denies the opposite of being true.
Example: Getting shot is not good for your health.
Asyndeton
Leaving out conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses.
Example: I came, I saw, I conquered.
Polysyndeton
The use of many conjunctions to slow down the sentence
Ex: I have math homework and english homework and science homework and french homework!
Synechdoche/Metonomy
the substitution of one word for another whice it suggests
Ex: The school sent home report cards.
Anadiplosis
Repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the next.
Ex: He was ready to go to the new school, but the new school was not ready for him.

("the new school" ended the first clause and began the second)
Chiasmus
Corresponding pairs that are in inverted order.
Ex: Because it was raining yesterday, they read, and they rollerbladed today because it was sunny.

(The reason "because..." came first in the first clause, while it came second in the second clause. Think of it as an "x")
Zeugma
Linking two verbs with one subject or two direct objects with a verb.
Ex: He took the bus and my money.

(the verb took is linked with the bus and my money)
Anaphora
The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses.
Ex: Tomorrow it will be sunny. Tomorrow we will go outside. Tomorrow we will have a picnic.
Oxymoron
A figure of speech that combines two words that seem to contradict each other. (a two-word paradox)
Ex: Jumbo shrimp
Paradox
A statement that is contradictory but is actually true.
Ex: Silence filled her ears.
Archaism
Use of an older or obsolete form
Ex: Thou shall not kill
Antithesis
Contrary ideas expressed in a balanced sentence (contrast of opposites or of degree)

Effect: emphasizes opposition of ideas
Ex: The class was the top in the school; the school was the top in the country.

Ex 2: Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.
Parallelism
Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses.

Effect: It adds balance, rhythm, and clarity to the sentence.
Ex: He likes reading, biking, and jogging.

(as opposed to "He likes reading, biking, and to jog.")
Rhetorical question
A question that does not expect a reply

Effect: to assert or deny something
Allegory
When characters and actions have meanings outside themselves (a sustained metaphor)

Effect: To tell a story that has a literal and figurative meaning.
Ex: The Lord of the Flies
Sarcasm
A form of irony and it is a sharp bitter remark.

Purpose: to criticize, or ridicule someone or something
Satire
Writing that ridicules and criticizes humans and society

Purpose: to provoke thought about the human condition to bring a change
Difference btw sarcasm and satire: Satire is used to change something, while sarcasm just criticizes.
Euphemism
Using a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts.
Ex: "Strongly dislike" (instead of hate)
"passed away" (instead of died)
Apostrophe
Addressing an absent or imaginary person
Ex: Sally, why did you leave me here alone?
Conceit
An expresson, usually an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects.
Ex: Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Loose sentence
the main idea comes first in an independent clause, followed by dependent clauses.
Ex: Sally climbed a tree, scraping her leg in the process.

Ex 2: I drank chocolate milk, and it wasn't insipid.
Periodic sentence
presents its central meaning in an independent clause at the end of the sentence, and it is preceded by one or more dependent clauses.
Ex: Because I did not have a hat, my ears were frozen.
Neologism
Creating a new or imaginary word
Ex: Splenderful!!
presentate!!
Hyperbaton
Changing the normal or expected order of words
Ex: Spin the baton she did.

(instead of: She spun the baton)
Epistrophe
Repetition of a concluding word or ending or suffix (rhyme!)
Ex: I write poems with my pen,
As I sit in the den.
Aphorism
A statement that makes a point or illustrates a commonly held belief
Ex: "Lost time is never found again"
"An apple a day keeps the doctor away"
Cliche
An overused expression that reveals writer's lack of imagination

Effect: dulls the reader's response
ex: it hit something "like a ton of bricks"
Ellipsis
Omitting a word that is implied by the context

Effect: makes a clear, economic sentence
ex: "The European soldiers killed six of the remaining vilagers, the American soldiers, eight"

(rather than saying the American soldiers killed eight of the remaining villagers)
Meiosis
Reference to something with the name dispproportionately lesser than its nature

Effect: gives it an ironic effect
Ex: About an amputated leg "it's just a flesh wound"
Alliosis
Presenting alternatives

Effect: creates a cleverly balanced and artistic sentence
Ex: you can eat well or you can sleep well.
Climax
(aka auxesis, crescendo)
arrangement of order of increasing importance

Effect: adds structure and an emotional effect
Ex: Let a man acknowledge his obligations to himself, his family, his country, and his God."
Bathos
The least important item appears in a place where the reader expects something grand or dramatic

effect: humor, anticlimactic
Ex: The purpose of life is to experience, to love, and to ride rollercoasters! :P
Anapodoton
Deliberately creating a sentence fragment by the omission of a clause

used for rhetorical effect, and in dialogue
Metaphor
When something is something else.

Effect: to link things together, creates images
ex: hair of gold shimmered in the sunlight
Simile
When something is like something else

Effect: Draws a connection between things, creates images
ex: Your smile is as bright as sunshine
Paronomasia
(type of pun)
using words that sound alike but that differ in meaning

effect: humor
Ex: "A pun is its own reword"

(instead of reward)