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35 Cards in this Set

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Function of the endocrine system
Maintains homeostasis by releasing hormones; controls prolonged or continuous processes such as growth and development, reproduction and metabolism.
Define hormone
Chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands; responsible for specific regulatory effects on certain parts or organs.
Define target organ
Organs that respond to a hormone, specific protein receptor must be present on its plasma membrane or its interior to which the hormone can attach.
Define negative feedback
Feedback that causes the stimulus to decline or end
Define tropic hormones
Tropic hormones stimulate their target organs, which are also endocrine glands
Hormones of the anterior pituitary
Growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulation hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulation hormone, luteinising hormone (GH, PRL,TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH )
The endocrine system is made up of what?
Cells, tissues, and organs that secrete hormones into body fluids
What is the difference between an endocrine gland and the exocrine gland?
the endocrine secretes hormones in the blood and the exocrine gland produces substances and secretes in the ducts
What are the tissues that hormones effect?
target cells
Explain how the negative feedback system works?
when hormones reach below normal glands produce hormones and put into bloodstream to maintain homeostasis
What is attached to the base of the brain and has a front lobe called the anterior pituitary?
The pituitary gland
The rear lobe of the pituitary gland is called?
posterior pituitary
Released hormones from the hypothalamus control what?
The secretions of the anterior pituitary
The posterior pituitary release hormones into the what?
the bloodstream in response to nerve impulses form the hypothalamus
What six hormones are secreted form the anterior pituitary?
Growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulation hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulation hormone luteinising hormone
What are the six hormone abbreviations?
GH, PRL,TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH
The structure that actually produces the hormones released by the posterior pituitary is?
hypothalamus
What two hormones are associated with the hypothalamus?
antidiuretic ADH and Oxytocin
What is the function of ADH antidiuretic hormone?
water balance via the kidneys conservation of water
What is the function of oxytocin?
cause uterine contractions during child birth and release milk
Where is the thyroid gland located?
below the larynx
the two hormones secreted by the thyroid are?
T3 and T4
what is the function of T3 and T4?
metabolism regulation
How does TSH affect the release of T3 and T4?
it will stimulate the thyroid to cause the release of T3 or T4
What is the function of the hormone calcitonin?
it lowers blood calcium phosphate ion levels
how many parathyroid glands are their and where are they located?
their are 4 in the thyroid
what is the function of the parathyroid hormone? PTH
it increase the levels of calcium ions in the blood
The adrenal gland are located where?
top of the kidneys enclosed in fat
What is alsosterone?
it controls sodium ion concentrations (water concentration)
Name an important Glucocorticoid?
cordisol
What secretes hormones as an endocrine gland and digestive juices to the digestive tract as an exocrine gland?
The pancreas
What increases the blood levels of glucose?
Glucagon
What decreases the blood levels of glucose?
Insulin
What cells of the endocrine system release hormones into the bloodstream?
Glandular cells
Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH does what?
controls the secretion of hormones to the adrenal cortex