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56 Cards in this Set

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digestive system
organ that work together to ensure proper digestion & absorption of nutrients
alimentary canal
the digestive tract as a whole; also referred to as the gastroinstinal tract
gastrointestinal tract
(GI) tract
principle tubelike structure of the digestive system extending from mouth to anus
digestion
the breakdown of food materials either mechanically(that is, by chewing) or chemically (that is, by action of digestive enzymes)
feces
material discharged from the intestines
absorption
passage of a substance through a membrane, such as skin or mucosa, into the blood
metabolism
complex process by which food is used by a living organism
oral cavity
mouth
palate
the roof of the mouth; made up of the hard (anterior portion of the mouth) & soft(posterior portion of the mouth) palates
uvula
cone-shaped process hanging down from the soft palate that helps prevent food & liquid from entering the nasal cavities
frenulum
the thin membrane that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth
papillae
small, nipple shaped elevations; taste buds are located on top of the papillaes
incisors
refers to the front teeth, which are adapted for cutting
mastication
chewing
canine teeth
the teeth with the longest crown & the longest root, which is located lateral to the second incisor; also called "cuspid"
bicuspids
tooth with a large flat surface & two or three grinding cusps; also called "premolars"
tricuspids
tooth with rather large flat surface with 2 or 3 grinding "cusps"; also called "molars"
bolus
a small round mass of masticated food to be swollowed
crown
topmost part of an organ or other structure; such as a tooth
dentin
chief bonelike dental tissue covered by enamel in crown & by cementum in neck and root areas of tooth
cementum
bone like dental tissue covering the neck & root areas of teeth
periodontal membrane
fibrous tissue that line each tooth socket & serves to attach the tooth to underlying bone
leukoplakia
white patches in the mouth, commonly seen in chronic cigerette smokers; may lead to mouth cancer
snuff dipper's pouch
precancerous leukoplakie( white patches) in fold between "cheek & gum" caused by use of smokeless tobacco
caries
decay of teeth or of bones
cavity
hollow place or space in a tooth
gingivitis
inflammation of the gum, often as a result of poor oral hygiene
thrush
candidiasis of mouth characterized by white, creamy patches of exudate on inflamed oral mucosa & tongue
periodontitis
inflammation of the periodontal membrane(periodontal ligament) that anchors teeth to the jaw bone; common cause of tooth loss among adults
cleft lip
congenital defect resulting in one or more clefts(abnormal fissure or opening) in the upper lip
cleft palate
congenital defect resulting in a fissure of the palatein the roof of the mouth
malocclusion
abnormal contact between the teeth of the upper & lower jaw
parotid glands
paired salivary glands that lie just below & in front of each ear at the angle of the jaw
submandibular glands
salivary glands that drain saliva into the mouth on either side of the lingual frenulum
sublingual glands
salivary glands that drain saliva into the floor of the mouth
salivary amylase
digestive enzyme found in the saliva that begins the chemical digestion of carbohydrates (begins conversion of starch to smaller carbohydrate molecules)
pharynx
organ of the digestive & respiratory system; commonly called the throat
lumen
the hollow spaces within a tube
mucosa
mucous membrane
mucous membrane
epithelial membranes that line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior & secrete a thick, slippery material called mucus
submucosa
connective tissue layer containing blood vessels & nerves in the wall of the digestive tract
muscularis
2 layers of muscle surrounding the digestive tract that produce wavelike, rhythmic contractions called "peristalsis", which move food material
peristalsis
wavelike, rhythmic contractions of the stomach & intestines that move food material along the digestive tract
serosa
outermost covering of the digestive tract; composed of the parietal pleura in the abdominal cavity
mesentery
a large double fold of peritoneal tissue that anchors the loops of the digestive tract to the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity
esophagus
the muscular, mucus-lined tube that connects the pharynx with the stomach; also known as the "foodpipe"
upper esophageal sphincter (UES)
ring of muscular tissue (sphincter)located between laryngopharynx & proximal end of esophagus
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
ring of muscular tissue (sphincter) located between terminal esophages & stomach
heartburn
esophageal pain caused by backflow of stomach acid into esophagus
gastroesophageal reflux disease
(GERD)
a set of symptoms resulting from a hiatal hernia that allows stomach (gastric) contents to flow back (reflux) into esophagus; symptoms include heartburn or chest pain & coughing or choking during or just after a meal
hiatal hernia
a bulging out (hernia) of the stomach through the opening(hiatus) of the diaphragm through which the esophagus normally passes; this condition may prevent the valve between the esophagus & stomach from closing, thus allowing stomach contents to flow back into the esophagus
stretta procedure
procedure using an endoscope to deliver radiofrequency energy to burn, tighten,& reduce the size of the lumen of the lower esophageal sphincter in a person with gastroesophageal reflux disease
bard endoscopic suturing system
use of an endoscope to place sutures in the lower esophageal sphincter to narrow the lumen
endoscope
fiber-optic flexible or rigid tubular instrument for visualizing the interior of a hollow organ or part for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes that typically has one or more channels to enable passage of instruments
fundoplication
a surgical procedure in which the upper portion of the stomach is wrapped around the lower end of the esophagus & sutured in place as a treatment for reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus
barrett's esophagus
precancerous condition of esophageal lining